Urinary & Respiratory System (Continued)

46 Questions | Total Attempts: 186

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Urinary & Respiratory System (Continued)

The respiratory system is a biological system that is used for gaseous exchange in animals and plants. The urinary system is used to expel waste, regulate blood volume, and plenty of other uses. What do you know about them?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood ph?
    • A. 

      By secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate

    • B. 

      By reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions

    • C. 

      By producing new bicarbonate ions

    • D. 

      By secreting sodium ions

  • 2. 
    In the ascending limb of the loop of henle the
    • A. 

      Thin segment is freely permeable to water

    • B. 

      Thick segment is permeable to water

    • C. 

      Thin segment is not permeable to sodium and chloride

    • D. 

      Thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

  • 3. 
    Select the correct statement about urinary system development
    • A. 

      Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges

    • B. 

      The metanephric ducts will become the urethras

    • C. 

      The pronephros (first tubule system) develops during the tenth week of gestation

    • D. 

      The mesonephros will develop into the kidneys

  • 4. 
    Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?
    • A. 

      Disposing of substances not already in the filtrate, such as certain drugs

    • B. 

      Eliminating undesirable substances such as urea and uric acid that have been reabsorbed by passive processes

    • C. 

      Ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

    • D. 

      Ridding the body of excessive potassium ions

  • 5. 
    Which statement is correct?
    • A. 

      Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled

    • B. 

      Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein

    • C. 

      Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine

    • D. 

      The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood

  • 6. 
    What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    • A. 

      Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

    • B. 

      Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys

    • C. 

      Help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys

    • D. 

      Help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys

  • 7. 
    Which of the choices below is the salt level monitoring part of the nephron?
    • A. 

      Mascula densa

    • B. 

      Principal cell

    • C. 

      Vasa recta

    • D. 

      Loop of henle

  • 8. 
    Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?
    • A. 

      ADH

    • B. 

      Thyroxine

    • C. 

      Aldosterone

    • D. 

      Atrial natriuretic peptide

  • 9. 
    Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?
    • A. 

      Renal autoregulation

    • B. 

      Neural regulation

    • C. 

      Electrolyte levels

    • D. 

      Hormonal regulation

  • 10. 
    Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?
    • A. 

      Angiotensin II and ADH

    • B. 

      Angiotensin II and aldosterone

    • C. 

      Angiotensin I and epinephrine

    • D. 

      Angiotensin I and atrial natriuretic peptide

  • 11. 
    Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?
    • A. 

      Juxtaglomerular cells

    • B. 

      Mesangial cells

    • C. 

      Mascula densa cells

    • D. 

      Podocytes

  • 12. 
    The bodys water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
    • A. 

      Calcium ions

    • B. 

      Potassium ions

    • C. 

      Hydrogen ions

    • D. 

      Sodium ions

  • 13. 
    The term hypotonic hydration refers to
    • A. 

      The feeling one might have after a long swim

    • B. 

      The unpleasant feeling people have after drinking too much liquor

    • C. 

      A condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water

    • D. 

      A condition that is caused by high levels of sodium in the extracellular fluid compartment

  • 14. 
    Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins.  This problem is often characterized by
    • A. 

      Tissue edema

    • B. 

      Extreme weight loss

    • C. 

      Extreme weight gain

    • D. 

      Nerve damage

  • 15. 
    Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?
    • A. 

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • B. 

      Erythropoietin

    • C. 

      Aldosterone

    • D. 

      Renin

  • 16. 
    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart.  The influence of this hormone is to
    • A. 

      Enhance atrial contractions

    • B. 

      Activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism

    • C. 

      Prevent pH changes caused by organic acids

    • D. 

      Reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

  • 17. 
    Respiratory acidosis can occur when
    • A. 

      A person consumes excessive amounts of antacids

    • B. 

      A persons breathing is shallow due to obstruction

    • C. 

      A runner has completed a very long marathon

    • D. 

      The kidneys secrete hydrogen ions

  • 18. 
    Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?
    • A. 

      The lungs and the kidneys

    • B. 

      The adrenal glands and the testes

    • C. 

      The thyroid gland and the heart

    • D. 

      The stomach and the liver

  • 19. 
    Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?
    • A. 

      Neuromuscular activity

    • B. 

      Membrane permeability

    • C. 

      Secretory activity

    • D. 

      Anabolism of proteins

  • 20. 
    Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?
    • A. 

      ADH

    • B. 

      Aldosterone

    • C. 

      Water levels

    • D. 

      Glucocorticoids

  • 21. 
    The fluid link between the external and internal environment is
    • A. 

      Plasma

    • B. 

      Intracellular fluid

    • C. 

      Interstitial fluid

    • D. 

      Cerebrospinal fluid

  • 22. 
    Newborn infants have a relatively higher  ___________ content in their EFC tha do adults
    • A. 

      Iron

    • B. 

      Sodium

    • C. 

      Magnesium

    • D. 

      Bicarbonate

  • 23. 
    Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most  _____________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
    • A. 

      Iron

    • B. 

      Chloride

    • C. 

      Potassium

    • D. 

      Magnesium

  • 24. 
    Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and postassium between cells and body fluids?
    • A. 

      K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

    • B. 

      Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids

    • C. 

      Equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluids

    • D. 

      Little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids

  • 25. 
    Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their
    • A. 

      Inefficient kidneys

    • B. 

      Comparativley low metabolic rates

    • C. 

      Low rate of insensible water loss

    • D. 

      Low daily rate of fluid exchange

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