White Blood Cell Disorders! Trivia Test! Quiz

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White Blood Cell Disorders! Trivia Test! Quiz - Quiz


Do you know anything about white blood cell disorders? White blood cells help defend the body against any questionable materials. White cell blood disorders can affect your body’s immune response and your body’s ability to combat infection, and blood cell disorders interfere with the formation and function of these types of cells. See how much you know about white blood cell disorders and put your knowledge to the test.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Neutrophils with greater than 5 lobes - Right Shift. Causes: Old cells, chronic inflammation/infection, Anemia, Steroid use.

    • A.

      Nuclear Hypersegmentation

    • B.

      Nuclear Hyposegmentation

    • C.

      Pelger-Huet Anomaly

    • D.

      Toxic Neutrophils

    Correct Answer
    A. Nuclear Hypersegmentation
    Explanation
    Neutrophils with greater than 5 lobes, also known as nuclear hypersegmentation, can be caused by various factors such as old cells, chronic inflammation/infection, anemia, and steroid use. This condition refers to an abnormality in the neutrophil nucleus where the lobes are increased in number. It is characterized by the presence of more than the normal number of nuclear lobes in neutrophils.

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  • 2. 

    Left Shift - Cells vary from bands to metamyelocytes and myelocytes. With left shifts, we may also see toxic cytoplasm, donut-shaped nuclei, and giant-sized neutrophils. Causes: Seen in inflammatory conditions

    • A.

      Nuclear Hyposegmentation

    • B.

      Nuclear Hypersegmentation

    • C.

      Pelger-Huet Anomaly

    • D.

      Pseudo-Pelger- Huet Anomaly

    Correct Answer
    A. Nuclear Hyposegmentation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Nuclear Hyposegmentation. Left shift refers to the presence of immature forms of neutrophils in the blood. These immature forms, such as bands, metamyelocytes, and myelocytes, can be seen in inflammatory conditions. In addition to the left shift, other morphological abnormalities may be observed, including toxic cytoplasm, donut-shaped nuclei, and giant-sized neutrophils. Nuclear hyposegmentation refers to a decrease in the number of nuclear lobes in neutrophils, which can be seen in certain disorders or as a result of certain medications.

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  • 3. 

    Congenital defect causing hypopigmentation of granulocytes and monocytes. Calls are mature, Nucleus has condensed chromatin. No segmented neutrophils. Hypopigmented cells function normally.

    • A.

      Pelger-Huet Anomaly

    • B.

      Pseudo-Pelger-Huet Anomaly

    • C.

      Dohle Bodies

    • D.

      Cytoplasmic Basophilia

    Correct Answer
    A. Pelger-Huet Anomaly
    Explanation
    Pelger-Huet Anomaly is the correct answer because it is a congenital defect that causes hypopigmentation of granulocytes and monocytes. In this anomaly, the nucleus of the cells has condensed chromatin and there are no segmented neutrophils present. Despite the hypopigmentation, the cells still function normally. This anomaly is characterized by the appearance of bilobed or round nuclei in the neutrophils, which gives them a "pince-nez" or "spectacle" appearance.

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  • 4. 

    Fewer hypopigmented cells are seen. Response to severe infection, sometimes a reaction to certain drugs.

    • A.

      Pseudo-Pelger-Huet Anomaly

    • B.

      Pelger-Huet Anomaly

    • C.

      Dohle Bodies

    • D.

      Vacuolization

    Correct Answer
    A. Pseudo-Pelger-Huet Anomaly
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Pseudo-Pelger-Huet Anomaly. This condition is characterized by the presence of fewer hypopigmented cells. It can occur as a response to severe infection or as a reaction to certain drugs.

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  • 5. 

    Associated with conditions such as inflammation, infection and drug toxicity. May occur due to the accelerated production of cells in response to disease. typically accompanied by a left shift.

    • A.

      Toxic Neutrophils

    • B.

      Nuclear Hypersegmentation

    • C.

      Dohle Bodies

    • D.

      Pyknosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Toxic Neutrophils
    Explanation
    Toxic Neutrophils are associated with conditions such as inflammation, infection, and drug toxicity. They may occur due to the accelerated production of cells in response to disease. Toxic Neutrophils are typically accompanied by a left shift, which refers to an increase in the number of immature neutrophils in the blood. This can be seen in a complete blood count (CBC) test and indicates an active immune response to an underlying condition.

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  • 6. 

    Coarse, Irregular gray-blue cytoplasmic inclusions (RNA) that can be seen singly or in pairs. Common in felines. Found in infections, poisoning, burns, and following chemotherapy.

    • A.

      Dohle Bodies

    • B.

      Cytoplasmic Basophilia

    • C.

      Pyknosis

    • D.

      Toxic Granules

    Correct Answer
    A. Dohle Bodies
    Explanation
    Dohle bodies are coarse, irregular gray-blue cytoplasmic inclusions that can be seen singly or in pairs. They are commonly found in felines and are associated with infections, poisoning, burns, and following chemotherapy.

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  • 7. 

    Blue cytoplasm usually is seen with vacuoles. Slightly more severe signs of toxicity. Pale pink cytoplasm to Blue cytoplasm.

    • A.

      Cytoplasmic Basophilia

    • B.

      Dohle Bodies

    • C.

      Toxic Granules

    • D.

      Pyknosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytoplasmic Basophilia
    Explanation
    Cytoplasmic basophilia refers to an increase in the basophilic (blue-staining) components of the cytoplasm. This can be seen in various conditions, including toxic reactions. The given explanation suggests that the presence of blue cytoplasm is usually associated with vacuoles and indicates slightly more severe signs of toxicity. Therefore, cytoplasmic basophilia is the most appropriate answer as it aligns with the given information.

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  • 8. 

    Recorded as Mild to Severe. Seen as lymphocytes. Cytoplasm a frothy appearance. Artifact if prolonged exposure to EDTA.

    • A.

      Vacuolization

    • B.

      Dohle Bodies

    • C.

      Toxic Granules

    • D.

      Pyknosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Vacuolization
    Explanation
    Vacuolization refers to the formation of vacuoles, which are small fluid-filled spaces, within cells. In this case, the cytoplasm of the lymphocytes is showing a frothy appearance, indicating the presence of vacuoles. This can be considered as a mild to severe abnormality. It is mentioned that prolonged exposure to EDTA, which is an anticoagulant used in blood collection tubes, can cause this artifact. Therefore, the correct answer is Vacuolization.

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  • 9. 

    Condensed or Shrunken nucleus, Very dense chromatin. May fragment.

    • A.

      Pyknosis

    • B.

      Karyorrhexis

    • C.

      Karylosis

    • D.

      Vacuolization

    Correct Answer
    A. Pyknosis
    Explanation
    Pyknosis refers to the condensation and shrinking of the nucleus, along with very dense chromatin. It is a characteristic feature of cell death, specifically apoptosis. During pyknosis, the nucleus becomes smaller and darker due to the tightly packed chromatin. This process may also lead to the fragmentation of the nucleus. Therefore, the given answer, Pyknosis, accurately describes the described characteristics of condensed or shrunken nucleus and very dense chromatin.

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  • 10. 

    Nucleus fragmentation.

    • A.

      Karyorrhexis

    • B.

      Pyknosis

    • C.

      Karyolysis

    • D.

      Cytoplasmic Basophilia

    Correct Answer
    A. Karyorrhexis
    Explanation
    Karyorrhexis refers to the fragmentation of the nucleus, which is the control center of the cell. This process occurs during cell death or apoptosis. The nucleus breaks down into smaller fragments, leading to the disintegration of the cell. Karyorrhexis is characterized by the presence of fragmented nuclear material within the cell. This term is commonly used in pathology to describe cellular changes associated with tissue damage or disease.

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  • 11. 

    Represents cell death, Nucleus becomes swollen and nuclear membrane degrades

    • A.

      Karyolysis

    • B.

      Karyorrhexis

    • C.

      Pyknosis

    • D.

      Vacuolization

    Correct Answer
    A. Karyolysis
    Explanation
    Karyolysis is the correct answer because it represents cell death and involves the swelling of the nucleus and degradation of the nuclear membrane. This process occurs when the DNA in the nucleus breaks down and the chromatin becomes less condensed, leading to the dissolution of the nucleus.

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  • 12. 

    Less Common. Cytoplasmic granules become very prominent.

    • A.

      Toxic Granules

    • B.

      Cytoplasmic Basophilia

    • C.

      Vacuolization

    • D.

      Dohle Bodies

    Correct Answer
    A. Toxic Granules
    Explanation
    Toxic granules refer to the presence of large, dark-staining granules in the cytoplasm of neutrophils. These granules are usually seen in response to severe bacterial infections or other inflammatory conditions. The prominence of cytoplasmic granules suggests an abnormality in the neutrophils, indicating an immune response to an infection or inflammation. Therefore, toxic granules are a characteristic feature that can be observed in certain pathological conditions.

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  • 13. 

    May have crisscross basket weave pattern. Nuclear remnant lacking intact cytoplasm.

    • A.

      Basket/Smudge Cells

    • B.

      Toxic Neutrophils

    • C.

      Pelger-Huet Anomaly

    • D.

      Pseudo-Pelger-Huet Anomany

    Correct Answer
    A. Basket/Smudge Cells
    Explanation
    Basket/Smudge cells are a type of abnormal white blood cells that may have a crisscross basket weave pattern. They are also known as toxic neutrophils. These cells are often seen in the peripheral blood smear of patients with certain conditions, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia or other hematological malignancies. They are called basket or smudge cells because their cytoplasm lacks intact nuclear remnants, giving them a smudged appearance. The presence of basket/smudge cells can be indicative of an underlying disease or abnormality in the white blood cell morphology.

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  • 14. 

    Gram-Positive coccobacillus. Organism escapes the host vacuole and undergoes rapid division in the cytoplasm before becoming encapsulated where it can migrate to the surface and can penetrate a neighboring cell.

    • A.

      Listeria

    • B.

      Ehrilichia

    • C.

      Anaplasma phagocytophilia

    • D.

      Histoplasma capsulatum

    Correct Answer
    A. Listeria
    Explanation
    Listeria is a Gram-positive coccobacillus that is capable of escaping the host vacuole and undergoing rapid division in the cytoplasm. After division, it becomes encapsulated and can migrate to the surface. This ability allows Listeria to penetrate a neighboring cell, making it the correct answer in this case.

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  • 15. 

    Cytoplasmic parasites of lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets. Appears as small basophilic clusters in the cytoplasm. Diagnosed best in buffy coat smears.

    • A.

      Ehrilichia

    • B.

      Listeria

    • C.

      Neorickettsia risticii

    • D.

      Anaplasma phagocytophilia

    Correct Answer
    A. Ehrilichia
    Explanation
    The given description suggests that the cytoplasmic parasites in question are small basophilic clusters that can be best diagnosed in buffy coat smears. Among the options provided, Ehrlichia is known to be a genus of bacteria that parasitize lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets. Therefore, Ehrlichia is the most likely correct answer.

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  • 16. 

    Causes Potomac Fever in Horses. It can affect dogs & cats. Become infected through the ingestion of water insects. Parasitize granulocytes, monocytes & macrophages.

    • A.

      Neorickettsia risticii

    • B.

      Listeria

    • C.

      Anaplasma phagocytophilia

    • D.

      Histoplasma capsulatum

    Correct Answer
    A. Neorickettsia risticii
    Explanation
    Neorickettsia risticii is the correct answer because it causes Potomac Fever in horses, which is a potentially fatal disease. It can also affect dogs and cats. The infection occurs through the ingestion of water insects, which serve as vectors for the bacteria. Once inside the host, Neorickettsia risticii parasitizes granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages, leading to various clinical manifestations.

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  • 17. 

    Characterized by Acute Enterocolitis Syndrome. - this can also be found in Salmon Fluke and can be transmitted to humans/animals if ingesting raw fish. Results in hemorrhagic enteritis.

    • A.

      Potomac Fever

    • B.

      Halo

    • C.

      Pseudo-Pelger-Huet Anomaly

    • D.

      Pelger-Huet Anomaly

    Correct Answer
    A. Potomac Fever
    Explanation
    Potomac Fever is characterized by Acute Enterocolitis Syndrome, which is also seen in Salmon Fluke. This disease can be transmitted to humans and animals if they ingest raw fish. It results in hemorrhagic enteritis.

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  • 18. 

    (Ehrlichia equi) Affects equine neutrophils & eosinophils. Causes canine anaplasmosis - anorexia, lethargy, difficult ambulation.

    • A.

      Anaplasma phagocytophilia

    • B.

      Histoplasma capsulatum

    • C.

      Canine Distemper

    • D.

      Leishmania infantum

    Correct Answer
    A. Anaplasma phagocytophilia
    Explanation
    Anaplasma phagocytophilia is the correct answer because it is a tick-borne bacterium that affects neutrophils and causes anaplasmosis in dogs. Anaplasmosis is characterized by symptoms such as anorexia, lethargy, and difficulty in walking. Ehrlichia equi is not the correct answer because it causes equine granulocytic anaplasmosis, not canine anaplasmosis. Histoplasma capsulatum is a fungus that causes histoplasmosis, not anaplasmosis. Canine Distemper is a viral disease that affects multiple organs, including the respiratory and nervous systems, but it does not specifically target neutrophils and eosinophils. Leishmania infantum is a parasite that causes leishmaniasis, which primarily affects the skin, spleen, and liver, but it does not directly affect neutrophils and eosinophils.

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  • 19. 

    Cytoplasmic inclusions in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes & macrophages. Yeast seen as small oval cells surrounded by halo, appear in macrophages in tissue samples. Affects people, dogs, cats, sheep, pigs & horses.

    • A.

      Histoplasma capsulatum

    • B.

      Neorickettsia risticii

    • C.

      Mycobacterium species

    • D.

      Lysome storage

    Correct Answer
    A. Histoplasma capsulatum
    Explanation
    Histoplasma capsulatum is the correct answer because it is a fungal pathogen that can cause cytoplasmic inclusions in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and macrophages. It appears as small oval cells surrounded by a halo and can be seen in macrophages in tissue samples. It is known to affect people, dogs, cats, sheep, pigs, and horses. The other options, Neorickettsia risticii, Mycobacterium species, and Lysosome storage, do not fit the given description.

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  • 20. 

    Signs of this bacteria is Hepatosplenomegaly, pulmonary disease, lymphadenomegaly, anorexia, depression, conjunctivitis, optic neuritis, and unresponsive pyrexia.

    • A.

      Histoplasma capsulatum

    • B.

      Hepatozoon canins

    • C.

      Canine Distemper

    • D.

      Mycobacterium species

    Correct Answer
    A. Histoplasma capsulatum
    Explanation
    The signs mentioned in the question, such as hepatosplenomegaly, pulmonary disease, lymphadenomegaly, anorexia, depression, conjunctivitis, optic neuritis, and unresponsive pyrexia, are characteristic symptoms of Histoplasma capsulatum infection. Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan parasite that causes a different set of symptoms in dogs. Canine distemper is a viral disease that primarily affects the respiratory and nervous systems. Mycobacterium species can cause various infections, but the symptoms mentioned in the question do not match those typically associated with Mycobacterium infections. Therefore, the correct answer is Histoplasma capsulatum.

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  • 21. 

    Severe in the US. Transmitted through ticks. Cytoplasmic inclusions in neutrophils & monocytes. They appear as large oblong structures. Signs include anorexia, pyrexia, pale mm, lethargy, diarrhea, lameness, purulent ocular discharge.

    • A.

      Hepatozoon canis

    • B.

      Canine Distemper

    • C.

      Leishmania infantum

    • D.

      Lysome storage

    Correct Answer
    A. Hepatozoon canis
    Explanation
    Hepatozoon canis is the correct answer because the given information matches the characteristics of this parasite. Hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne disease commonly found in the US. It causes cytoplasmic inclusions in neutrophils and monocytes, which appear as large oblong structures. The signs mentioned, such as anorexia, pyrexia, pale mm, lethargy, diarrhea, lameness, and purulent ocular discharge, are also consistent with Hepatozoon canis infection.

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  • 22. 

    Contagious, Incurable and often fate. A multi-systemic viral disease that affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems.

    • A.

      Canine Distemper

    • B.

      Hepatozoon canis

    • C.

      Ehrilichia

    • D.

      Cytauxzoon felis

    Correct Answer
    A. Canine Distemper
    Explanation
    Canine Distemper is a correct answer because it is a multi-systemic viral disease that affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. It is also contagious, incurable, and often fatal. Canine Distemper is commonly found in dogs and other animals, and it can cause a wide range of symptoms including fever, coughing, vomiting, diarrhea, and neurological signs. The virus is spread through respiratory secretions and can be prevented through vaccination.

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  • 23. 

    This bacteria is most commonly transmitted through bodily secretions that become airborne viral particles. Signs include pyrexia, discharge from eyes and nose, depression, anorexia, diarrhea, pneumonia, and vomiting.

    • A.

      Canine Distemper

    • B.

      Neorickettsia risticii

    • C.

      Listeria

    • D.

      Histoplasma capsulatum

    Correct Answer
    A. Canine Distemper
    Explanation
    Canine Distemper is the correct answer because it is a highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs. The explanation states that the bacteria responsible for this disease is commonly transmitted through airborne viral particles, which aligns with the mode of transmission for Canine Distemper. The signs mentioned in the explanation, such as discharge from eyes and nose, depression, anorexia, diarrhea, pneumonia, and vomiting, are all characteristic symptoms of Canine Distemper. Therefore, based on the information provided, Canine Distemper is the most suitable answer.

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  • 24. 

    Recovered dogs from this bacteria may shoe enamel hypoplasia and hyperkeratosis. Infection of fetuses can result in abortion or puppies who develop signs and die within 4 weeks. Large aggregates of viral particles seen in RBCs and WBCs. Transient.

    • A.

      Canine Distemper

    • B.

      Hepatozoon canis

    • C.

      Leishmania infantum

    • D.

      Chedick-Higashi Syndrome

    Correct Answer
    A. Canine Distemper
    Explanation
    Canine Distemper is the correct answer because the given information describes various clinical manifestations and pathological findings associated with Canine Distemper. These include enamel hypoplasia and hyperkeratosis in recovered dogs, abortion and death of puppies infected in utero, and the presence of large aggregates of viral particles in red and white blood cells. Additionally, the term "transient" suggests that the disease has a temporary or self-limiting nature, which is a characteristic of Canine Distemper.

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  • 25. 

    Confirm this bacteria with PCP testing. Appears as unstained rods within the cytoplasm. It affects a wide variety of animals.

    • A.

      Mycobacterium species

    • B.

      Lesihmania infantum

    • C.

      Ehrilichia

    • D.

      Cytauxzoon felis

    Correct Answer
    A. Mycobacterium species
    Explanation
    The given information suggests that the bacteria being referred to can be confirmed through PCP testing and is characterized by appearing as unstained rods within the cytoplasm. Additionally, it affects a wide variety of animals. Based on these characteristics, the most appropriate answer is Mycobacterium species, as this genus of bacteria includes species that match the given description.

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  • 26. 

    Transmitted by sandflies. Severe system disease. Dogs are the reservoir host for humans. This bacteria is engulfed by macrophages in which they transform and divide into amastigotes. - Signs include cutaneous lesions, muscle wasting, ocular lesions, epistaxis, anemia, renal failure, diarrhea, lameness, decreased body temp.

    • A.

      Leishmania infantum

    • B.

      Mycobacterium species

    • C.

      Lysome Storage

    • D.

      Cytauxzoon felis

    Correct Answer
    A. Leishmania infantum
    Explanation
    Leishmania infantum is the correct answer because the given information matches the characteristics of this parasite. Leishmania infantum is transmitted by sandflies and causes severe systemic disease. Dogs are the reservoir host for humans, and the parasite is engulfed by macrophages and transforms into amastigotes. The signs mentioned, such as cutaneous lesions, muscle wasting, ocular lesions, anemia, and renal failure, are consistent with the symptoms of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum.

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  • 27. 

    Rare inherited disease. The abnormally stored substance in the cell. Due to enzyme deficiency. Blue to magenta granulation in the cytoplasm.

    • A.

      Lysome Storage

    • B.

      Hepatozoon canis

    • C.

      Ehrilichia

    • D.

      Cytauxzoon felis

    Correct Answer
    A. Lysome Storage
    Explanation
    The given answer, "Lysome Storage," is the correct answer because the description provided in the question matches the characteristics of a rare inherited disease caused by the abnormal storage of substances in the cell. This condition is typically due to a deficiency in enzymes responsible for breaking down these substances. The presence of blue to magenta granulation in the cytoplasm further supports the diagnosis of Lysome Storage disease.

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  • 28. 

    Can see splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, enlarged lymph nodes, renal and pulmonary edema. A rare cause of hemolytic anemia in cats. Forms within RBCs, Lymphocytes, and macrophages. Ticks are vector.

    • A.

      Cytauxzoon felis

    • B.

      Leishmania infantum

    • C.

      Canine Distemper

    • D.

      Hepatozoon canis

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytauxzoon felis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Cytauxzoon felis. The given information describes a rare cause of hemolytic anemia in cats, which is caused by the parasite Cytauxzoon felis. This parasite forms within red blood cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages, leading to enlargement of the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes. Additionally, renal and pulmonary edema can occur. Ticks serve as the vector for this parasite.

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  • 29. 

    In macrophages, this bacteria is seen as small irregular basophilic rings or rods. In RBCs, they are seen as circular structures with pale cytoplasm and reddish nucleus.

    • A.

      Cytauxzoon felis

    • B.

      Lysome storage

    • C.

      Canine Distemper

    • D.

      Mycobacterium Species

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytauxzoon felis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Cytauxzoon felis. In macrophages, this bacteria is seen as small irregular basophilic rings or rods. In RBCs, they are seen as circular structures with pale cytoplasm and reddish nucleus.

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  • 30. 

    Many granules can be seen in WBCs that don't indicate toxicity and don't seem to cause illness. Sometimes miscellaneous bacteria, fungi, and protozoa are found.

    • A.

      Granular & Miscellaneous inclusions

    • B.

      Birman cat granulations

    • C.

      Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

    Correct Answer
    A. Granular & Miscellaneous inclusions
    Explanation
    Granular and miscellaneous inclusions refer to various substances that can be seen in white blood cells (WBCs) under microscopic examination. These inclusions are not indicative of toxicity or illness. They can include granules, which may be normal components of the WBCs, as well as miscellaneous bacteria, fungi, and protozoa that may be present in the sample. Therefore, the presence of granular and miscellaneous inclusions in WBCs does not necessarily indicate any specific condition or disease.

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  • 31. 

    Fine eosinophilic to magenta granules in neutrophils. Inherited, No evidence of illness. Differentiate with toxic granulation and lysosomal disorders.

    • A.

      Birman cat granulations

    • B.

      Granular & miscellaneous inclusions

    • C.

      Chedicik-Higashi syndrome

    Correct Answer
    A. Birman cat granulations
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Birman cat granulations. This is because the given information mentions fine eosinophilic to magenta granules in neutrophils, which are characteristic of Birman cat granulations. It is also mentioned that there is no evidence of illness, which further supports this answer. Additionally, the information suggests differentiating with toxic granulation and lysosomal disorders, indicating that Birman cat granulations are a distinct entity.

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  • 32. 

    Neutrophils show large lysosomes in the cytoplasm and large plump granules pink/purple color. The tendency to bleed' abnormal platelet function. Affected cats are generally healthy.

    • A.

      Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

    • B.

      Birman Cat Granulation

    • C.

      Granular & Miscellaneous Inclusions

    Correct Answer
    A. Chediak-Higashi Syndrome
    Explanation
    Neutrophils with large lysosomes and plump granules are characteristic of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. This syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects cats, causing abnormal platelet function and a tendency to bleed. Despite this, affected cats are generally healthy. Therefore, the correct answer is Chediak-Higashi Syndrome.

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