Anatomy And Physiology II: Urinary System

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| By Alanamaysingh
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Alanamaysingh
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Quizzes Created: 4 | Total Attempts: 18,242
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Anatomy And Physiology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The main function of the Kidney include all except

    • A.

      Regulate oxygen supply to tissues

    • B.

      Filtering blood

    • C.

      Regulating water, electrolytes and acids/bases

    • D.

      Dispose of nitrogenous wastes

    Correct Answer
    A. Regulate oxygen supply to tissues
    Explanation
    The main function of the Kidney is to filter blood, regulate water, electrolytes, and acids/bases, and dispose of nitrogenous wastes. However, regulating oxygen supply to tissues is not a function of the Kidney. Oxygen supply to tissues is primarily regulated by the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, not the Kidney.

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  • 2. 

    The hormones associated with red blood cell production is

    • A.

      RAA

    • B.

      ADH

    • C.

      Erythropoietin

    • D.

      Aldosterona

    Correct Answer
    C. Erythropoietin
    Explanation
    Erythropoietin is a hormone that is responsible for stimulating the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. When the body detects low levels of oxygen in the blood, it releases erythropoietin to signal the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells. This hormone helps to maintain the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood and ensure that the body's tissues receive an adequate supply of oxygen. RAA, ADH, and aldosterona are not directly involved in red blood cell production.

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  • 3. 

    The Hilus is 

    • A.

      The apex of a renal pyramid

    • B.

      The adipose tissue of the kidney

    • C.

      The renal column

    • D.

      A cleft where vesseles, ureters, and nerves enter and leave

    Correct Answer
    D. A cleft where vesseles, ureters, and nerves enter and leave
    Explanation
    The Hilus is a cleft where vessels, ureters, and nerves enter and leave the kidney. It is a concave region on the medial surface of the kidney where the renal artery, renal vein, and ureter enter or exit. This is an important anatomical structure that allows for the transportation of blood, urine, and nerve signals to and from the kidney. The other options mentioned in the question, such as the apex of a renal pyramid, the adipose tissue of the kidney, and the renal column, do not accurately describe the Hilus.

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  • 4. 

    The space between renal pyramids is

    • A.

      Renal pelvis

    • B.

      Renal column

    • C.

      Renal papilla

    • D.

      Renal medulla

    Correct Answer
    B. Renal column
    Explanation
    The space between renal pyramids is known as the renal column. The renal column consists of connective tissue and blood vessels that separate and support the renal pyramids within the kidney. It helps maintain the structural integrity of the kidney and provides a pathway for blood vessels and urine drainage.

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  • 5. 

    Urine enters the nephron at the

    • A.

      Renal crest

    • B.

      Renal hilus

    • C.

      Renal pyramid

    • D.

      Renal papilla

    Correct Answer
    D. Renal papilla
    Explanation
    The renal papilla is the correct answer because it is the structure where urine enters the nephron. The renal papilla is located at the tip of each renal pyramid, which is part of the kidney. Urine is formed in the nephrons, which are the functional units of the kidney, and then it flows into the renal papilla. From there, the urine is transported to the renal pelvis and then to the ureter, eventually leaving the body through the urinary system.

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  • 6. 

    If a drop of blood is entering the kidney, in what order would the blood be filtered through the following parts of the kidney: 1) Peritubular Capillaries 2) Glomerulus 3)Afferent arteriole 4) Efferent arteriole

    • A.

      1234

    • B.

      3241

    • C.

      4321

    • D.

      2341

    Correct Answer
    B. 3241
    Explanation
    The correct order in which the blood is filtered through the parts of the kidney is as follows:
    1) Blood enters the kidney through the afferent arteriole (3).
    2) The blood then reaches the glomerulus (2), where filtration occurs.
    3) The filtered blood exits the glomerulus through the efferent arteriole (4).
    4) Finally, the blood flows through the peritubular capillaries (1), where reabsorption and secretion take place.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following structures makes up the renal corpuscle?

    • A.

      Glomerulus and bowman's capsule

    • B.

      Bowman's capsule and proximal convoluted tubule

    • C.

      Proximal and distal convoluted tubule

    • D.

      Loop of henle

    Correct Answer
    A. Glomerulus and bowman's capsule
    Explanation
    The renal corpuscle is composed of two structures: the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule. The glomerulus is a network of tiny blood vessels where filtration of the blood occurs, while Bowman's capsule is a cup-shaped structure that surrounds the glomerulus and collects the filtrate. Together, these structures play a crucial role in the initial stage of urine formation in the kidneys.

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  • 8. 

    The main function of the loop of henle is

    • A.

      Adjusts pH

    • B.

      Active transport of glucose and salts back into plasma

    • C.

      Water reabsorption

    • D.

      Active transport of protein back into plasma

    Correct Answer
    C. Water reabsorption
    Explanation
    The main function of the loop of Henle is water reabsorption. This structure, located in the kidney, plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's water balance. The loop of Henle creates a concentration gradient in the kidney, allowing for the reabsorption of water from the filtrate back into the bloodstream. This process helps to conserve water and maintain the body's fluid balance.

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  • 9. 

    How does the collecting duct concentrate urine?

    • A.

      Adding water

    • B.

      Adjusting pH

    • C.

      Slowing down filtrate flow rate

    • D.

      Removing water

    Correct Answer
    D. Removing water
    Explanation
    The collecting duct concentrates urine by removing water. As the filtrate flows through the collecting duct, water is reabsorbed back into the bloodstream, leaving behind a concentrated urine solution. This process is regulated by hormones such as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which increases water reabsorption in the collecting duct, resulting in a more concentrated urine. By removing water, the collecting duct helps in maintaining the body's water balance and regulating urine concentration.

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  • 10. 

    At which end of the glomerulus does the proximal convoluted tubule join the bowman's capsule?

    • A.

      Vascular pole

    • B.

      Afferent duct

    • C.

      Urinary pole

    • D.

      Efferent duct

    Correct Answer
    C. Urinary pole
    Explanation
    The proximal convoluted tubule joins the Bowman's capsule at the urinary pole. The urinary pole is the end of the glomerulus where the filtrate from the glomerular capillaries enters the tubular system. This is where the initial filtration of blood occurs and the formation of urine begins. The afferent and efferent ducts are responsible for the flow of blood into and out of the glomerulus, respectively. Therefore, the correct answer is the urinary pole.

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  • 11. 

    Fenestrations in capillaries are large enough to allow proteins to pass through

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because fenestrations in capillaries are actually small enough to prevent proteins from passing through. Fenestrations are tiny pores or openings in the capillary walls, and their purpose is to allow small molecules and ions to pass through while retaining larger molecules like proteins. This selective permeability helps regulate the movement of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues.

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  • 12. 

    All of the following structures are found in the renal cortex except

    • A.

      Glomerulus

    • B.

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • C.

      Loop of henle

    • D.

      Distal convoluted tubule

    Correct Answer
    C. Loop of henle
    Explanation
    The renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney, and it contains various structures involved in the filtration and reabsorption of substances. The glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, and distal convoluted tubule are all found in the renal cortex. However, the loop of Henle is not located in the renal cortex. It is actually found in the renal medulla, which is the inner region of the kidney. The loop of Henle plays a crucial role in the concentration of urine by creating a concentration gradient in the medulla.

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  • 13. 

    Macula densa cells have chemoreceptors which secrete which hormone if solute concentration falls?

    • A.

      Angiotensen I

    • B.

      Renin

    • C.

      ADH

    • D.

      Aldosterone

    Correct Answer
    B. Renin
    Explanation
    Macula densa cells are located in the kidney and are sensitive to changes in solute concentration. When solute concentration falls, these cells secrete renin. Renin is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which helps regulate blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. Renin acts on angiotensinogen to convert it into angiotensin I, which is further converted into angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. This leads to increased blood pressure and the release of aldosterone, which promotes sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys.

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  • 14. 

    What is the name of the capillary bed that runs parallel to the loop of henle to reabsorb water

    • A.

      Juxtaglomerular apparatus

    • B.

      Macula densa

    • C.

      Vasa recta

    • D.

      Jg cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Vasa recta
    Explanation
    The vasa recta is the capillary bed that runs parallel to the loop of Henle in the kidney. It plays a crucial role in reabsorbing water and solutes from the renal medulla, helping to maintain the concentration gradient necessary for urine concentration. The vasa recta allows for the exchange of water and solutes between the blood and the surrounding interstitial fluid, ensuring that water is reabsorbed back into the bloodstream while maintaining the osmotic gradient in the medulla.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following animals have a right heart shaped kidney and a left triangle shaped kidney?

    • A.

      Equine

    • B.

      Bovine

    • C.

      Canine

    • D.

      Porcine

    Correct Answer
    A. Equine
    Explanation
    Equine refers to horses, and they are the only animals among the options that have a right heart shaped kidney and a left triangle shaped kidney. This unique kidney shape is specific to horses and distinguishes them from the other animals listed.

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  • 16. 

    In a unipyramidal kidney, the renal papilla is called?

    • A.

      Renal pelvis

    • B.

      Renal column

    • C.

      Renal

    • D.

      Renal crest

    Correct Answer
    D. Renal crest
  • 17. 

    Which of the following structures have cuboidal epithelium with long microvilli?

    • A.

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • B.

      Loop of henle

    • C.

      Distal convoluted tubule

    • D.

      Collecting duct

    Correct Answer
    A. Proximal convoluted tubule
    Explanation
    The proximal convoluted tubule is lined with cuboidal epithelium that contains long microvilli. These microvilli increase the surface area of the tubule, allowing for more efficient reabsorption of water and solutes from the filtrate back into the bloodstream. The loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting duct do not have the same type of epithelium with long microvilli.

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  • 18. 

    What is the name of the muscle that lines the walls of the bladder?

    • A.

      Cremaster

    • B.

      Detrouser

    • C.

      Dartos

    • D.

      Internal Abdominal Oblique

    Correct Answer
    B. Detrouser
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Detrouser because the detrusor muscle is the muscle that lines the walls of the bladder. It is responsible for contracting and relaxing to control the flow of urine. The other options listed, Cremaster, Dartos, and Internal Abdominal Oblique, are not muscles that specifically line the walls of the bladder.

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  • 19. 

    Perirenal fat has the following functions except ?

    • A.

      Cushioning of kidney

    • B.

      Stabilization of kidney

    • C.

      Inhibits movement of kidney

    • D.

      Energy source of kidney

    Correct Answer
    D. Energy source of kidney
    Explanation
    Perirenal fat serves several functions, including cushioning and stabilizing the kidney, as well as inhibiting its movement. However, it does not act as an energy source for the kidney. The kidney primarily relies on the blood supply and metabolic processes for energy production, rather than the perirenal fat.

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  • 20. 

    How does glycotoxicity cause renal failure?

    • A.

      Blocks fenestrations in glomerulus

    • B.

      Is absorbed by loop of henle

    • C.

      Excreted back into blood by collecting duct

    Correct Answer
    A. Blocks fenestrations in glomerulus
    Explanation
    Glycotoxicity causes renal failure by blocking fenestrations in the glomerulus. These fenestrations are small pores in the glomerular capillaries that allow for the filtration of waste products from the blood into the urine. When glycotoxicity occurs, it leads to the accumulation of glucose in the blood, which can damage the fenestrations and impair the filtration process. As a result, the kidneys are unable to effectively remove waste products from the blood, leading to renal failure.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following structures have simple cuboidal epithelium?

    • A.

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • B.

      Loop of henle

    • C.

      Distal convoluted tubule

    • D.

      Collecting duct

    Correct Answer
    C. Distal convoluted tubule
    Explanation
    The distal convoluted tubule is the structure that has simple cuboidal epithelium. This type of epithelium consists of a single layer of cube-shaped cells. It is found in areas where secretion and absorption take place, such as the distal convoluted tubule, where it plays a role in reabsorbing water and ions from the filtrate. The other structures mentioned, including the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and collecting duct, have different types of epithelium.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 05, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Alanamaysingh
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