A&p Of The Urinary System

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A&p Of The Urinary System

Anatomy and Physiology of the urinary system. All the questions with *** pertain to our class. Some others may loosely, but not as much.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
    What is a kidney composed of? (More than 1 answer) ***
    • A. 

      Outer cortex

    • B. 

      Ureter

    • C. 

      Central medulla

    • D. 

      Internal calices

    • E. 

      Pelvis

  • 3. 
    Convex portion (renal hilum) of the kidney is __________ the _____________, artery, and veins exit the _______________.
    • A. 

      Proximal to; rib; ureter

    • B. 

      The point at which; renal pelvis; perenchyma

    • C. 

      The point at which;urine; ureter

    • D. 

      The point at which; renal pelvis; outer cortex

  • 4. 
    The kidney lies in the retroperitoneal space. ***
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 5. 
    The kidney is situated approximately at a 90-angle from the spine adjacent to what levels of the spinal column?
    • A. 

      L1 or L2 to C4

    • B. 

      T8 to L1 or L2

    • C. 

      T12 to L2 or L3

    • D. 

      T12 to C1 or C2

  • 6. 
    What surrounds the medulla forming columns and lobules that surround and fill the space between the pyramids? ***
    • A. 

      Renal pelvis

    • B. 

      Parenchyma

    • C. 

      Cortex

    • D. 

      Calices

  • 7. 
    What are projected portions between the papillae and fornices called?
    • A. 

      Columns of Berlin

    • B. 

      Columns of Burton

    • C. 

      Columns of Bromen

    • D. 

      Columns of Bertin

  • 8. 
    What does the cortex surround? ***
    • A. 

      The renal pelvis

    • B. 

      The bladder

    • C. 

      The medulla of the kidney

    • D. 

      The medulla of the bladder

  • 9. 
    What are pale conical shape structures called? ***
    • A. 

      Pyramids

    • B. 

      Cylinders

    • C. 

      Columns

    • D. 

      Bob

  • 10. 
    How many minor calyces are there in each kidney? ***
    • A. 

      4-13

    • B. 

      2-3

    • C. 

      8-18

    • D. 

      10-12

  • 11. 
    What drains into the minor calices at the tip of the papillae?
    • A. 

      Nephron

    • B. 

      Renal Pelvis

    • C. 

      Medulla

    • D. 

      Ureter

  • 12. 
    (calices) Tips are indented by the projecting pyramids.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    Minor calices unite to form ______ major calices that join and form the renal pelvis. ***
    • A. 

      4-13

    • B. 

      2-3

    • C. 

      8-18

    • D. 

      10-12

  • 14. 
    A funnel-shape structure that originates at the major calices and tapers into the ureter. ***
    • A. 

      Nephron

    • B. 

      Renal Pelvis

    • C. 

      Cortexes

    • D. 

      Medulla

  • 15. 
    Renal Pelvis drains urine from the _________ to the _________. ***
    • A. 

      Kidney; ureter

    • B. 

      Kidney; urethra

    • C. 

      Bladder; ureter

    • D. 

      Bladder; urethra

  • 16. 
    What is the functional unit of the kidney? ***
    • A. 

      Medulla

    • B. 

      Calices

    • C. 

      Nephron

    • D. 

      Ureter

  • 17. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    Approximately how many nephrons does each kidney have? ***
    • A. 

      1 thousand

    • B. 

      1 million

    • C. 

      10 million

    • D. 

      1.1 billion

  • 19. 
    Excretory functions are contained largely within the cortex.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    Excretory functions consist of the ________________.
    • A. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • B. 

      Glomerular filtration

    • C. 

      Ureteropelvic Junction

    • D. 

      Renal corpuscle

  • 21. 
    What is the first step in the filtration of blood for urine formation? ***
    • A. 

      Bladder

    • B. 

      Renal corpuscle

    • C. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • D. 

      Glomerulus

  • 22. 
    Where does the Glomerulus lay?
    • A. 

      Bladder

    • B. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • C. 

      Bowman's capsule

    • D. 

      Nephron

  • 23. 
    What are three basic processes of urine production?
    • A. 

      Glomerular filtration; Tubular reabsorption; tubular secretion

    • B. 

      Proximal convolution, Glomular filtration, tubular secretion

    • C. 

      Tubular reabsorption, Proximal convolution; tubular secretion

    • D. 

      Proximal convolution; Secretary filtration, tubular secretion

  • 24. 
    • A. 

      Sodium,

    • B. 

      Bicarbonate

    • C. 

      Potassium

    • D. 

      Glucose

    • E. 

      Water

  • 25. 
    What encases the glomerulus? ***
    • A. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • B. 

      Bowman's capsule

    • C. 

      Distal convoluted tubule

    • D. 

      Loop of Henle

  • 26. 
    The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs approximately how much of the water and solutes?
    • A. 

      100%

    • B. 

      99%

    • C. 

      87%

    • D. 

      64%

  • 27. 
    In a healthy individual, the proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs approximately how much of the glucose? ***
    • A. 

      100%

    • B. 

      99%

    • C. 

      87%

    • D. 

      64%

  • 28. 
    The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs approximately how much of the amino acids?
    • A. 

      0%

    • B. 

      99%

    • C. 

      87%

    • D. 

      64%

  • 29. 
    What does the proximal convoluted tubule resist reabsorbing?***
    • A. 

      Glucose

    • B. 

      Amino acids

    • C. 

      Nitrogeneous waste

  • 30. 
    What is the mechanism for further reabsorption of water that effects the concentration of the urine? ***
    • A. 

      Distal convoluted tubule

    • B. 

      Minor calyx

    • C. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • D. 

      Loop of Henle

  • 31. 
    In the decending limb of the Loop of Henle, _______ is/are actively secreted as ______ is/are passively reabsorbed. ***
    • A. 

      Saccarin ions, water

    • B. 

      Sodium ions, water

    • C. 

      Phosphoric waste, water

    • D. 

      Phenalphaline ions, water

  • 32. 
    The descending limb of the loop disallows the reabsorption of water. ***
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 33. 
    If sodium concentration is too ________, the bottom of the loop of Henle will selectively reabsorb water causing urine concentration.
    • A. 

      High

    • B. 

      Low

  • 34. 
    What hormone influences the permeability of the tubular cells to water? ***
    • A. 

      Antidiurectic

    • B. 

      Excretory

    • C. 

      Testosterone

    • D. 

      Adrenal

  • 35. 
    Distal convoluted tubule:As fluid flows along the ____________ and through the collecting duct, the tubule and duct cells secrete other materials such as waste, drugs, and ________ into the fluid.
    • A. 

      Fallopian tubules; sodium

    • B. 

      Renal tubule; sodium

    • C. 

      Fallopian tubules; excess ions

    • D. 

      Renal tubule; excess ions

  • 36. 
    What consists of the collecting tubule which empties its contents through the tip of a pyramid into the minor calyx?
    • A. 

      Distal convoluted tubule

    • B. 

      Excretory function

    • C. 

      Secretory function

    • D. 

      Arterial supply

  • 37. 
    What is arterial supply?
    • A. 

      Paired with the arteries, but any of them will drain the entire kidney if the others are tied off.

    • B. 

      One renal artery, a branch of the aorta, enters the hilum of the kidney between the pelvis, and the renal vein.

    • C. 

      Maintain the internal homeostatic environment of the body by the regulation of the hydrogen ion.

    • D. 

      Regulates electrolyte concentrations, controls blood volume, and regulates blood pressure.

  • 38. 
    Arterial supply divides into anterior and posterior branches.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 39. 
    What is venous supply?
    • A. 

      Paired with the arteries, but any of them will drain the entire kidney if the others are tied off.

    • B. 

      One renal artery, a branch of the aorta, enters the hilum of the kidney between the pelvis, and the renal vein.

    • C. 

      Maintain the internal homeostatic environment of the body by the regulation of the hydrogen ion.

    • D. 

      Regulates electrolyte concentrations, controls blood volume, and regulates blood pressure.

  • 40. 
    The kidney maintains the internal homeostatic environment of the body by regulation of the ______.
    • A. 

      Amino acids

    • B. 

      Hydrogen ion

    • C. 

      Sodium concentration

    • D. 

      Sodium ion

  • 41. 
    What excretes unneeded end products of metabolic function, including creatinine, urea, uric acid, nitrates, and phenol? (best answer) ***
    • A. 

      Kidney

    • B. 

      Renal pelvis

    • C. 

      Gall bladder

    • D. 

      Ureters

  • 42. 
    The kidney provides long term regulation of acid-based balance by selective _________ or __________ of hydrogen ions.
    • A. 

      Use, disuse

    • B. 

      Excretion, secretion

    • C. 

      Excretion, reabsorption

    • D. 

      Use, excretion

  • 43. 
    The kidney regulates __________, controls ____________, and regulates__________.
    • A. 

      Blood volume, electrolyte concentrations, blood pressure

    • B. 

      Electrolyte concentrations, blood volume, blood pressure

  • 44. 
    A funnel-shape structure that originates at the major calices and tapers into the ureter ***
    • A. 

      Renal pelvis

    • B. 

      Ureters

    • C. 

      Bladder

    • D. 

      Urethra

  • 45. 
    Narrow muscular tubes that originate at the lower portion of the renal pelvis, and terminate in the bladder wall
    • A. 

      Renal pelvis

    • B. 

      Urethra

    • C. 

      Bladder

    • D. 

      Ureters

  • 46. 
    Transport urine from kidney to the bladder before expulsion from the body by peristalsis. ***
    • A. 

      Renal pelvis

    • B. 

      Urethra

    • C. 

      Ureters

    • D. 

      Bladder

  • 47. 
    Reservoir for urine ***
    • A. 

      Renal pelvis

    • B. 

      Urethra

    • C. 

      Ureters

    • D. 

      Bladder

  • 48. 
    Hollow, muscular organ that lies in the true pelvis. ***
    • A. 

      Renal pelvis

    • B. 

      Kidney

    • C. 

      Ureters

    • D. 

      Bladder

  • 49. 
    What drains urine from the kidney into the ureter?
    • A. 

      Renal pelvis

    • B. 

      Bladder

    • C. 

      Ureter

    • D. 

      Urethra

  • 50. 
    The ureters are ______ to _________ long and follow a smooth S curve.
    • A. 

      24-30 inches

    • B. 

      10-20 inches

    • C. 

      24-30 cm

    • D. 

      10-20 cm

  • 51. 
    Which ureter is slightly longer than the other?
    • A. 

      Left

    • B. 

      Right

  • 52. 
    Choose the three areas of narrowing in the ureters
    • A. 

      Ureteroplevic junction

    • B. 

      Ureteroisotopic junction

    • C. 

      Ureteroiliac junction

    • D. 

      Ureteroventrical junction

    • E. 

      Ureterovesical junction

  • 53. 
    What is the size and shape of the bladder dependant on?
    • A. 

      Gender, fullness

    • B. 

      Gender, age

    • C. 

      Fullness, age

    • D. 

      Fullness, race

  • 54. 
    Forms a portion of the urethra
    • A. 

      Apex

    • B. 

      Base

    • C. 

      Superior right and left inferolateral surfaces

    • D. 

      Bladder neck

  • 55. 
    Triangular in shape, and defined by the borders of the trigone
    • A. 

      Apex

    • B. 

      Base

    • C. 

      Superior right and left inferolateral surfaces

    • D. 

      Bladder neck

  • 56. 
    Oriented toward the abdominal wall
    • A. 

      Apex

    • B. 

      Base

    • C. 

      Superior right and left inferolateral surfaces

    • D. 

      Bladder neck

  • 57. 
    What is the capacity of the adult bladder?
    • A. 

      300-400 ml

    • B. 

      400-500 ml

    • C. 

      500-600 ml

    • D. 

      600-700 ml

  • 58. 
    A conduit for urine or semen, and its posterior segment serves as a sphincter mechanism in preventing urinary leakage during bladder filing and storage
    • A. 

      Bladder

    • B. 

      Kidney

    • C. 

      Ureter

    • D. 

      Urethra

  • 59. 
    The urethra is a hollow tube that originates at the bladder neck and terminates at ___________
    • A. 

      The penis

    • B. 

      The kidney

    • C. 

      The external meatus

    • D. 

      The scrotal sac

  • 60. 
    How long is the male urethra? ***
    • A. 

      30 cm

    • B. 

      10 cm

    • C. 

      18-20 cm

    • D. 

      20-30 cm

  • 61. 
    During ejaculation, the smooth muscle of the __________ contracts to prevent retrograde ejaculation of semen into the bladder.
    • A. 

      Urethra

    • B. 

      Bladder neck

    • C. 

      Renal pelvis

    • D. 

      Prostate

  • 62. 
    The male urethra originates at the __________, transverse through the ____________, and end at the __________.
    • A. 

      Glans penis; prostate; bladder neck

    • B. 

      Bladder neck; glans penis; prostate

    • C. 

      Bladder neck; prostate; glans penis

    • D. 

      Prostate; bladder neck; glans penis

  • 63. 
    The external meatus forms a vertical slit approximately ______ long.
    • A. 

      6 mm

    • B. 

      2-5 cm

    • C. 

      3 cm

    • D. 

      8 mm

  • 64. 
    Originates at the bladder neck and is composed of a prostatic and membranous portion
    • A. 

      Posterior urethra

    • B. 

      Anterior urethra

  • 65. 
    Segment most distal from the bladder.
    • A. 

      Posterior urethra

    • B. 

      Anterior urethra

  • 66. 
    Prostatic urethra is in what part?
    • A. 

      Posterior urethra

    • B. 

      Anterior urethra

  • 67. 
    Membranous urethra is in what part?
    • A. 

      Posterior urethra

    • B. 

      Anterior urethra

  • 68. 
    Approximately how long is the prostatic urethra?
    • A. 

      23 cm long

    • B. 

      8 mm long

    • C. 

      3 cm long

    • D. 

      2-5 cm long

  • 69. 
    Approximately how long is the membranous urethra?
    • A. 

      23 cm long

    • B. 

      8 mm long

    • C. 

      3 cm long

    • D. 

      2-5 cm long

  • 70. 
    The anterior urethra tunnels through the corpus spongiosum of the penis, and ends at the glans penis
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 71. 
    How long is the anterior urethra?
    • A. 

      23 cm

    • B. 

      3.5 to 5.5 cm

    • C. 

      8 mm

    • D. 

      15 cm

  • 72. 
    How long is the female urethra? ***
    • A. 

      2-3 cm

    • B. 

      3-4 cm

    • C. 

      3-4 mm

    • D. 

      1-5 cm

  • 73. 
    Where does the female urethra lie? ***
    • A. 

      Beneath the external urethral sphincter

    • B. 

      Beneath the urethral sphincter

    • C. 

      Beneath the pubic symphysis (bound to anterior vaginal wall)

    • D. 

      Above the urogenital diaphragm