Urinary & Respiratory System (continued)

46 Questions
Urinary System Quizzes & Trivia

The respiratory system is a biological system that is used for gaseous exchange in animals and plants. The urinary system is used to expel waste, regulate blood volume, and plenty of other uses. What do you know about them?

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood ph?
    • A. 

      By secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate

    • B. 

      By reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions

    • C. 

      By producing new bicarbonate ions

    • D. 

      By secreting sodium ions

  • 2. 
    In the ascending limb of the loop of henle the
    • A. 

      Thin segment is freely permeable to water

    • B. 

      Thick segment is permeable to water

    • C. 

      Thin segment is not permeable to sodium and chloride

    • D. 

      Thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

  • 3. 
    Select the correct statement about urinary system development
    • A. 

      Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges

    • B. 

      The metanephric ducts will become the urethras

    • C. 

      The pronephros (first tubule system) develops during the tenth week of gestation

    • D. 

      The mesonephros will develop into the kidneys

  • 4. 
    Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?
    • A. 

      Disposing of substances not already in the filtrate, such as certain drugs

    • B. 

      Eliminating undesirable substances such as urea and uric acid that have been reabsorbed by passive processes

    • C. 

      Ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

    • D. 

      Ridding the body of excessive potassium ions

  • 5. 
    Which statement is correct?
    • A. 

      Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled

    • B. 

      Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein

    • C. 

      Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine

    • D. 

      The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood

  • 6. 
    What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    • A. 

      Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

    • B. 

      Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys

    • C. 

      Help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys

    • D. 

      Help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys

  • 7. 
    Which of the choices below is the salt level monitoring part of the nephron?
    • A. 

      Mascula densa

    • B. 

      Principal cell

    • C. 

      Vasa recta

    • D. 

      Loop of henle

  • 8. 
    Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?
    • A. 

      ADH

    • B. 

      Thyroxine

    • C. 

      Aldosterone

    • D. 

      Atrial natriuretic peptide

  • 9. 
    Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?
    • A. 

      Renal autoregulation

    • B. 

      Neural regulation

    • C. 

      Electrolyte levels

    • D. 

      Hormonal regulation

  • 10. 
    Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?
    • A. 

      Angiotensin II and ADH

    • B. 

      Angiotensin II and aldosterone

    • C. 

      Angiotensin I and epinephrine

    • D. 

      Angiotensin I and atrial natriuretic peptide

  • 11. 
    Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?
    • A. 

      Juxtaglomerular cells

    • B. 

      Mesangial cells

    • C. 

      Mascula densa cells

    • D. 

      Podocytes

  • 12. 
    The bodys water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
    • A. 

      Calcium ions

    • B. 

      Potassium ions

    • C. 

      Hydrogen ions

    • D. 

      Sodium ions

  • 13. 
    The term hypotonic hydration refers to
    • A. 

      The feeling one might have after a long swim

    • B. 

      The unpleasant feeling people have after drinking too much liquor

    • C. 

      A condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water

    • D. 

      A condition that is caused by high levels of sodium in the extracellular fluid compartment

  • 14. 
    Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins.  This problem is often characterized by
    • A. 

      Tissue edema

    • B. 

      Extreme weight loss

    • C. 

      Extreme weight gain

    • D. 

      Nerve damage

  • 15. 
    Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?
    • A. 

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • B. 

      Erythropoietin

    • C. 

      Aldosterone

    • D. 

      Renin

  • 16. 
    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart.  The influence of this hormone is to
    • A. 

      Enhance atrial contractions

    • B. 

      Activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism

    • C. 

      Prevent pH changes caused by organic acids

    • D. 

      Reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

  • 17. 
    Respiratory acidosis can occur when
    • A. 

      A person consumes excessive amounts of antacids

    • B. 

      A persons breathing is shallow due to obstruction

    • C. 

      A runner has completed a very long marathon

    • D. 

      The kidneys secrete hydrogen ions

  • 18. 
    Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?
    • A. 

      The lungs and the kidneys

    • B. 

      The adrenal glands and the testes

    • C. 

      The thyroid gland and the heart

    • D. 

      The stomach and the liver

  • 19. 
    Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?
    • A. 

      Neuromuscular activity

    • B. 

      Membrane permeability

    • C. 

      Secretory activity

    • D. 

      Anabolism of proteins

  • 20. 
    Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?
    • A. 

      ADH

    • B. 

      Aldosterone

    • C. 

      Water levels

    • D. 

      Glucocorticoids

  • 21. 
    The fluid link between the external and internal environment is
    • A. 

      Plasma

    • B. 

      Intracellular fluid

    • C. 

      Interstitial fluid

    • D. 

      Cerebrospinal fluid

  • 22. 
    Newborn infants have a relatively higher  ___________ content in their EFC tha do adults
    • A. 

      Iron

    • B. 

      Sodium

    • C. 

      Magnesium

    • D. 

      Bicarbonate

  • 23. 
    Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most  _____________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
    • A. 

      Iron

    • B. 

      Chloride

    • C. 

      Potassium

    • D. 

      Magnesium

  • 24. 
    Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and postassium between cells and body fluids?
    • A. 

      K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

    • B. 

      Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids

    • C. 

      Equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluids

    • D. 

      Little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids

  • 25. 
    Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their
    • A. 

      Inefficient kidneys

    • B. 

      Comparativley low metabolic rates

    • C. 

      Low rate of insensible water loss

    • D. 

      Low daily rate of fluid exchange

  • 26. 
    The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is
    • A. 

      The potassium ion content in the renal tubule cells

    • B. 

      The pH of the ICF

    • C. 

      Intracellular sodium levels

    • D. 

      Potassium ion concentration in blood plasma

  • 27. 
    The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system
    • A. 

      Phosphate

    • B. 

      Hemoglobin

    • C. 

      Bicarbonate

    • D. 

      Protein

  • 28. 
    A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates
    • A. 

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B. 

      Respiratory alkalosis

    • C. 

      Metabolic acidosis

    • D. 

      Metabolic alkalosis

  • 29. 
    The movement of fluids between cellular compartments
    • A. 

      Requires active transport

    • B. 

      Is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

    • C. 

      Requires ATP for the transport to take place

    • D. 

      Involves filtration

  • 30. 
    What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?
    • A. 

      ADH

    • B. 

      Aldosterone

    • C. 

      Atrial natriuretic peptide

    • D. 

      Thyroxine

  • 31. 
    Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?
    • A. 

      Chemical buffer system

    • B. 

      Diet

    • C. 

      Repiratory changes

    • D. 

      Renal mechanism

  • 32. 
    Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?
    • A. 

      Bicarbonate

    • B. 

      Phosphate

    • C. 

      Nucleic acid

    • D. 

      Protein

  • 33. 
    Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except
    • A. 

      Lymph and interstitial fluid

    • B. 

      Blood plasma

    • C. 

      Cerebrospinal fluid

    • D. 

      Glucose

  • 34. 
    Which of the following statements is true regarding the fluid shifts?
    • A. 

      Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts

    • B. 

      Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid shifts in the body

    • C. 

      Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts

    • D. 

      There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution; it is therefore impossibe to follow fluid shifts

  • 35. 
    Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?
    • A. 

      Aldosterone

    • B. 

      Thymosin

    • C. 

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • D. 

      Atrial natriuretic peptide

  • 36. 
    The maintenenace of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of
    • A. 

      The control of repiratory ventilation

    • B. 

      The operation of the various buffer systems in the stomach

    • C. 

      The active secretion of OH- into the filtrate by the kidney tubule cells

    • D. 

      Control of the acids produced in the stomach

  • 37. 
    Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?
    • A. 

      Excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion

    • B. 

      Hypotonic hydration, in which sodium content is normal but water content is high

    • C. 

      Edema or tissue swelling, which is usually due to an increased capillary hydrostic pressure

    • D. 

      Excess water in interstitial spaces due to a low level of plasma proteins

  • 38. 
    The regulation of sodium
    • A. 

      Is due to a specific sodium receptors in the hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Is linked to blood pressure

    • C. 

      Involves aldosterone, a hormone that increases sodium excretion in the kidneys

    • D. 

      Involves hypothalamic osmoreceptor detection of ion concentration

  • 39. 
    Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance
    • A. 

      The kidneys are not able to excrete phosphoric acid

    • B. 

      Excreted hydrogen ions are unbound in the filtrate

    • C. 

      Kidney tublue cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion

    • D. 

      The kidneys are the most important mechanisms for eliminating all bicarbonate ions

  • 40. 
    Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and hte patient is breathing rapidly.  Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?
    • A. 

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B. 

      Metabolic acidosis

    • C. 

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • D. 

      Respiratory alkalosis

  • 41. 
    A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is likely the diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B. 

      Metabolic acidosis

    • C. 

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • D. 

      Respiratory alkalosis

  • 42. 
    One of the major physilogical factors that triggers thirst is
    • A. 

      A dry mouth from high temperatures

    • B. 

      Becoming overly agitated

    • C. 

      Drinking caffeinated beverages

    • D. 

      A rise in plasma osmolality

  • 43. 
    Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese.  How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?
    • A. 

      It will increase the osmolality of the blood

    • B. 

      There will be a temporary increase in blood volume

    • C. 

      She will experience hypotension

    • D. 

      There will be a shift in the pH of her body fluids to the higher side of the pH scale

  • 44. 
    The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is
    • A. 

      Osmotic pressure of plasma proteins

    • B. 

      Hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

    • C. 

      Hydrostatic pressure of intersituial fluid

    • D. 

      Intracellular hydrostatic pressure

  • 45. 
    Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?
    • A. 

      Membrane polarity

    • B. 

      Neuromuscular excitability

    • C. 

      Maintenance of osmotic relations between cells and ECF

    • D. 

      Amount of body fat

  • 46. 
    The regulation of potassium balance
    • A. 

      Is not linked to sodium balance

    • B. 

      Includes renal secretion, but never absorption

    • C. 

      Is accomplished mainly by hepatic mechanisms

    • D. 

      Involves aldosterone-induced secretion of postassium