# [community Public Health] Chapter 7: Epidemiology: Unraveling The Mysteries Of Disease And Health

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• 1.

### Who was the first nurse epidemiologist who pioneered the use of statistics to improve public health?

• A.

Dorothea Dix

• B.

Florence Nightingale

• C.

Lillian Wald

• D.

Sue Barton

B. Florence Nightingale
Explanation
Florence Nightingale is the correct answer because she was a nurse epidemiologist who revolutionized the field of public health by using statistics to improve healthcare. She is considered the founder of modern nursing and made significant contributions to sanitation and healthcare practices during the Crimean War. Nightingale's use of statistics helped identify patterns and trends in disease outbreaks, leading to improved public health measures and the establishment of nursing as a respected profession. Her work laid the foundation for evidence-based healthcare practices that are still used today.

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• 2.

### A nurse noted that 15 people became very ill while eating at the school banquet for the basketball team. To calculate the rate of illness, what other fact does the nurse need?

• A.

How many athletes were honored for being on the team

• B.

How many parents and family members attended the banquet

• C.

How many people ate at the banquet

• D.

How many people live in the school district

C. How many people ate at the banquet
Explanation
The nurse needs to know how many people ate at the banquet in order to calculate the rate of illness. Without this information, it is not possible to determine the proportion of people who became ill out of the total number of people who ate at the banquet.

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• 3.

### A rate might be accurately defined as

• A.

Another term for ratio.

• B.

A way of determining the incidence of disease in a group.

• C.

A way to make comparisons among equal-size populations.

• D.

The number of events divided by the number of persons at risk.

D. The number of events divided by the number of persons at risk.
Explanation
A rate is a measure that quantifies the occurrence of events in a population. It is calculated by dividing the number of events by the number of individuals at risk of experiencing the event. This measure allows for a standardized comparison of event occurrence among different populations, taking into account the population size. Therefore, the answer "The number of events divided by the number of persons at risk" accurately defines a rate.

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• 4.

### A nurse was asked whether the agency should offer additional health promotion programming for young mothers in the Two Oaks neighborhood or the Centerville neighborhood. Two Oaks is a village that has a population of 4000 persons, of whom 50 are single mothers, whereas Centerville is an urban area of 15,000 people, of whom 150 are single mothers. On the basis of this information, which of the following would be the best response by the nurse?

• A.

• B.

The nurse needs to know the total number of children in these neighborhoods before making a decision.

• C.

The nurse should choose to focus on single mothers in Centerville.

• D.

The nurse should choose to focus on single mothers in Two Oaks.

D. The nurse should choose to focus on single mothers in Two Oaks.
Explanation
The nurse should choose to focus on single mothers in Two Oaks because the percentage of single mothers in Two Oaks is higher compared to Centerville. In Two Oaks, 50 out of 4000 people are single mothers, which is 1.25% of the population. In Centerville, 150 out of 15000 people are single mothers, which is only 1% of the population. Therefore, it would be more beneficial to offer additional health promotion programming for young mothers in Two Oaks.

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• 5.

### Assuming that City A has a murder rate of 12 per 100,000 population and City B has a murder rate of 24 per 100,000 population, which city has the more worrisome problem?

• A.

The answer cannot be determined from these data.

• B.

City A has the more worrisome problem.

• C.

City B has the more worrisome problem.

• D.

Both cities have equally worrisome problems.

C. City B has the more worrisome problem.
Explanation
The answer is City B has the more worrisome problem because it has a higher murder rate of 24 per 100,000 population compared to City A's murder rate of 12 per 100,000 population. This indicates that City B has a higher number of murders relative to its population, suggesting a more significant issue with crime and safety compared to City A.

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• 6.

### A nurse was given the following data about the children attending school in two area communities: School Asthmatic Children Number of Children in School Number of Persons in Community Centerville Elementary 25 1000 15,000 Centertown Suburban Elementary 25 1000 15,000 Centerville Junior High 35 1500 15,000 Two Oaks Elementary 5 200 5000 Two Oaks Junior High 10 300 5000 Totals: 100 4000 55,000 What is the rate of asthma in the school-age population?

• A.

5:1000

• B.

25:1000

• C.

100:20,000

• D.

400:2000

B. 25:1000
Explanation
The rate of asthma in the school-age population is 25:1000. This means that out of every 1000 children attending school, 25 of them have asthma.

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• 7.

### A community/public health nurse needs to conduct a descriptive study of the health needs of elderly persons attending a congregate meal at the local community center. Therefore, the nurse would

• A.

Divide the elderly population into two groups (healthy and unhealthy), teach courses on healthy lifestyles, and then measure any changes.

• B.

Use two randomly chosen groups, teach healthy lifestyles to all participants, and then determine learning through a posttest.

• C.

Divide the elderly population into two randomly chosen groups, teach healthy lifestyles to one group, and then determine differences in knowledge between the two groups.

• D.

Screen each elderly person and look for patterns in the findings related to health problems that necessitate attention.

D. Screen each elderly person and look for patterns in the findings related to health problems that necessitate attention.
Explanation
The correct answer is to screen each elderly person and look for patterns in the findings related to health problems that necessitate attention. This approach would involve assessing the health needs of each individual attending the congregate meal, identifying any common patterns or trends in their health problems, and determining which issues require immediate attention. This method allows for a comprehensive understanding of the health needs of the elderly population and enables the nurse to prioritize interventions accordingly.

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• 8.

### A nurse was assigned to work with technology-dependent schoolchildren. What kind of study would the nurse most likely conduct to help determine the needs of these children?

• A.

A case-control study to compare these children with children who are not technology-dependent

• B.

A cross-sectional study of school-based variables affecting the children

• C.

A descriptive study regarding prevalence of technology dependence among the total school population

• D.

An analytic study to determine causes of the children problems

B. A cross-sectional study of school-based variables affecting the children
Explanation
The nurse would most likely conduct a cross-sectional study of school-based variables affecting the children to determine the needs of technology-dependent schoolchildren. This type of study would involve collecting data at a specific point in time to examine the relationship between various variables, such as the school environment, resources, and support systems, and how they impact the needs of these children. By analyzing these variables, the nurse can gain insights into the specific needs and challenges faced by technology-dependent schoolchildren and develop appropriate interventions or support strategies.

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• 9.

### A school nurse was concerned about the prevalence of obesity in the elementary school classes. On the basis of the literature, the nurse decided to ask each student whether he or she ate breakfast before coming to school in the morning. Which type of study is the nurse conducting?

• A.

Experimental

• B.

Case-control

• C.

Correlational

• D.

Clinical trial

C. Correlational
Explanation
The nurse is conducting a correlational study. This type of study aims to determine the relationship between two variables without manipulating or controlling any variables. In this case, the nurse is trying to determine if there is a relationship between eating breakfast before coming to school and the prevalence of obesity in elementary school classes. By asking each student about their breakfast habits and comparing it to the prevalence of obesity, the nurse can determine if there is a correlation between the two variables.

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• 10.

### A school nurse decided to begin a dont smoke, dont start program. To determine whether the program has any effect, an experimental trial study was planned. Which of the following actions would the nurse take?

• A.

Divide the students into two groups (smokers and nonsmokers), teach the course to both groups, and then observe for changes in beliefs.

• B.

Divide the students into two randomly chosen groups, teach the program to all students, and then determine learning and smoking behaviors through a posttest.

• C.

Use two randomly chosen groups, teach the program to one group, and then determine differences in knowledge and smoking behaviors between the two groups.

• D.

Screen each student, and look for evidence of smoking behaviors.

C. Use two randomly chosen groups, teach the program to one group, and then determine differences in knowledge and smoking behaviors between the two groups.
Explanation
The nurse would use two randomly chosen groups, teach the program to one group, and then determine differences in knowledge and smoking behaviors between the two groups. This approach allows for a comparison between the group that received the program and the group that did not, in order to assess the program's effectiveness. By randomly assigning the students to the groups, the nurse can ensure that any differences observed between the groups can be attributed to the program rather than other factors. The nurse would then analyze the changes in knowledge and smoking behaviors to determine if the program had any effect.

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• 11.

### The school nurse set up a dont smoke, dont start program that focused on children who did not smoke. Which of the following stages of disease was the focus of the program?

• A.

• B.

Convalescence

• C.

Pathogenesis

• D.

Prepathogenesis

D. Prepathogenesis
Explanation
The focus of the program was on the prepathogenesis stage of disease. This stage refers to the period before the disease develops or manifests in an individual. By targeting children who did not smoke, the program aimed to prevent the initiation of smoking and reduce the risk of developing smoking-related diseases in the future. This approach emphasizes primary prevention and intervention strategies to address the risk factors associated with the disease before it occurs.

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• 12.

### In a dont smoke, dont start program, the school nurse decided to focus on all aspects of the epidemiologic triangle. Which of the following would the nurse include?

• A.

The benefits of smoking, the risks of smoking, and the expense of smoking

• B.

The pleasures of smoking, the risks of smoking, and the costs of smoking

• C.

The risks of nicotine, genetic factors related to nicotine absorption, and media pressures to smoke

• D.

The risks of nicotine, the cost of smoking, and the taxes on cigarettes

C. The risks of nicotine, genetic factors related to nicotine absorption, and media pressures to smoke
Explanation
The nurse would include the risks of nicotine, genetic factors related to nicotine absorption, and media pressures to smoke in the don't smoke, don't start program. This comprehensive approach addresses the biological, genetic, and environmental factors that contribute to smoking behavior and addiction. By understanding the risks of nicotine, the influence of genetic factors, and the impact of media pressures, the program can provide a more holistic understanding of smoking and its prevention.

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• 13.

### Which is the best reason why children to choose to smoke?

• A.

Movies that show heroes and heroines always smoking

• B.

Multiple factors, including media and peer pressure

• C.

• D.

The tobacco companies, which advertise heavily

B. Multiple factors, including media and peer pressure
Explanation
Children may choose to smoke due to multiple factors, including media and peer pressure. Media, such as movies that show heroes and heroines smoking, can influence children's perception and behavior. Additionally, peer pressure from friends or classmates who smoke can also play a significant role in a child's decision to smoke. It is important to consider these various factors when understanding why children may choose to smoke.

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• 14.

### Which of the following facts would be most helpful to the nurse who is creating a campaign to prevent teenagers from using alcohol?

• A.

The number of advertisements for alcohol that are currently being published in national magazines and newspapers

• B.

The number of lead characters in national TV series who consume alcohol on camera

• C.

The number of local physicians who stress avoiding alcohol use while examining their teenage clients

• D.

The prevalence of alcohol use among students in the nurses school

D. The prevalence of alcohol use among students in the nurses school
Explanation
The prevalence of alcohol use among students in the nurse's school would be most helpful to the nurse who is creating a campaign to prevent teenagers from using alcohol. This information would allow the nurse to understand the extent of the problem within their own school community and tailor their campaign accordingly. By knowing the prevalence of alcohol use among students, the nurse can identify potential areas of intervention and develop targeted strategies to address the issue effectively.

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• 15.

### When the school nurse discovered three sixth-graders smoking behind a delivery truck in the school parking lot, the nurse could accurately conclude that the three smokers were _____ lung disease.

• A.

At risk for

• B.

In the early lesional stage of

• C.

In the latency period of

• D.

In the pathogenesis stage of

A. At risk for
Explanation
The school nurse can accurately conclude that the three smokers are at risk for lung disease because smoking is a known risk factor for developing various lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and respiratory infections. The fact that they are smoking at a young age increases their risk even further. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that they are at risk for developing lung disease.

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• 16.

### The community/public health nurse is performing tuberculosis screening for newly hired employees at the local hospital. Which of the following best describes this nursing intervention?

• A.

Not required by law and unnecessary

• B.

Primary prevention

• C.

Secondary prevention

• D.

Tertiary prevention

C. Secondary prevention
Explanation
The nurse is performing tuberculosis screening for newly hired employees at the local hospital, which is an example of secondary prevention. Secondary prevention aims to detect and treat diseases early on to prevent further complications and transmission. In this case, the nurse is screening for tuberculosis to identify any potential cases and provide appropriate treatment to prevent the spread of the disease within the hospital setting. This intervention is not required by law but is necessary to ensure the safety and health of the employees and the community.

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• 17.

### The community/public health nurse invites a dietitian to a healthy lifestyles program to discuss fun ways to eat vegetables and fruits as snacks. Which of the following best describes this nursing intervention?

• A.

Disability limitation

• B.

Primary prevention

• C.

Secondary prevention

• D.

Tertiary prevention

B. Primary prevention
Explanation
The nursing intervention described in the question is best categorized as primary prevention. Primary prevention aims to prevent the occurrence of a disease or injury by promoting healthy behaviors and lifestyles. In this case, the nurse is inviting a dietitian to discuss fun ways to eat vegetables and fruits as snacks, which promotes a healthy diet and lifestyle. By encouraging individuals to incorporate these healthy habits into their daily lives, the nurse is taking proactive steps to prevent the development of diseases or conditions associated with poor nutrition.

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• 18.

### The community/public health nurse leads a support group for clients and their families who have been affected by cancer. Which of the following best describes this nursing intervention?

• A.

Specific protection

• B.

Primary prevention

• C.

Secondary prevention

• D.

Tertiary prevention

D. Tertiary prevention
Explanation
Tertiary prevention refers to interventions that aim to minimize the impact of a disease or condition and prevent complications or further deterioration. In this case, the community/public health nurse is leading a support group for clients and their families who have been affected by cancer. This intervention falls under tertiary prevention because it focuses on providing support, education, and resources to help individuals cope with the effects of cancer and improve their quality of life. It does not aim to prevent cancer or its initial occurrence (primary prevention) or detect cancer at an early stage (secondary prevention).

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• 19.

### Why is the data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) not absolutely accurate?

• A.

A great deal of data is lost en route from physician to NNDSS.

• B.

Computer operators do not always enter data accurately.

• C.

Not all cases of such diseases are managed or are reported.

• D.

Not all physicians know or obey the law to report cases to the NNDSS.

C. Not all cases of such diseases are managed or are reported.
Explanation
The data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) is not absolutely accurate because not all cases of such diseases are managed or reported. This means that some cases may go unreported or be missed, leading to incomplete data. Additionally, there may be instances where computer operators do not accurately enter the data or where physicians do not know or obey the law to report cases to the NNDSS. These factors contribute to the lack of absolute accuracy in the data.

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• 20.

### Which of the following data is collected by the U.S. Department of Commerce?

• A.

• B.

Locations of all hospitals and clinics

• C.

Property values in each county and state

• D.

Growth in areas of the country

D. Growth in areas of the country
Explanation
The U.S. Department of Commerce collects data on the growth in areas of the country. This data helps in understanding the economic development and progress of different regions within the United States. It provides valuable insights into the changing demographics, employment opportunities, and overall prosperity of various areas, which can be used for policy-making, resource allocation, and business planning purposes.

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• 21.

### Which of the following is a problem with using death certificates to determine major causes of death in the population?

• A.

The focus is on the immediate cause or disease, not the underlying causes.

• B.

The legal cause of death is stated, instead of the medical cause.

• C.

Information provided for older adults is more accurate than that for younger adults.

• D.

Death certificates are difficult to interpret with all the comorbid conditions.

A. The focus is on the immediate cause or disease, not the underlying causes.
Explanation
Death certificates often only provide information on the immediate cause of death, such as a specific disease or condition, rather than the underlying causes that may have contributed to the death. This can limit the accuracy and completeness of data when trying to determine major causes of death in the population.

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• 22.

### Which of the following is the rate most widely used to compare the health of populations across countries?

• A.

Birth rate

• B.

Crude mortality rate

• C.

Rate of death from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

• D.

Infant mortality rate

D. Infant mortality rate
Explanation
The infant mortality rate is the rate most widely used to compare the health of populations across countries. This rate measures the number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year. It is considered a key indicator of the overall health and well-being of a population, as it reflects the quality of healthcare, nutrition, and socio-economic conditions. Comparing infant mortality rates allows for a better understanding of disparities in healthcare systems and can help identify areas for improvement in maternal and child health.

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• 23.

### Which of the following factors is positively correlated with having a baby of low birth weight?

• A.

Engaging in regular exercise

• B.

Receiving early prenatal care

• C.

Having multiple sexual partners

• D.

Using illicit drugs, alcohol, or tobacco

D. Using illicit drugs, alcohol, or tobacco
Explanation
Using illicit drugs, alcohol, or tobacco is positively correlated with having a baby of low birth weight. Substance abuse during pregnancy can have harmful effects on the developing fetus, leading to complications such as premature birth, growth restrictions, and low birth weight. These substances can cross the placenta and affect the baby's growth and development, increasing the risk of health problems both at birth and later in life. Therefore, it is important for pregnant individuals to avoid using illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco to promote a healthy pregnancy and reduce the risk of low birth weight.

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• 24.

### The school nurse decides to implement a health promotion program for the parents of the school-age children. Which of the following topics would be most important for the nurse to include?

• A.

Eating a nutritious diet

• B.

Exercising and sleeping well

• C.

Promoting creative play

• D.

Performing a safety check in the home

D. Performing a safety check in the home
Explanation
Performing a safety check in the home would be the most important topic for the nurse to include in the health promotion program for parents of school-age children. This is because ensuring a safe environment is crucial for the well-being and development of children. By educating parents about potential hazards in the home and providing guidance on how to address them, the nurse can help prevent accidents and injuries. This topic focuses on the immediate safety of children and is therefore of utmost importance.

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• 25.

### The state legislators were discussing the high injury rate among individuals between 15 and 24 years of age. Which of the following factors is involved in most of these injuries?

• A.

Guns

• B.

Gangs

• C.

Motor vehicles

• D.

Sharp objects (knives) and blunt objects (such as baseball bats)

C. Motor vehicles
Explanation
The correct answer is motor vehicles. This is because motor vehicle accidents are one of the leading causes of injury and death among individuals between the ages of 15 and 24. This age group tends to have less driving experience and may engage in risky behaviors such as speeding or distracted driving, increasing their likelihood of being involved in a motor vehicle accident. Additionally, this age group may also be more likely to engage in activities that involve motor vehicles, such as driving under the influence or street racing, further increasing their risk of injury.

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• 26.

### A nurse volunteered to help 1 day a week at the senior citizens center in the community. Which of the following would be the best intervention that the nurse could perform to promote health?

• A.

Contribute all fabric and scrapbooking supplies for the participants to use.

• B.

Encourage everyone to be involved in a basic physical exercise class.

• C.

Lead a life history class with a focus on reminiscence.

• D.

Teach good nutrition and low-cost diet choices.

B. Encourage everyone to be involved in a basic physical exercise class.
Explanation
Encouraging everyone to be involved in a basic physical exercise class would be the best intervention for the nurse to promote health at the senior citizens center. Physical exercise has numerous benefits for older adults, including improving cardiovascular health, maintaining strength and balance, reducing the risk of chronic diseases, and enhancing overall well-being. Engaging in regular exercise can also help to prevent or manage conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and arthritis. By encouraging the participants to participate in a physical exercise class, the nurse is promoting their physical health and well-being.

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• 27.

### The leading cause of death by a wide margin in young U.S. adults aged 25 to 44 is

• A.

Alzheimers disease.

• B.

Cardiac disease.

• C.

Malignant neoplasms.

• D.

Unintentional injury.

D. Unintentional injury.
Explanation
The correct answer is unintentional injury. This means that the leading cause of death in young U.S. adults aged 25 to 44 is accidents or injuries that occur unintentionally. This could include car accidents, falls, poisoning, or other incidents that result in fatal injuries. It is important to note that this cause of death is preventable and efforts should be made to promote safety and reduce the occurrence of these accidents.

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• 28.

### The primary causes of death in the United States among adults aged 65 and older are

• A.

Alzheimer disease, cardiac disease, and chronic lower respiratory tract diseases.

• B.

Alzheimer disease, cardiac disease, and diabetes mellitus.

• C.

Cardiac disease, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular disease.

• D.

Cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus.

C. Cardiac disease, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular disease.
• 29.

### Which of the following groups would be considered most at risk to have poor health?

• A.

The adolescents in the high school hobby club

• B.

The adults who met for the Stop Shopping therapy group

• C.

The women who met once a week to discuss the challenges of single parenthood

• D.

The group of homeless women who were trying to find low-rent apartments

D. The group of homeless women who were trying to find low-rent apartments
Explanation
The group of homeless women who were trying to find low-rent apartments would be considered most at risk to have poor health. Homelessness is often associated with limited access to healthcare, inadequate nutrition, exposure to harsh weather conditions, and higher rates of mental health issues. Additionally, the stress and uncertainty of not having a stable place to live can further negatively impact their overall health and well-being. Therefore, this group is more likely to experience poor health outcomes compared to the other groups mentioned.

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• 30.

### Which of the following is the primary underlying factor for differences in health status in the United States?

• A.

Minority status

• B.

Geographic location

• C.

Sexual behavior

• D.

Poverty or socioeconomic status

D. Poverty or socioeconomic status
Explanation
Poverty or socioeconomic status is the primary underlying factor for differences in health status in the United States. This is because individuals living in poverty often lack access to quality healthcare, nutritious food, and safe living conditions, which can lead to higher rates of chronic diseases, mental health issues, and overall poorer health outcomes. Additionally, socioeconomic status influences factors such as education, employment, and social support, which also impact health status.

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• Current Version
• Mar 18, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• May 05, 2020
Quiz Created by
Draconisnightman

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