Renal Pathophysiology Inflammatory Processes Pt 2

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Renal Pathophysiology Inflammatory Processes Pt 2 - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _________________ ________________ is a life threatening condition of renal parenchyma with gas formation in tissue or collecting system.

    Correct Answer(s)
    emphysematous pyelonephritis
    Explanation
    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a condition characterized by the presence of gas in the renal parenchyma or collecting system. It is a life-threatening condition that usually occurs as a result of a severe bacterial infection, most commonly caused by Escherichia coli. The gas formation in the affected area can lead to tissue destruction and can spread to surrounding organs. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications such as sepsis and renal failure.

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  • 2. 

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is found most commonly in ____________ or ___________________ patients.

    Correct Answer(s)
    diabetics, immuno-compromised
    Explanation
    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a severe infection of the kidney that is characterized by the presence of gas in the renal parenchyma and/or collecting system. It is most commonly found in patients who have diabetes or are immunocompromised. This is because these individuals have weakened immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections. Additionally, diabetes can impair the body's ability to fight off infections and can also lead to urinary tract abnormalities, which increase the risk of developing emphysematous pyelonephritis.

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  • 3. 

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis- This process is usually _____________, and acquired the same way as a _________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    unilateral, UTI
    Explanation
    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a condition characterized by gas formation in the renal parenchyma and collecting system. It is usually unilateral, affecting only one kidney. This condition is acquired in the same way as a urinary tract infection (UTI), which is commonly caused by bacteria entering the urinary tract and ascending to the kidneys. Therefore, the correct answer is "unilateral, UTI."

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  • 4. 

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis- This disease does not respond to ____________ treatment because it is associated with renal ____________. The kidneys become ____________ as the disease process spreads. Therefore, a _____________ is usually needed as treatment before tehre is further spread.

    Correct Answer(s)
    antibiotic, ischemia, ischemic, nephrectomy
    Explanation
    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a condition characterized by infection in the kidney, which leads to the formation of gas within the renal parenchyma and surrounding tissues. This disease does not respond to antibiotic treatment because it is associated with renal ischemia. Ischemia refers to inadequate blood supply to the kidneys, which can result in tissue damage and impaired response to antibiotics. As the disease progresses, the kidneys become ischemic, meaning they are deprived of oxygen and nutrients. Due to the severity of the condition and the lack of response to antibiotics, a nephrectomy, which is the surgical removal of the affected kidney, is usually required to prevent further spread of the disease.

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  • 5. 

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis- clinically

    • A.

      Fever

    • B.

      Flank Pain

    • C.

      Dehydration

    • D.

      Acidosis

    • E.

      Electrolyte imbalance

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Fever
    B. Flank Pain
    C. Dehydration
    D. Acidosis
    E. Electrolyte imbalance
    Explanation
    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a severe infection of the kidney that is characterized by the presence of gas in the renal parenchyma, collecting system, or perinephric tissue. The symptoms mentioned in the question, including fever, flank pain, dehydration, acidosis, and electrolyte imbalance, are commonly associated with this condition. Fever is a typical sign of infection, while flank pain is a result of inflammation in the kidney. Dehydration can occur due to increased fluid loss from fever and decreased fluid intake. Acidosis and electrolyte imbalance may develop due to impaired kidney function caused by the infection.

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  • 6. 

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis sono appearance: _______ forming bacteria causes ________ __________. ___________ foci due to intrarenal gas. Located in renal _____________ or ____________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    gas, dirty shadow, echogenic, parenchyma, sinus
    Explanation
    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a severe infection of the kidney that is caused by gas-forming bacteria. The presence of gas in the kidney leads to the appearance of a dirty shadow on ultrasound, which is seen as an echogenic area. These gas-filled foci are located within the renal parenchyma or sinus, indicating the extent of the infection.

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  • 7. 

    ____________ _____________: a collection of small abscesses. The abscesses are usually caused by the hematogenous or the ascending route of __________ ___________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    renal carbuncle, staph aureus
    Explanation
    Renal carbuncle refers to a collection of small abscesses in the kidney. These abscesses are typically caused by the hematogenous (spread through the bloodstream) or ascending (spread from the lower urinary tract) route of Staphylococcus aureus, a type of bacteria.

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  • 8. 

    Renal abscess- clinically:

    • A.

      Fever

    • B.

      Chills

    • C.

      Leukocytosis

    • D.

      Flank pain

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Fever
    B. Chills
    C. Leukocytosis
    D. Flank pain
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a list of clinical symptoms commonly associated with renal abscess. Fever, chills, leukocytosis, and flank pain are all typical signs of this condition. Fever and chills are common systemic symptoms of infection, while leukocytosis refers to an increased number of white blood cells, indicating an immune response. Flank pain specifically suggests involvement of the kidneys, as this is the area where they are located. Therefore, the presence of these symptoms together is indicative of a renal abscess.

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  • 9. 

    Renal abscess- sono appearance:

    • A.

      Complex renal mass

    • B.

      Gas forming bacteria causes dirty shadowing

    • C.

      Located in renal parenchyma and sinus

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Complex renal mass
    B. Gas forming bacteria causes dirty shadowing
    C. Located in renal parenchyma and sinus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is complex renal mass, gas forming bacteria causes dirty shadowing, located in renal parenchyma and sinus. This suggests that the sono appearance of a renal abscess is a complex mass in the kidney that is caused by gas forming bacteria. The presence of gas causes dirty shadowing on the ultrasound image. The abscess is located in both the renal parenchyma (the functional tissue of the kidney) and the sinus (the space around the renal pelvis).

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  • 10. 

    Fungal balls (______________) is a fungal infection that can result from ______________ seeding or ascend from the _____________. Circulation in the blood allows seeds to _____________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    mycetoma, hematogenous, bladder, implant
    Explanation
    Mycetoma is a fungal infection that can result from hematogenous seeding or ascend from the bladder. Circulation in the blood allows seeds to implant.

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  • 11. 

    _______________ is the most common cause of renal fungal disease.

    Correct Answer(s)
    candidiasis
    Explanation
    Candidiasis is the most common cause of renal fungal disease. This is because Candida species, particularly Candida albicans, are opportunistic fungi that can infect the kidneys, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems or those who have undergone invasive procedures such as kidney transplantation. Candidiasis can lead to a range of renal complications, including pyelonephritis, abscess formation, and fungal balls in the renal pelvis. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antifungal treatment are essential in managing renal candidiasis.

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  • 12. 

    ______________: systemic fungal infection occurring most often in immuno-compromised patients.

    Correct Answer(s)
    candidiasis
    Explanation
    Candidiasis is a systemic fungal infection that commonly affects individuals with weakened immune systems. This condition is characterized by the overgrowth of Candida, a type of yeast, in various parts of the body such as the mouth, throat, genital area, and bloodstream. Immuno-compromised patients, such as those with HIV/AIDS, undergoing chemotherapy, or receiving organ transplants, are particularly susceptible to candidiasis due to their weakened ability to fight off infections. Therefore, candidiasis is the correct answer for the given description.

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  • 13. 

    Fungal balls sono appearance-

    • A.

      Large, irregular, *echogenic, * non-shadowing masses within the collecting system

    • B.

      May also have sludge in the pyramids that is mobile

    • C.

      Candidiasis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Large, irregular, *echogenic, * non-shadowing masses within the collecting system
    B. May also have sludge in the pyramids that is mobile
    C. Candidiasis
    Explanation
    The correct answer describes the appearance of fungal balls in the collecting system. Fungal balls are large, irregular masses that are echogenic (bright) on ultrasound imaging. They do not create a shadow behind them. Additionally, there may be sludge in the pyramids that is mobile. This appearance is characteristic of candidiasis, a fungal infection.

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  • Current Version
  • Jun 05, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 25, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Mnathan21
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