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  • Which of the following would cause an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) & renal plasma flow (RPF)?
    Which of the following would cause an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) & renal plasma flow (RPF)?
    1. dilation of the afferent arteriole -dilation of the afferent arteriole will increase both renal plasma flow (rpf) [because renal vascular resistance is decreased] and glomerular filtration rate (gfr) [because glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure is increased]. dilation of the efferent arteriole will increase rpf, but decrease gfr. constriction of the efferent arteriole will decrease rpf (due to increased renal vascular resistance) and increase gfr. both hyperproteinemia (inc in the glomerular capillaries) and a ureteral stone (inc hydrostatic pressure in bowmans space) will oppose filtration and decrease gfr.

  • What will a woman who runs a marathon in 90 degree Fahrenheit experience if she replaces all volume lost in sweat by drinking distilled water?
    What will a woman who runs a marathon in 90 degree Fahrenheit experience if she replaces all volume lost in sweat by drinking distilled water?
    There are many ways that a person must prepare for a marathon. Besides, practicing the ways in which someone runs in order to gain endurance and stamina during the race, the marathon runner must also prepare with the equipment and supplies that they will need during and right after the race. After running, a person will need several things including water. They must also have ice packs to put on their joints and usually a towel to wipe off the sweat. There are different types of water that the person can drink. However, the person may want to put back the electrolytes that they lost. Therefore, they will need to pick a certain type of drink to do that. If the person drank distilled water, then they will have decreased plasma osmolarity.

  • What does the Blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves enter the kidney through?
    What does the Blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves enter the kidney through?
    The answer should be c.) Hilum  

  • What causes kidney stones?
    What causes kidney stones?
    Several things can lead to kidney stone formation. First, it is important to know that they are different kinds of kidney stones. Calcium oxalate stones, ammonium magnesium phosphate stones (struvite), uric acid stones and cysteine stones are the types of kidney stones. Calcium oxalate stone is the most common type of kidney stone, it occurs where there is a decrease in excretion or excessive amount of calcium and oxalate in the body. Vitamin C abuse, ethylene glycol injection and crohn disease are common causes. Struvite is caused by certain infection that cause alkalinisation of urine which lead to hydroxylation of urea to ammonium and stones are formed. Uric acid stone is caused conditions that lead to high uric acid level in the body and cysteine stone is caused by conditions that lead to decease in reabsorption of cysteine in the kidney.

  • What is the role of kidney in osmoregulation?
    What is the role of kidney in osmoregulation?
    The kidneys play a very important role in osmoregulation. They are the main organs of osmoregulation in mammalian systems. The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron that filters the blood and generates urine. The kidneys regulate the water reabsorbed from the glomerulus in the kidney tubules. They function to filter the blood and maintain the osmolality of body fluids at 300mOsm. The functions of the kidneys are controlled by hormones such as the anti-diuretic hormones (ADH), angiotensin II and aldosterone. The main function of the kidneys is to maintain the water and salt balance in the body.

  • What causes kidney failure?
    What causes kidney failure?
    Many things can cause kidney failure. Many conditions can contribute to kidney damage, some are primary kidney diseases and some are conditions that indirectly affect the kidney. Some of the leading causes are: Polycystic kidney disease – are hereditary kidney disease. There are two main types: the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Type 1 and type 2 diabetics destroys the renal architecture which leads to end stage kidney damage. High blood pressure can also lead to kidney failure over time. Use of certain medications (certain antibiotics) can lead to kidney failure. Liver disease, urinary tract diseases, kidney stones, heart diseases and many other conditions can cause kidney failure.

  • What is the difference between UTI and Kidney Infections?
    What is the difference between UTI and Kidney Infections?
    A UTI stands for Urinary Tract Infection. It is a common occurrence to get a UTI. Many people get them. They involve your urinary system. The urinary system includes your kidneys, bladder, urethra, and ureters. Infection takes place somewhere in this urinary system. They usually occur in the bladder or urethra. If you have a urinary tract infection, you will feel the need to go to the bathroom all the time. It may be painful to use the bathroom, and the urine may be different colors than normal. People can stop from getting a UTI by watching what they are eating. Since a UTI can occur in the kidneys, bladder or urethra, the most significant difference would be that a kidney infection infects only the kidneys. However, the symptoms and effects might appear to be the same.

  • What works to maintain the Renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system?
    What works to maintain the Renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system?
    Bp -when blood volume is low, juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys secrete renin directly into circulation. plasma renin then carries out the conversion of angiotensinogen released by the liver to angiotensin i. angiotensin i is subsequently converted to angiotensin ii by the enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme found in the lungs. angiotensin ii is a potent vaso-active peptide which causes blood vessels to constrict, resulting in increased blood pressure. angiotensin ii also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. aldosterone causes the tubules of the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and water into the blood. this increases the volume of fluid in the body, which also increases blood pressure.

  • What will be ph imbalance if kidney fails?
    What will be ph imbalance if kidney fails?
    Acidosis-when kidneys fail. less waste is removed more waste remains in the blood toxic to cns, rbcs, and platelets nitrogenous compounds build up in the blood bun: blood urea nitrogen creatinine renal function apprroxiimatted by: initial creatinine level/current creatinine level imbalance of fluid and electrolytes hyperkalemia, salt wasting, and htn ph imbalance acidosis metabolic functions of kidneys decrease decreased erythropoietin decreased activation of vitamin d

  • What is the cause of plasma para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) concentrations below the transport maximum (Tm), PAH?
    What is the cause of plasma para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) concentrations below the transport maximum (Tm), PAH?
    1. concentration in the renal vein is close to zero- at plasma concentrations that are lower than at the transport maximum (tm) for para-aminohippuric acid (pah) secretion, pah concentration in the renal vein is nearly zero because the sum of filtration plus secretion removes virtually all pah from the renal plasma. thus, the pah concentration in the renal vein is less than that in the renal artery because most of the pah entering the kidney is excreted in urine. pah clearance is greater than inulin clearance because pah is filtered and secreted; inulin is only filtered.

  • What are the mechanisms that produce this response? An increase in blood volume brings about a natriuresis and diuresis, mediated in part by alterations in proximal tubule reabsorption.
    What are the mechanisms that produce this response? An increase in blood volume brings about a natriuresis and diuresis, mediated in part by alterations in proximal tubule reabsorption.
    1. increased baroreceptor firing : decreased sympathetic tone: decreased peripheralresistance: decreased proximal tubule absorption-an increased blood volume will increase the activity of both high and low pressurebaroreceptors, that brings about a decrease in sympathetic tone. decreased activity of the renalnerve supply to the kidney decreases arterial resistance and therefore gfr. simultaneously,reduced catecholamine release reduces proximal tubule reabsorption of sodium, chloride,bicarbonate and water. this in combination with increased release of natriuretic peptides bringsabout a rise in excretion of salt and water.

  • What is the most likely cause of renal failure in the patient described below? A 65-year-old woman has experienced increasing malaise with nocturia and polyuria for the past year. On...
    What is the most likely cause of renal failure in the patient described below? A 65-year-old woman has experienced increasing malaise with nocturia and polyuria for the past year. On...
    1. reflux nephropathy-(c) this description of the gross appearance of the kidney is characteristic of chronic pyelonephritis, caused mostoften by reflux nephropathy. typical features include coarse and irregular scarring resulting from ascending infection,blunting and deformity of calyces, and asymmetric involvement of the kidneys. the loss of tubules from scarring gives riseto reduced renal concentrating ability; the patient had polyuria with a low specific gravity of the urine. chronicglomerulonephritis, benign nephrosclerosis (caused by essential hypertension), and systemic lupus erythematosusproduce bilateral symmetric involvement, and the affected kidneys are shrunken and finely granular. autosomal-dominantpolycystic kidney disease is characterized by large cysts that replace the renal parenchyma and greatly increase the sizeof the kidneys bilaterally.bp7 529530bp8 562563pbd7 10001001pbd8 942944

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