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  • How is this reaction probably mediated by? A child stung by a bee experiences respiratory distress within minutes and lapses into unconsciousness.
    How is this reaction probably mediated by? A child stung by a bee experiences respiratory distress within minutes and lapses into unconsciousness.
    It associate with igE since the reaction occure immediately hence it is type 1hypersensitivity

  • What is the principle difference between type II and type III hypersensitivity?
    What is the principle difference between type II and type III hypersensitivity?
    Whether the antibody reacts with the antigen on the cell or reacts with antigen before it interacts with the cellIN TYPE II HYPERSENSITIVITY-- (or cytotoxic hypersensitivity) the antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patients own cell surfaces. The antigens recognized in this way may either be intrinsic (self antigen, innately part of the patients cells) or extrinsic (adsorbed onto the cells during exposure to some foreign antigen, possibly as part of infection with a pathogen). These cells are recognized by macrophages or dendritic cells, which act as antigen-presenting cells. This causes a B cell response, wherein antibodies are produced against the foreign antigen. An example of type II hypersensitivity is the reaction to penicillin wherein the drug can bind to red blood cells, causing them to be recognized as different; B cell proliferation will take place and antibodies to the drug are produced. IgG and IgM antibodies bind to these antigens to form complexes that activate the classical pathway of complement activation to eliminate cells presenting foreign antigens (which are usually, but not in this case, pathogens). That is, mediators of acute inflammation are generated at the site and membrane attack complexes cause cell lysis and death. The reaction takes hours to a day. Another form of type II hypersensitivity is called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here, cells exhibiting the foreign antigen are tagged with antibodies (IgG or IgM). These tagged cells are then recognised by natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages (recognised via IgG bound (via the Fc region) to the effector cell surface receptor, CD16 (FcRIII)), which in turn kill these tagged cells. TYPE III HYPERSENSITIVITY --occurs when antigens and antibodies (IgG or IgM) are present in roughly equal amounts, causing extensive cross-linking. Presentation Type III hypersensitivity occurs when there is little antibody and an excess of antigen, leading to small immune complexes being formed that do not fix complement and are not cleared from the circulation. It is characterized by solvent antigens that are not bound to cell surfaces (which is the case in type II hypersensitivity). When these antigens bind antibodies, immune complexes of different sizes form. Large complexes can be cleared by macrophages but, comparatively macrophages have difficulty in the disposal of small immune complexes. These immune complexes insert themselves into small blood vessels, joints, and glomeruli, causing symptoms. Unlike the free variant, a small immune complex bound to sites of deposition (like blood vessel walls) are far more capable of interacting with complement; these medium-sized complexes, formed in the slight excess of antigen, are viewed as being highly pathogenic. Such depositions in tissues often induce an inflammatory response, and can cause damage wherever they precipitate. The cause of damage is as a result of the action of cleaved complement anaphylotoxins C3a and C5a, which, respectively, mediate the induction of granule release from mast cells (from which histamine can cause urticaria), and recruitment of inflammatory cells into the tissue (mainly those with lysosomal action, leading to tissue damage through frustrated phagocytosis by PMNs and macrophages) The reaction can take hours, days, or even weeks to develop, depending on whether or not there is immunlogic memory of the precipitating antigen. Typically, clinical features emerge a week following initial antigen challenge, when the deposited immune complexes can precipitate an inflammatory response. Because of the nature of the antibody aggregation, tissues that are associated with blood filtration at considerable osmotic and hydrostatic gradient (e.g. sites of urinary and synovial fluid formation, kidney glomeruli and joint tissues respectively) bear the brunt of the damage. Hence, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis and arthritis are commonly-associated conditions as a result of type III hypersensitivity responses As observed under methods of histopathology, acute necrotizing vasculitis within the affected tissues is observed concomitant to neutrophilic infiltration, along with notable eosinophilic deposition (FIBRINOID NECROSIS). Often, immunofluorescence microscopy can be used to visualize the immune complexes. Skin response to a hypersensitivity of this type is referred to as an ARTHUS REACTION, and is characterized by local erythema and some induration. Platelet aggregation, especially in microvasculature, can cause localized clot formation, leading to blotchy hemorrhages. This typifies the response to injection of foreign antigen sufficient to lead to the condition of SERUM SICKNESS

  • What is the principle difference between type II and type III hypersensitivity?
    What is the principle difference between type II and type III hypersensitivity?
    Whether the antibody reacts with the antigen on the cell or reacts with antigen before it interacts with the cellIN TYPE II HYPERSENSITIVITY-- (or cytotoxic hypersensitivity) the antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patients own cell surfaces. The antigens recognized in this way may either be intrinsic (self antigen, innately part of the patients cells) or extrinsic (adsorbed onto the cells during exposure to some foreign antigen, possibly as part of infection with a pathogen). These cells are recognized by macrophages or dendritic cells, which act as antigen-presenting cells. This causes a B cell response, wherein antibodies are produced against the foreign antigen. An example of type II hypersensitivity is the reaction to penicillin wherein the drug can bind to red blood cells, causing them to be recognized as different; B cell proliferation will take place and antibodies to the drug are produced. IgG and IgM antibodies bind to these antigens to form complexes that activate the classical pathway of complement activation to eliminate cells presenting foreign antigens (which are usually, but not in this case, pathogens). That is, mediators of acute inflammation are generated at the site and membrane attack complexes cause cell lysis and death. The reaction takes hours to a day. Another form of type II hypersensitivity is called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here, cells exhibiting the foreign antigen are tagged with antibodies (IgG or IgM). These tagged cells are then recognised by natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages (recognised via IgG bound (via the Fc region) to the effector cell surface receptor, CD16 (FcRIII)), which in turn kill these tagged cells. TYPE III HYPERSENSITIVITY --occurs when antigens and antibodies (IgG or IgM) are present in roughly equal amounts, causing extensive cross-linking. Presentation Type III hypersensitivity occurs when there is little antibody and an excess of antigen, leading to small immune complexes being formed that do not fix complement and are not cleared from the circulation. It is characterized by solvent antigens that are not bound to cell surfaces (which is the case in type II hypersensitivity). When these antigens bind antibodies, immune complexes of different sizes form. Large complexes can be cleared by macrophages but, comparatively macrophages have difficulty in the disposal of small immune complexes. These immune complexes insert themselves into small blood vessels, joints, and glomeruli, causing symptoms. Unlike the free variant, a small immune complex bound to sites of deposition (like blood vessel walls) are far more capable of interacting with complement; these medium-sized complexes, formed in the slight excess of antigen, are viewed as being highly pathogenic. Such depositions in tissues often induce an inflammatory response, and can cause damage wherever they precipitate. The cause of damage is as a result of the action of cleaved complement anaphylotoxins C3a and C5a, which, respectively, mediate the induction of granule release from mast cells (from which histamine can cause urticaria), and recruitment of inflammatory cells into the tissue (mainly those with lysosomal action, leading to tissue damage through frustrated phagocytosis by PMNs and macrophages) The reaction can take hours, days, or even weeks to develop, depending on whether or not there is immunlogic memory of the precipitating antigen. Typically, clinical features emerge a week following initial antigen challenge, when the deposited immune complexes can precipitate an inflammatory response. Because of the nature of the antibody aggregation, tissues that are associated with blood filtration at considerable osmotic and hydrostatic gradient (e.g. sites of urinary and synovial fluid formation, kidney glomeruli and joint tissues respectively) bear the brunt of the damage. Hence, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis and arthritis are commonly-associated conditions as a result of type III hypersensitivity responses As observed under methods of histopathology, acute necrotizing vasculitis within the affected tissues is observed concomitant to neutrophilic infiltration, along with notable eosinophilic deposition (FIBRINOID NECROSIS). Often, immunofluorescence microscopy can be used to visualize the immune complexes. Skin response to a hypersensitivity of this type is referred to as an ARTHUS REACTION, and is characterized by local erythema and some induration. Platelet aggregation, especially in microvasculature, can cause localized clot formation, leading to blotchy hemorrhages. This typifies the response to injection of foreign antigen sufficient to lead to the condition of SERUM SICKNESS

  • What type of reaction caused the following condition?A patient was undergoing a series of surgical procedures requiring a general anesthetic. At the third procedure, he suddenly became...
    What type of reaction caused the following condition?A patient was undergoing a series of surgical procedures requiring a general anesthetic. At the third procedure, he suddenly became...
    1. Type III HypersensitivityNot type I b/c no IgE not type II b/c the antigen is not membrane bound

  • What would be true if fighting an infection was like fighting a war?
    What would be true if fighting an infection was like fighting a war?
    When a body is attacked by bacteria the inherent immune system acts to protect the body automatically. When the immune system is acquired, not natural, it must learn to recognize the enemy (bacteria). To fight it, T cells help activate B cells to secrete antibodies for destroying ingested microbes. They also help activate T cells to kill infected cells. So if an analogy is formed between the immune system and war, both T cells and B cells are fighting, but T cells are facilitators, perhaps with an Intelligence function, rather than a set of weapons. B cells are like the infantry; they need direction and the T cells 'tell' them what to attack and where.

  • What type of hypersensitivity reaction is it intended to detect, if this test measures a hypersensitivity reaction against the organism? Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by...
    What type of hypersensitivity reaction is it intended to detect, if this test measures a hypersensitivity reaction against the organism? Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by...
    This reaction is Type- IV

  • What do we call Proteins that bind to specific chemicals on the surface of foreign cells?
    What do we call Proteins that bind to specific chemicals on the surface of foreign cells?
    Isn't it Antibodies that bind to foreign things? I mean they're literally soluble proteins that bind to the surface of foreign things, which by the way is the Antigen.

  • What are the functions of T cells in cell mediated immunity?
    What are the functions of T cells in cell mediated immunity?
    Helper T cells (CD4) stimulate Killer T cells (CD8) which are cytotoxic and lyse infected cells, malignant cells, or foreign tissue. Memory T cells remember for future invasionCell-mediated immunity only involves T cells.

  • Do you believe in aliens?
    Do you believe in aliens?
    Thats an insult too call us Aliens we are Star Beings in Avatars in this BS matrix the word alien is just like calling black people the N word.

  • What is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction characterized by?
    What is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction characterized by?
    An infiltrate composed of helper T cells and macrophagesDTH is type 4, which involves Tcells, macrophages IFN-g and TNF-a Type IV hypersensitivity is often called Delayed Type Hypersensitivity as the reaction takes two to three days to develop. Unlike the other types, it is not antibody mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with either type 1 or 2 major histocompatibility complex. The antigen-presenting cells in this case are macrophages that secrete IL-12, which stimulates the proliferation of further CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells secrete IL-2 and interferon gamma, further inducing the release of other Type 1 cytokines, thus mediating the immune response. Activated CD8+ T cells destroy target cells on contact, whereas activated macrophages produce hydrolytic enzymes and, on presentation with certain intracellular pathogens, transform into multinucleated giant cells.

  • What is the principle difference between type II and type III hypersensitivity?
    What is the principle difference between type II and type III hypersensitivity?
    Whether the antibody reacts with the antigen on the cell or reacts with antigen before it interacts with the cellIN TYPE II HYPERSENSITIVITY-- (or cytotoxic hypersensitivity) the antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patients own cell surfaces. The antigens recognized in this way may either be intrinsic (self antigen, innately part of the patients cells) or extrinsic (adsorbed onto the cells during exposure to some foreign antigen, possibly as part of infection with a pathogen). These cells are recognized by macrophages or dendritic cells, which act as antigen-presenting cells. This causes a B cell response, wherein antibodies are produced against the foreign antigen. An example of type II hypersensitivity is the reaction to penicillin wherein the drug can bind to red blood cells, causing them to be recognized as different; B cell proliferation will take place and antibodies to the drug are produced. IgG and IgM antibodies bind to these antigens to form complexes that activate the classical pathway of complement activation to eliminate cells presenting foreign antigens (which are usually, but not in this case, pathogens). That is, mediators of acute inflammation are generated at the site and membrane attack complexes cause cell lysis and death. The reaction takes hours to a day. Another form of type II hypersensitivity is called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here, cells exhibiting the foreign antigen are tagged with antibodies (IgG or IgM). These tagged cells are then recognised by natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages (recognised via IgG bound (via the Fc region) to the effector cell surface receptor, CD16 (FcRIII)), which in turn kill these tagged cells. TYPE III HYPERSENSITIVITY --occurs when antigens and antibodies (IgG or IgM) are present in roughly equal amounts, causing extensive cross-linking. Presentation Type III hypersensitivity occurs when there is little antibody and an excess of antigen, leading to small immune complexes being formed that do not fix complement and are not cleared from the circulation. It is characterized by solvent antigens that are not bound to cell surfaces (which is the case in type II hypersensitivity). When these antigens bind antibodies, immune complexes of different sizes form. Large complexes can be cleared by macrophages but, comparatively macrophages have difficulty in the disposal of small immune complexes. These immune complexes insert themselves into small blood vessels, joints, and glomeruli, causing symptoms. Unlike the free variant, a small immune complex bound to sites of deposition (like blood vessel walls) are far more capable of interacting with complement; these medium-sized complexes, formed in the slight excess of antigen, are viewed as being highly pathogenic. Such depositions in tissues often induce an inflammatory response, and can cause damage wherever they precipitate. The cause of damage is as a result of the action of cleaved complement anaphylotoxins C3a and C5a, which, respectively, mediate the induction of granule release from mast cells (from which histamine can cause urticaria), and recruitment of inflammatory cells into the tissue (mainly those with lysosomal action, leading to tissue damage through frustrated phagocytosis by PMNs and macrophages) The reaction can take hours, days, or even weeks to develop, depending on whether or not there is immunlogic memory of the precipitating antigen. Typically, clinical features emerge a week following initial antigen challenge, when the deposited immune complexes can precipitate an inflammatory response. Because of the nature of the antibody aggregation, tissues that are associated with blood filtration at considerable osmotic and hydrostatic gradient (e.g. sites of urinary and synovial fluid formation, kidney glomeruli and joint tissues respectively) bear the brunt of the damage. Hence, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis and arthritis are commonly-associated conditions as a result of type III hypersensitivity responses As observed under methods of histopathology, acute necrotizing vasculitis within the affected tissues is observed concomitant to neutrophilic infiltration, along with notable eosinophilic deposition (FIBRINOID NECROSIS). Often, immunofluorescence microscopy can be used to visualize the immune complexes. Skin response to a hypersensitivity of this type is referred to as an ARTHUS REACTION, and is characterized by local erythema and some induration. Platelet aggregation, especially in microvasculature, can cause localized clot formation, leading to blotchy hemorrhages. This typifies the response to injection of foreign antigen sufficient to lead to the condition of SERUM SICKNESS

  • What is the most likely diagnosis if a 55 year old woman presents with dysphagia, diarrhea, and weight loss? if physical examination reveals a woman who appears younger than her stated age...
    What is the most likely diagnosis if a 55 year old woman presents with dysphagia, diarrhea, and weight loss? if physical examination reveals a woman who appears younger than her stated age...
    Systemic sclerosis

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