Some jobs would be lost in the firm
No workers would need to be retrained
Production costs per job completed would be higher
Human error would lead to more waste products.
A firm buys new computers with access to the internet.
A supermarket equips all of its checkout staff with computerised tills to aid stock control.
Computers are used in a market research agency to analyse and present results.
A garage uses machines to spray cars rather than manual methods.
Resistance to change from the workforce
Products that become more difficult to sell to consumers
High output per worker
High staff retraining costs
Other similar firms have all purchased the latest equipment
The firm could not afford the latest equipment
It makes a specialist, hand-built product
It is involved in mass producing a standardised good in huge quantities.
Laws that prevent the dumping of waste at sea
Workers who refuse to accept new machines
New government controls on where a business can locate
Consumers continue to buy petrol from an oil company with a bad record on oil tanker disasters.
There is huge publicity about the problem in all national newspapers.
Only a small number of people join the pressure group.
The firm spends huge amounts of money on advertising how much it cares for the environment.
The government decides not to change the law on dumping waste.
It saves so much money by dumping waste and polluting the air
It is expensive to purchase more modern and ‘cleaner’ machines
Bad publicity makes many consumers stop buying the firm’s products
The government refuses to change the law to make these actions unlawful.
The government is very concerned about the environment
Businesses will always protect the environment even if they do not have to
Business activity never harms the environment
Business activity is so important to the economy of the country and firms could easily relocate.
The construction costs of the airport
The costs of running and maintaining the airport once it was built
The noise from approaching aircraft to the airport
The cost to the airlines of using the airport.
The cost to each motorist of using the motorway
The profits made by the motorway construction firm
Increased traffic and car use a result of the motorway
Less time wasted in traffic jams and fewer accidents.
The total social costs and benefits of the new system and which was greater
Whether the new system would make a profit or not
Whether the railway system would actually work
Just the social costs resulting from the building of the new system.
Agree to the new airport being built
Not allow the airport to be built
Allow an even bigger airport to be built than was first planned
Suggest that the airport is built closer to the city centre.
Factors of production
Economies of scale
Government economic objectives.