Urinary SySTEM Quiz Questions And Answers

Reviewed by Stephanie Baumhover
Stephanie Baumhover, PharmD |
Medicine
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Stephanie is a seasoned Medical Education Director, boasting a comprehensive background in Critical Care, Oncology, Pediatrics, and Managed Care. She holds a PharmD from Creighton University and completed her PGY1 Residency in Critical Care and Transplant at the University of Virginia. Currently, she excels in her role at Medscape. With her extensive medical education background, she plays a pivotal role in ensuring the accuracy and relevance of our medical quizzes. Her dedication to maintaining high standards contributes significantly to the platform's success.
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Urinary System Quiz Questions And Answers - Quiz

Have you studied the chapter urinary system? To check your knowledge about the topic, take this urinary system quiz. The functioning of the urinary system involves selected organs, but the main one is the kidney. Test out what you know about the urinary system by taking this quiz. If you can't answer any of the questions, you can learn something new. Overall, it is a test and a learning experience for you. You can share the quiz with your friends or other medical professionals if you like it.


Urinary System Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    Which of the following is a function of the kidney?

    • A.

      Regulates blood pressure.

    • B.

      Filters waste from the blood.

    • C.

      Regulates the pH of the body.

    • D.

      Regulates the body's electrolyte concentration.

    • E.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above.
    Explanation
    The kidney is responsible for multiple functions in the body. It helps regulate blood pressure by adjusting the volume of blood and the amount of sodium and water excreted. It filters waste products, such as urea and toxins, from the blood and eliminates them through urine. The kidney also plays a role in maintaining the body's pH balance by regulating the levels of acids and bases in the blood. Additionally, it helps regulate the concentration of electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium, in the body. Therefore, all of the given options are functions of the kidney.

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  • 2. 

    The ___________ arteries supply the kidneys with blood.

    Correct Answer
    renal
    Explanation
    The term "renal" refers to anything related to the kidneys. Therefore, the renal arteries are the blood vessels that supply the kidneys with blood. These arteries play a crucial role in delivering oxygen and nutrients to the kidneys, allowing them to function properly.

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  • 3. 

    The bladder is lined with ______________ epithelium.

    • A.

      Simple columnar

    • B.

      Transitional

    • C.

      Stratified squamous

    • D.

      Simple cuboidal

    • E.

      Pseudostratified columnar

    Correct Answer
    B. Transitional
    Explanation
    The correct answer is transitional because transitional epithelium is found in the lining of organs that need to stretch and expand, such as the bladder. It is composed of multiple layers of cells that can change shape and stretch when the bladder fills with urine, allowing it to accommodate varying volumes without tearing or leaking. This specialized epithelium, the urothelium,  is able to withstand the mechanical stress and pressure changes that occur during the filling and emptying of the bladder.

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  • 4. 

    The functional unit of the kidneys is the

    • A.

      Neuron

    • B.

      Neural glial cell

    • C.

      Nephron

    • D.

      Ureters

    • E.

      Nephritis.

    Correct Answer
    C. Nephron
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Nephron. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys, responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine. It consists of a glomerulus, which filters blood, and a tubule, which reabsorbs important substances and excretes waste products.

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  • 5. 

    Filtration of the blood occurs at the ___________ and is collected by the ___________.

    • A.

      Glomerulus; proximal convoluted tubule

    • B.

      Glomerulus; glomerular capsule

    • C.

      Glomerulus; nephron loop

    • D.

      Glomerular capsule; glomerulus

    • E.

      Proximal convoluted tubule; glomerulus

    Correct Answer
    B. Glomerulus; glomerular capsule
    Explanation
    Filtration of the blood occurs at the glomerulus, which is a network of capillaries in the kidney. The glomerular capsule, also known as Bowman's capsule, surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate that is produced. Therefore, the correct answer is glomerulus; glomerular capsule.

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  • 6. 

    Most of the solutes and water that are filtered out of the blood are reabsorbed at the __________________ of the renal tube.

    Correct Answer
    proximal convoluted tubule
    Explanation
    The proximal convoluted tubule is responsible for reabsorbing most of the solutes and water that are filtered out of the blood. This is an essential process in the kidneys to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body. The proximal convoluted tubule is located at the beginning of the renal tube, right after the glomerulus, and it plays a crucial role in the reabsorption of important substances back into the bloodstream.

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  • 7. 

    Along the descending limb of the nephron loop (loop of Henle) ______________ is reabsorbed, while along the ascending limb _________________ is reabsorbed.

    • A.

      Water; urea

    • B.

      Salt; water

    • C.

      Salt; urea

    • D.

      Water; salt

    • E.

      Water; glucose

    Correct Answer
    D. Water; salt
    Explanation
    Along the descending limb of the nephron loop, water is reabsorbed. This is because the descending limb is permeable to water but not to salt or urea. On the other hand, along the ascending limb, salt is reabsorbed. This is because the ascending limb is impermeable to water but actively transports salt out of the tubule. Therefore, the correct answer is water; salt.

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  • 8. 

    The distal convoluted tubule is only permeable to water if _______________ is present.

    • A.

      Epinephrine

    • B.

      Oxytocin

    • C.

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • D.

      Salt

    • E.

      Human growth hormone

    Correct Answer
    C. Antidiuretic hormone
    Explanation
    The distal convoluted tubule is only permeable to water if antidiuretic hormone is present. Antidiuretic hormone, also known as vasopressin, is released by the pituitary gland in response to low blood volume or high blood osmolarity. It acts on the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts of the nephron to increase their permeability to water. This allows more water to be reabsorbed from the filtrate back into the bloodstream, resulting in concentrated urine and conserving water in the body.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is not normally filtered or reabsorbed from the blood?

    • A.

      Glucose

    • B.

      Water

    • C.

      Amino acids

    • D.

      Blood cells

    • E.

      Urea

    Correct Answer
    D. Blood cells
    Explanation
    Blood cells are not normally filtered from the blood. Glucose, water, amino acids, and urea are all substances that are filtered from the blood by the kidneys. However, blood cells are too large to pass through the filtration membrane in the kidneys and are therefore not filtered out.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is reabsorbed back into the blood via passive transport? 

    • A.

      Amino acids

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      Salts

    • D.

      Calcium

    • E.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    E. Water
    Explanation
    Water is reabsorbed back into the blood via passive transport. Passive transport does not require energy and occurs down a concentration gradient. In the kidneys, water is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the renal tubules back into the bloodstream. This helps regulate the body's water balance and maintain proper hydration levels.

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  • 11. 

    Urine leaves the urinary bladder through the ____________________.

    Correct Answer
    urethra
    Explanation
    The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. It serves as a passage for urine to exit the body during the process of urination.

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  • 12. 

    Urine is moved down the ureters by ____________________.

    Correct Answer
    peristalsis
    Explanation
    Peristalsis is the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscles that helps propel urine down the ureters. This wave-like motion creates a squeezing effect, pushing the urine forward and preventing it from flowing backward. The coordinated action of peristalsis ensures that urine is efficiently transported from the kidneys to the bladder for elimination.

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  • 13. 

    The reason why alcohol and caffeine are known to cause dehydration.  This is because these two drugs decrease the effectiveness of _____________________. 

    Correct Answer
    antidiuretic hormone
    Explanation
    Alcohol and caffeine may contribute to dehydration because they decrease the effectiveness of antidiuretic hormone. Antidiuretic hormone helps regulate the body's water balance by reducing the amount of urine produced by the kidneys. When the effectiveness of this hormone is decreased, more water is excreted through urine, leading to dehydration.

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  • 14. 

    What type of connective tissues surrounds and protects the kidneys?

    Correct Answer
    adipose, adipose capsule, adipose tissue
    Explanation
    Adipose tissue is the connective tissue that surrounds and protects the kidneys. Adipose tissue is a type of loose connective tissue that contains fat cells. It acts as a cushioning layer around the kidneys, providing protection against external forces and helping to maintain their position within the body. Additionally, adipose tissue also helps to insulate the kidneys and regulate their temperature.

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  • 15. 

    How are the cells of the small intestine and proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)  similar?

    • A.

      They are both composed of complex epithelium.

    • B.

      They are both composed of simple cuboidal epithelium.

    • C.

      The cells of the small intestine and PCT contain microvilli.

    • D.

      The cells of the small intestine and PCT contain secrete digestive enzymes.

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    C. The cells of the small intestine and PCT contain microvilli.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the cells of the small intestine and PCT contain microvilli. Microvilli are finger-like projections on the surface of cells that increase the surface area for absorption and secretion. Both the small intestine and PCT are involved in absorption and reabsorption processes, so it makes sense that they would both have microvilli to enhance their functions.

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Stephanie Baumhover |PharmD |
Medicine
Stephanie is a seasoned Medical Education Director, boasting a comprehensive background in Critical Care, Oncology, Pediatrics, and Managed Care. She holds a PharmD from Creighton University and completed her PGY1 Residency in Critical Care and Transplant at the University of Virginia. Currently, she excels in her role at Medscape. With her extensive medical education background, she plays a pivotal role in ensuring the accuracy and relevance of our medical quizzes. Her dedication to maintaining high standards contributes significantly to the platform's success.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 12, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team

    Expert Reviewed by
    Stephanie Baumhover
  • Oct 12, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Dbiro
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