Urinary & Respiratory SySTEM (Continued)

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Urinary & Respiratory System (Continued) - Quiz

The respiratory system is a biological system that is used for gaseous exchange in animals and plants. The urinary system is used to expel waste, regulate blood volume, and plenty of other uses. What do you know about them?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood ph?

    • A.

      By secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate

    • B.

      By reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions

    • C.

      By producing new bicarbonate ions

    • D.

      By secreting sodium ions

    Correct Answer
    D. By secreting sodium ions
    Explanation
    The cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH by secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate, by reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions, and by producing new bicarbonate ions. However, the secretion of sodium ions does not directly contribute to raising blood pH. Therefore, the correct answer is by secreting sodium ions.

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  • 2. 

    In the ascending limb of the loop of henle the

    • A.

      Thin segment is freely permeable to water

    • B.

      Thick segment is permeable to water

    • C.

      Thin segment is not permeable to sodium and chloride

    • D.

      Thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

    Correct Answer
    D. Thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption
    Explanation
    In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, the thick segment is responsible for actively transporting ions, such as sodium and chloride, out of the tubule and into the interstitial spaces surrounding the nephron. This movement of ions creates a concentration gradient that allows for the reabsorption of water in the following segments of the nephron. Therefore, the correct answer is that the thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption.

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  • 3. 

    Select the correct statement about urinary system development

    • A.

      Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges

    • B.

      The metanephric ducts will become the urethras

    • C.

      The pronephros (first tubule system) develops during the tenth week of gestation

    • D.

      The mesonephros will develop into the kidneys

    Correct Answer
    A. Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges
    Explanation
    The correct statement about urinary system development is that kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?

    • A.

      Disposing of substances not already in the filtrate, such as certain drugs

    • B.

      Eliminating undesirable substances such as urea and uric acid that have been reabsorbed by passive processes

    • C.

      Ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

    • D.

      Ridding the body of excessive potassium ions

    Correct Answer
    C. Ridding the body of bicarbonate ions
    Explanation
    Tubular secretion plays a crucial role in disposing of substances that are not already present in the filtrate, such as certain drugs. It also helps in eliminating undesirable substances like urea and uric acid that have been reabsorbed by passive processes. Additionally, tubular secretion is responsible for ridding the body of excessive potassium ions. However, it does not have a direct role in ridding the body of bicarbonate ions. Bicarbonate ions are primarily regulated through the process of reabsorption, not secretion.

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  • 5. 

    Which statement is correct?

    • A.

      Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled

    • B.

      Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein

    • C.

      Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine

    • D.

      The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood

    Correct Answer
    A. Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled
    Explanation
    The statement "reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled" is correct. The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining water balance in the body. Hormones such as antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone regulate the reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules. ADH increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water, allowing more water to be reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. Aldosterone, on the other hand, promotes the reabsorption of sodium and water in the distal tubules and collecting ducts. These hormonal controls ensure that the body retains or eliminates water as needed to maintain proper hydration levels.

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  • 6. 

    What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

    • A.

      Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

    • B.

      Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys

    • C.

      Help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys

    • D.

      Help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys

    Correct Answer
    A. Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
    Explanation
    The juxtaglomerular apparatus is a specialized structure located in the kidneys. Its main function is to help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys. It does this by secreting the enzyme renin in response to changes in blood pressure or sodium levels. Renin then initiates a series of reactions that ultimately result in the constriction of blood vessels and the reabsorption of sodium and water, leading to an increase in blood pressure and a decrease in the rate of blood filtration.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the choices below is the salt level monitoring part of the nephron?

    • A.

      Mascula densa

    • B.

      Principal cell

    • C.

      Vasa recta

    • D.

      Loop of henle

    Correct Answer
    A. Mascula densa
    Explanation
    The macula densa is the salt level monitoring part of the nephron. It is a group of specialized cells located in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron. These cells sense the concentration of sodium chloride in the urine and play a crucial role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. The macula densa cells communicate with the juxtaglomerular cells in the afferent arteriole to regulate the release of renin, an enzyme involved in the control of blood pressure.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?

    • A.

      ADH

    • B.

      Thyroxine

    • C.

      Aldosterone

    • D.

      Atrial natriuretic peptide

    Correct Answer
    A. ADH
    Explanation
    ADH, also known as antidiuretic hormone, is responsible for facultative water reabsorption. This hormone is produced by the hypothalamus and released by the pituitary gland in response to low blood volume or high blood osmolarity. ADH acts on the kidneys to increase water reabsorption, thereby reducing urine output and conserving water in the body. It does so by increasing the permeability of the collecting ducts in the kidneys, allowing more water to be reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?

    • A.

      Renal autoregulation

    • B.

      Neural regulation

    • C.

      Electrolyte levels

    • D.

      Hormonal regulation

    Correct Answer
    C. Electrolyte levels
    Explanation
    Electrolyte levels are not a glomerular filtration rate control method. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) refers to the rate at which fluid is filtered through the glomerulus in the kidneys. Renal autoregulation, neural regulation, and hormonal regulation are all mechanisms that help control and regulate GFR. However, electrolyte levels do not directly influence GFR. Electrolytes play a role in maintaining fluid balance and regulating various bodily functions, but they do not directly control the filtration rate in the glomerulus.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?

    • A.

      Angiotensin II and ADH

    • B.

      Angiotensin II and aldosterone

    • C.

      Angiotensin I and epinephrine

    • D.

      Angiotensin I and atrial natriuretic peptide

    Correct Answer
    B. Angiotensin II and aldosterone
    Explanation
    Angiotensin II and aldosterone are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion. Angiotensin II acts on the adrenal cortex to stimulate the release of aldosterone, which promotes the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium in the kidneys. This helps to maintain the balance of electrolytes in the body and regulate blood pressure. Therefore, angiotensin II and aldosterone play a crucial role in the regulation of electrolyte levels in the body.

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  • 11. 

    Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?

    • A.

      Juxtaglomerular cells

    • B.

      Mesangial cells

    • C.

      Mascula densa cells

    • D.

      Podocytes

    Correct Answer
    C. Mascula densa cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mascula densa cells. These cells are located in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidney and are chemoreceptors that monitor the solute content of the filtrate. They respond to changes in the concentration of sodium chloride in the filtrate and regulate the release of renin, an enzyme involved in blood pressure regulation. Juxtaglomerular cells are located in the walls of the afferent arterioles and secrete renin. Mesangial cells provide structural support in the glomerulus. Podocytes are specialized cells in the glomerulus that help in filtration.

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  • 12. 

    The bodys water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?

    • A.

      Calcium ions

    • B.

      Potassium ions

    • C.

      Hydrogen ions

    • D.

      Sodium ions

    Correct Answer
    D. Sodium ions
    Explanation
    The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of sodium ions. Sodium ions play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of fluids inside and outside of cells. They help regulate the body's water content by controlling the movement of water across cell membranes. Sodium ions play a key role in maintaining proper hydration, blood pressure, and electrolyte balance in the body.

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  • 13. 

    The term hypotonic hydration refers to

    • A.

      The feeling one might have after a long swim

    • B.

      The unpleasant feeling people have after drinking too much liquor

    • C.

      A condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water

    • D.

      A condition that is caused by high levels of sodium in the extracellular fluid compartment

    Correct Answer
    C. A condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water
    Explanation
    Hypotonic hydration refers to a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water. Renal insufficiency can lead to an inability of the kidneys to properly regulate water and electrolyte balance, resulting in an excess of water in the body. Drinking excessive amounts of water can also overwhelm the kidneys' ability to excrete the excess fluid, leading to a dilution of electrolytes in the body. This condition can be dangerous as it can disrupt normal cell function and lead to symptoms such as nausea, headache, confusion, and even seizures.

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  • 14. 

    Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins.  This problem is often characterized by

    • A.

      Tissue edema

    • B.

      Extreme weight loss

    • C.

      Extreme weight gain

    • D.

      Nerve damage

    Correct Answer
    A. Tissue edema
    Explanation
    Hypoproteinemia is a condition where there is a decrease in the levels of plasma proteins in the body. This can lead to a condition called tissue edema, which is the accumulation of fluid in the tissues. When there is a lack of plasma proteins, the balance of fluid in the body is disrupted, causing fluid to leak out of the blood vessels and into the surrounding tissues, leading to swelling and edema. Therefore, tissue edema is a common characteristic of hypoproteinemia.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?

    • A.

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • B.

      Erythropoietin

    • C.

      Aldosterone

    • D.

      Renin

    Correct Answer
    C. Aldosterone
    Explanation
    Aldosterone is an important hormone in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid. It is produced by the adrenal glands and acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions. This helps to maintain the balance of sodium and potassium in the body, which is crucial for proper cell function and fluid balance.

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  • 16. 

    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart.  The influence of this hormone is to

    • A.

      Enhance atrial contractions

    • B.

      Activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism

    • C.

      Prevent pH changes caused by organic acids

    • D.

      Reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

    Correct Answer
    D. Reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention
    Explanation
    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is produced in the atria of the heart. Its main function is to reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting the retention of sodium and water. This means that it promotes the excretion of sodium and water by the kidneys, leading to a decrease in blood volume and subsequently, blood pressure. By inhibiting sodium and water retention, atrial natriuretic peptide helps to maintain fluid balance in the body and prevent an increase in blood pressure.

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  • 17. 

    Respiratory acidosis can occur when

    • A.

      A person consumes excessive amounts of antacids

    • B.

      A persons breathing is shallow due to obstruction

    • C.

      A runner has completed a very long marathon

    • D.

      The kidneys secrete hydrogen ions

    Correct Answer
    B. A persons breathing is shallow due to obstruction
    Explanation
    Respiratory acidosis can occur when a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction. Shallow breathing can lead to inadequate removal of carbon dioxide from the body, causing it to accumulate in the bloodstream. This excess carbon dioxide reacts with water in the body, forming carbonic acid and increasing the acidity of the blood. This condition is known as respiratory acidosis.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?

    • A.

      The lungs and the kidneys

    • B.

      The adrenal glands and the testes

    • C.

      The thyroid gland and the heart

    • D.

      The stomach and the liver

    Correct Answer
    A. The lungs and the kidneys
    Explanation
    The lungs and the kidneys function as the most important physiological buffer systems. The lungs help regulate the body's pH levels by controlling the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood through respiration. The kidneys, on the other hand, help maintain the body's acid-base balance by excreting or reabsorbing hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. Together, these two organs play a crucial role in maintaining the body's pH within a narrow range and preventing acidosis or alkalosis.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?

    • A.

      Neuromuscular activity

    • B.

      Membrane permeability

    • C.

      Secretory activity

    • D.

      Anabolism of proteins

    Correct Answer
    D. Anabolism of proteins
    Explanation
    Salts play essential roles in the body, including maintaining neuromuscular activity, regulating membrane permeability, and supporting secretory activity. However, anabolism of proteins is not directly related to the role of salts in the body. Salts primarily function in maintaining fluid balance, transmitting nerve impulses, and aiding in various metabolic processes. Protein anabolism, on the other hand, involves the synthesis of proteins from amino acids and is not directly influenced by salts.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?

    • A.

      ADH

    • B.

      Aldosterone

    • C.

      Water levels

    • D.

      Glucocorticoids

    Correct Answer
    B. Aldosterone
    Explanation
    Aldosterone exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body. It is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that regulates the reabsorption of sodium in the kidneys. When sodium levels are low, aldosterone is released, causing the kidneys to retain more sodium and excrete potassium. This helps to increase blood volume and maintain proper sodium balance in the body. ADH (antidiuretic hormone) also plays a role in regulating water balance, but aldosterone specifically controls sodium levels. Glucocorticoids are involved in various metabolic processes but do not have primary control over sodium levels.

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  • 21. 

    The fluid link between the external and internal environment is

    • A.

      Plasma

    • B.

      Intracellular fluid

    • C.

      Interstitial fluid

    • D.

      Cerebrospinal fluid

    Correct Answer
    A. Plasma
    Explanation
    Plasma is the correct answer because it is the fluid link between the external and internal environment. Plasma is the liquid component of blood and it circulates throughout the body, carrying nutrients, hormones, and waste products between cells and tissues. It is responsible for maintaining the balance of electrolytes, pH, and fluid volume in the body. Plasma also plays a crucial role in immune responses and clotting processes. Therefore, plasma acts as a bridge between the external environment and the cells within the body, allowing for the exchange of substances and maintaining homeostasis.

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  • 22. 

    Newborn infants have a relatively higher  ___________ content in their EFC tha do adults

    • A.

      Iron

    • B.

      Sodium

    • C.

      Magnesium

    • D.

      Bicarbonate

    Correct Answer
    B. Sodium
    Explanation
    Newborn infants have a relatively higher sodium content in their ECF than adults. This is because sodium plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance and regulating blood pressure. In newborns, their kidneys are not fully developed, and they have a higher water turnover rate compared to adults. Therefore, they require a higher sodium intake to compensate for the higher water loss. Additionally, sodium is also essential for proper nerve and muscle function, which is crucial for the growth and development of newborns.

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  • 23. 

    Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most  _____________ is found in the intracellular fluid.

    • A.

      Iron

    • B.

      Chloride

    • C.

      Potassium

    • D.

      Magnesium

    Correct Answer
    C. Potassium
    Explanation
    Potassium is found mainly in the intracellular fluid. This is because potassium plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of fluids inside cells. It helps regulate cell membrane potential, which is essential for various cellular functions, including nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction. Sodium, on the other hand, is predominantly found in the extracellular fluid and is involved in maintaining fluid balance outside the cells. Iron, chloride, and magnesium are not primarily found in the intracellular fluid.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and postassium between cells and body fluids?

    • A.

      K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

    • B.

      Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids

    • C.

      Equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluids

    • D.

      Little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids

    Correct Answer
    A. K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
    Explanation
    Potassium (K+) is mainly found inside the cells, while sodium (Na+) is primarily found in the body fluids. This distribution is important for maintaining the balance of electrolytes in the body and is necessary for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and maintaining fluid balance.

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  • 25. 

    Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their

    • A.

      Inefficient kidneys

    • B.

      Comparativley low metabolic rates

    • C.

      Low rate of insensible water loss

    • D.

      Low daily rate of fluid exchange

    Correct Answer
    A. Inefficient kidneys
    Explanation
    Infants have inefficient kidneys, which means that their kidneys are not fully developed and are not able to effectively regulate fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in the body. This can lead to imbalances in these systems, making problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance particularly common in infants.

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  • 26. 

    The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is

    • A.

      The potassium ion content in the renal tubule cells

    • B.

      The pH of the ICF

    • C.

      Intracellular sodium levels

    • D.

      Potassium ion concentration in blood plasma

    Correct Answer
    D. Potassium ion concentration in blood plasma
    Explanation
    The correct answer is potassium ion concentration in blood plasma. This is because the concentration of potassium ions in the blood plasma determines the gradient for potassium ion secretion. If the concentration is high, there will be a greater driving force for potassium ions to be secreted into the renal tubules. Conversely, if the concentration is low, there will be less secretion of potassium ions. Therefore, the potassium ion concentration in blood plasma is the most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion.

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  • 27. 

    The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system

    • A.

      Phosphate

    • B.

      Hemoglobin

    • C.

      Bicarbonate

    • D.

      Protein

    Correct Answer
    C. Bicarbonate
    Explanation
    The term "alkaline reserve" refers to the buffer system in the body that helps maintain a stable pH level. The bicarbonate buffer system is the main buffer system in the body, responsible for regulating the pH of the blood and other bodily fluids. It consists of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (H2CO3), which can react with each other to either release or absorb hydrogen ions (H+), thereby maintaining the pH balance. Therefore, the correct answer is bicarbonate.

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  • 28. 

    A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates

    • A.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    • C.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • D.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Respiratory acidosis
    Explanation
    A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide indicate respiratory acidosis. In pneumonia or emphysema, the lungs are unable to effectively remove carbon dioxide from the body, leading to an accumulation of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. This causes an increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, leading to a decrease in blood pH. Therefore, the correct answer is respiratory acidosis.

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  • 29. 

    The movement of fluids between cellular compartments

    • A.

      Requires active transport

    • B.

      Is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

    • C.

      Requires ATP for the transport to take place

    • D.

      Involves filtration

    Correct Answer
    B. Is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces
    Explanation
    The movement of fluids between cellular compartments is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces. Osmotic forces refer to the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane in response to differences in solute concentration, while hydrostatic forces involve the pressure exerted by fluids. These forces play a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance and ensuring that nutrients and waste products are properly distributed throughout the body. Active transport, ATP requirement, and filtration are not directly related to the regulation of fluid movement between cellular compartments.

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  • 30. 

    What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?

    • A.

      ADH

    • B.

      Aldosterone

    • C.

      Atrial natriuretic peptide

    • D.

      Thyroxine

    Correct Answer
    C. Atrial natriuretic peptide
    Explanation
    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting events that promote vasoconstriction, sodium ion retention, and water retention. It is released by the atria of the heart in response to increased blood volume and pressure. By inhibiting vasoconstriction and promoting the excretion of sodium and water, atrial natriuretic peptide helps to decrease blood pressure and blood volume, thus maintaining homeostasis in the body.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?

    • A.

      Chemical buffer system

    • B.

      Diet

    • C.

      Repiratory changes

    • D.

      Renal mechanism

    Correct Answer
    B. Diet
    Explanation
    Diet is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood. The other options listed, such as the chemical buffer system, respiratory changes, and renal mechanism, are all mechanisms that help regulate the hydrogen ion concentration in the blood. Diet, on the other hand, can affect the body's overall pH balance, but it is not a direct method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in the blood.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?

    • A.

      Bicarbonate

    • B.

      Phosphate

    • C.

      Nucleic acid

    • D.

      Protein

    Correct Answer
    C. Nucleic acid
    Explanation
    Nucleic acid is not a chemical buffer system. Chemical buffer systems are composed of weak acids and their conjugate bases, which can resist changes in pH by accepting or donating protons. Bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein are examples of chemical buffer systems commonly found in biological systems. Nucleic acids, on the other hand, are macromolecules involved in storing and transmitting genetic information, and they do not have the ability to act as buffers.

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  • 33. 

    Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except

    • A.

      Lymph and interstitial fluid

    • B.

      Blood plasma

    • C.

      Cerebrospinal fluid

    • D.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    D. Glucose
    Explanation
    Extracellular fluid refers to the fluid outside the cells in the human body. It includes various components such as lymph, interstitial fluid, and blood plasma. Cerebrospinal fluid is also a part of the extracellular fluid, as it surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. However, glucose is not a component of extracellular fluid. Glucose is a type of sugar that serves as a source of energy for cells and is primarily found within the intracellular fluid (inside the cells) rather than in the extracellular fluid.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following statements is true regarding the fluid shifts?

    • A.

      Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts

    • B.

      Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid shifts in the body

    • C.

      Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts

    • D.

      There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution; it is therefore impossibe to follow fluid shifts

    Correct Answer
    C. Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts
    Explanation
    Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes, meaning they have the ability to attract and retain water molecules. This osmotic power allows electrolytes to regulate fluid shifts in the body by influencing the movement of water across cell membranes. Nonelectrolytes, on the other hand, do not have the same osmotic power and therefore do not play a significant role in directing fluid shifts. This statement highlights the importance of electrolytes in controlling the movement of fluids within the body.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?

    • A.

      Aldosterone

    • B.

      Thymosin

    • C.

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • D.

      Atrial natriuretic peptide

    Correct Answer
    C. Antidiuretic hormone
    Explanation
    Antidiuretic hormone is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys. It acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of water, reducing urine production and helping to maintain fluid balance in the body. This hormone is released by the pituitary gland in response to high osmolality or low blood volume, and it helps to prevent dehydration by conserving water in the body.

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  • 36. 

    The maintenenace of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of

    • A.

      The control of repiratory ventilation

    • B.

      The operation of the various buffer systems in the stomach

    • C.

      The active secretion of OH- into the filtrate by the kidney tubule cells

    • D.

      Control of the acids produced in the stomach

    Correct Answer
    A. The control of repiratory ventilation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the control of respiratory ventilation. The pH of body fluids is regulated through the control of respiratory ventilation, which involves the regulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood. When CO2 levels increase, the body responds by increasing respiratory rate to eliminate excess CO2 through exhalation. This helps maintain the pH balance of the body fluids by preventing the accumulation of carbonic acid, which would lower the pH. Therefore, the control of respiratory ventilation plays a crucial role in maintaining proper pH levels in the body fluids.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?

    • A.

      Excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion

    • B.

      Hypotonic hydration, in which sodium content is normal but water content is high

    • C.

      Edema or tissue swelling, which is usually due to an increased capillary hydrostic pressure

    • D.

      Excess water in interstitial spaces due to a low level of plasma proteins

    Correct Answer
    A. Excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion
    Explanation
    Excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion is not a disorder of water balance because ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is responsible for promoting water reabsorption in the kidneys, thus preventing excessive water loss. When there is excess ADH secretion, it leads to increased water reabsorption and retention, resulting in concentrated urine and decreased urine output. This condition is known as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and can lead to hyponatremia (low sodium levels) but not a disorder of water balance.

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  • 38. 

    The regulation of sodium

    • A.

      Is due to a specific sodium receptors in the hypothalamus

    • B.

      Is linked to blood pressure

    • C.

      Involves aldosterone, a hormone that increases sodium excretion in the kidneys

    • D.

      Involves hypothalamic osmoreceptor detection of ion concentration

    Correct Answer
    B. Is linked to blood pressure
    Explanation
    The regulation of sodium is linked to blood pressure because changes in sodium levels can affect the volume of blood in the body. Sodium plays a key role in maintaining fluid balance, and when sodium levels are high, the body retains more water, leading to an increase in blood volume and subsequently higher blood pressure. On the other hand, low sodium levels can cause the body to excrete more water, resulting in a decrease in blood volume and lower blood pressure. Therefore, the regulation of sodium is closely tied to maintaining blood pressure within a normal range.

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  • 39. 

    Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance

    • A.

      The kidneys are not able to excrete phosphoric acid

    • B.

      Excreted hydrogen ions are unbound in the filtrate

    • C.

      Kidney tublue cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion

    • D.

      The kidneys are the most important mechanisms for eliminating all bicarbonate ions

    Correct Answer
    C. Kidney tublue cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion
    Explanation
    The correct statement is that kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion. This means that the cells in the kidney tubules have the ability to produce bicarbonate ions, which are important for maintaining acid-base balance in the body. Bicarbonate ions act as a buffer, helping to regulate the pH of the blood and other bodily fluids. By synthesizing bicarbonate ions, the kidney tubule cells play a crucial role in maintaining the body's acid-base balance.

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  • 40. 

    Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and hte patient is breathing rapidly.  Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?

    • A.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • C.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • D.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Metabolic acidosis
    Explanation
    The blood analysis indicates a low pH, which suggests acidosis. Additionally, the patient is breathing rapidly, which is a compensatory mechanism to decrease carbon dioxide levels and increase pH. This combination of low pH and rapid breathing is consistent with metabolic acidosis, where there is an excess of acid or a loss of bicarbonate in the body.

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  • 41. 

    A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is likely the diagnosis?

    • A.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • C.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • D.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Metabolic alkalosis
    Explanation
    Metabolic alkalosis is the likely diagnosis in this case because the patient is breathing slowly, which leads to a decrease in carbon dioxide levels in the blood. This decrease in carbon dioxide causes an increase in blood pH, resulting in an abnormally high value. Metabolic alkalosis occurs when there is an excess of bicarbonate ions in the blood, leading to an alkaline pH.

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  • 42. 

    One of the major physilogical factors that triggers thirst is

    • A.

      A dry mouth from high temperatures

    • B.

      Becoming overly agitated

    • C.

      Drinking caffeinated beverages

    • D.

      A rise in plasma osmolality

    Correct Answer
    D. A rise in plasma osmolality
    Explanation
    Thirst is triggered by a rise in plasma osmolality. Plasma osmolality refers to the concentration of solutes in the blood. When the concentration of solutes in the blood increases, it leads to a higher osmolality, which in turn triggers the sensation of thirst. This mechanism helps to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body. When plasma osmolality rises, it indicates that the body needs more water to dilute the concentration of solutes and restore balance. Therefore, a rise in plasma osmolality is a major physiological factor that triggers thirst.

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  • 43. 

    Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese.  How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?

    • A.

      It will increase the osmolality of the blood

    • B.

      There will be a temporary increase in blood volume

    • C.

      She will experience hypotension

    • D.

      There will be a shift in the pH of her body fluids to the higher side of the pH scale

    Correct Answer
    B. There will be a temporary increase in blood volume
    Explanation
    Consuming a large amount of salt will lead to an increase in osmolality, which refers to the concentration of solutes in the blood. This increase in osmolality will cause water to move from the cells into the bloodstream, resulting in a temporary increase in blood volume. This can put strain on the cardiovascular system and may lead to increased blood pressure.

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  • 44. 

    The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is

    • A.

      Osmotic pressure of plasma proteins

    • B.

      Hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

    • C.

      Hydrostatic pressure of intersituial fluid

    • D.

      Intracellular hydrostatic pressure

    Correct Answer
    B. Hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood
    Explanation
    The hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood is the most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls. This pressure is exerted by the blood within the capillaries and pushes water out of the capillaries and into the surrounding tissues. Osmotic pressure of plasma proteins also plays a role in water movement, but it is not as significant as the hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood. The hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid and intracellular hydrostatic pressure do not directly contribute to net water flow across capillary walls.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?

    • A.

      Membrane polarity

    • B.

      Neuromuscular excitability

    • C.

      Maintenance of osmotic relations between cells and ECF

    • D.

      Amount of body fat

    Correct Answer
    D. Amount of body fat
    Explanation
    The amount of body fat does not depend on the presence of electrolytes. Electrolytes are charged particles that help regulate various physiological processes in the body, such as membrane polarity, neuromuscular excitability, and maintenance of osmotic relations between cells and the extracellular fluid (ECF). However, the amount of body fat is primarily influenced by factors such as diet, exercise, genetics, and hormonal balance, and is not directly affected by electrolyte levels.

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  • 46. 

    The regulation of potassium balance

    • A.

      Is not linked to sodium balance

    • B.

      Includes renal secretion, but never absorption

    • C.

      Is accomplished mainly by hepatic mechanisms

    • D.

      Involves aldosterone-induced secretion of postassium

    Correct Answer
    D. Involves aldosterone-induced secretion of postassium
    Explanation
    The regulation of potassium balance involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium. Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that acts on the kidneys to increase the secretion of potassium into the urine. This helps to maintain the balance of potassium in the body. The other options mentioned in the question, such as renal secretion and hepatic mechanisms, are not directly involved in the regulation of potassium balance.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 13, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Rocio1
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