Chapter 14 The Evolution Of Our Behavior: Putting IT All Together

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Chapter 14 The Evolution Of Our Behavior: Putting IT All Together - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    According to the text, cultural behaviors have:

    • A.

      Only practical value

    • B.

      Only symbolic meaning

    • C.

      Both practical value and symbolic meaning

    • D.

      Value only as a means of adapting to the natural environment

    Correct Answer
    C. Both practical value and symbolic meaning
    Explanation
    Cultural behaviors have both practical value and symbolic meaning. This means that they serve a practical purpose in terms of helping individuals adapt to their natural environment, but they also hold symbolic significance in terms of expressing and reinforcing cultural beliefs, values, and identities. Cultural behaviors can serve as a way for individuals to communicate, establish social norms, and maintain group cohesion. Additionally, they can also provide individuals with a sense of identity and belonging within their cultural group.

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  • 2. 

    According to the Bible, why are Jews prohibited from eating pork?

    • A.

      Pigs are not clean

    • B.

      You could get trichinosis

    • C.

      Pigs were hard to raise in Southwest Asia

    • D.

      Pigs have cloven hooves but don't chew cud

    Correct Answer
    D. Pigs have cloven hooves but don't chew cud
    Explanation
    According to the Bible, Jews are prohibited from eating pork because pigs have cloven hooves but do not chew cud. This is mentioned in Leviticus 11:7-8, where it states that in order for an animal to be considered clean and permissible for consumption, it must have both cloven hooves and chew the cud. Since pigs only have cloven hooves and do not chew cud, they are considered unclean and therefore forbidden to be eaten by Jews.

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  • 3. 

    According to the Bible, which of these dishes would be acceptable to eat?

    • A.

      Boiled lobster

    • B.

      A tuna salad sandwich

    • C.

      Crab cakes

    • D.

      Fried clams

    Correct Answer
    B. A tuna salad sandwich
    Explanation
    According to the Bible, a tuna salad sandwich would be acceptable to eat. The Bible does not specifically mention tuna salad sandwiches, but it does provide guidelines on what types of food are considered clean or unclean. In Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14, it is stated that seafood with fins and scales are considered clean and can be eaten. Tuna is a type of fish that has both fins and scales, therefore making it acceptable to eat according to biblical guidelines.

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  • 4. 

    According to a literal interpretation of the Bible, which of these dishes would be acceptable to eat?

    • A.

      Mice

    • B.

      Snails

    • C.

      Grasshoppers

    • D.

      Lizards

    Correct Answer
    C. Grasshoppers
    Explanation
    According to a literal interpretation of the Bible, grasshoppers would be acceptable to eat. In the book of Leviticus, it is mentioned that certain insects, including grasshoppers, are considered clean and can be consumed as food. This dietary law is followed by some religious groups who adhere strictly to the teachings of the Bible. Therefore, based on this interpretation, grasshoppers would be considered an acceptable dish to eat.

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  • 5. 

    Mary Douglas stresses which role of cultural behaviors?

    • A.

      Practical

    • B.

      Materialistic

    • C.

      Symbolic

    • D.

      Biological

    Correct Answer
    C. Symbolic
    Explanation
    Mary Douglas stresses the symbolic role of cultural behaviors. This means that she emphasizes the significance and meaning behind cultural practices and rituals. According to Douglas, cultural behaviors are not just practical or materialistic actions, but they carry symbolic messages and represent deeper cultural values, beliefs, and social structures. Through these symbols, individuals and communities communicate and express their identities, relationships, and understandings of the world around them.

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  • 6. 

    In her analysis of the dietary laws, Mary Douglas seems to stress categories based on:

    • A.

      Cleanliness

    • B.

      Form of locomotion

    • C.

      Ease of hunting or herding

    • D.

      Health considerations

    Correct Answer
    B. Form of locomotion
    Explanation
    Mary Douglas seems to stress categories based on the form of locomotion in her analysis of the dietary laws. This suggests that she focuses on how different animals move or travel in order to determine their categorization within the dietary laws. This could potentially be important in determining which animals are considered clean or unclean for consumption, as the method of locomotion may be seen as a factor in determining the cleanliness or suitability of an animal for consumption.

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  • 7. 

    Marvin Harris's approach to cultural analysis is called:

    • A.

      Cultural materialism

    • B.

      Symbolism

    • C.

      Cultural relativity

    • D.

      Sociobiology

    Correct Answer
    A. Cultural materialism
    Explanation
    Marvin Harris's approach to cultural analysis is called cultural materialism. This approach focuses on the material conditions and environmental factors that shape a culture, such as resources, technology, and geography. Harris argues that these material factors play a crucial role in determining the beliefs, values, and practices of a society. By analyzing the relationship between culture and the material world, cultural materialism seeks to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive cultural change and development. This approach emphasizes the importance of studying the economic and ecological aspects of a culture to fully comprehend its dynamics.

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  • 8. 

    How, in general, does Marvin Harris explain the biblical dietary laws?

    • A.

      They were means of establishing the identity of the ancient Hebrews

    • B.

      They were all health or hygiene related

    • C.

      They resulted from some practical, usually economic considerations

    • D.

      They functioned to impose order on one part of the ancient Hebrews' world

    Correct Answer
    C. They resulted from some practical, usually economic considerations
    Explanation
    Marvin Harris explains the biblical dietary laws as being the result of practical, usually economic considerations. This means that the dietary laws were not primarily based on health or hygiene reasons, but rather on practical considerations such as resource availability, economic factors, and social organization. Harris argues that these laws were implemented to ensure the survival and well-being of the ancient Hebrews, rather than being solely based on religious or cultural beliefs.

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  • 9. 

    The author of the text feels that the biblical dietary laws are a result of:

    • A.

      Symbolic considerations

    • B.

      Practical considerations

    • C.

      An inherent need for people to order important aspects of their world

    • D.

      A combination and interaction of all of these

    Correct Answer
    D. A combination and interaction of all of these
    Explanation
    The author believes that the biblical dietary laws are a result of a combination and interaction of symbolic considerations, practical considerations, and an inherent need for people to order important aspects of their world. This suggests that the dietary laws serve multiple purposes, including symbolizing certain beliefs or values, addressing practical concerns such as health or hygiene, and providing a sense of structure or order in people's lives.

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  • 10. 

    The dietary laws also provide a good example of a:

    • A.

      Set of religious beliefs

    • B.

      Folk taxonomy

    • C.

      Subsistence pattern

    • D.

      Legal system

    Correct Answer
    B. Folk taxonomy
    Explanation
    The dietary laws mentioned in the question refer to specific rules or guidelines regarding what foods are permissible or forbidden to consume within a particular religious or cultural context. These laws categorize various foods into different groups, such as "clean" or "unclean," and provide a framework for individuals to make decisions about their diet based on these classifications. This classification system is an example of a folk taxonomy, as it organizes and categorizes items based on cultural beliefs and practices rather than scientific or biological principles.

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  • 11. 

    The Dani of West Iran are:

    • A.

      Foragers

    • B.

      Hunter gatherers

    • C.

      Horticulturalists

    • D.

      Pastoralists

    Correct Answer
    C. Horticulturalists
    Explanation
    The Dani of West Iran are horticulturalists. Horticulturalists are societies that practice a form of agriculture characterized by the cultivation of gardens or small fields using simple hand tools. They rely on the cultivation of plants for sustenance rather than solely relying on hunting and gathering or pastoralism. This means that the Dani of West Iran likely engage in small-scale farming and the cultivation of crops for their survival.

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  • 12. 

    The Dani's stated reason for their ritual warfare is to:

    • A.

      Placate the ghosts of the slain

    • B.

      Avenge the theft of property

    • C.

      Symbolize and channel existing tensions

    • D.

      Acquire additional pigs, wives, and land

    Correct Answer
    A. Placate the ghosts of the slain
    Explanation
    The Dani's ritual warfare is believed to serve the purpose of placating the ghosts of the slain. This suggests that the Dani people engage in warfare as a way to honor and appease the spirits of those who have been killed. By participating in these rituals, they aim to maintain harmony with the spiritual realm and ensure the well-being of their community. This explanation aligns with the cultural and religious beliefs of the Dani people, highlighting the significance they place on maintaining a connection with their ancestors and the spiritual world.

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  • 13. 

    A holistic anthropological analysis of Dani ritual warfare suggests that its function is to:

    • A.

      Placate the ghosts of the slain

    • B.

      Avenge the theft of property

    • C.

      Symbolize and channel existing tensions

    • D.

      Acquire additional pigs, wives, and land

    Correct Answer
    C. Symbolize and channel existing tensions
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the function of Dani ritual warfare is to symbolize and channel existing tensions. This means that through the ritual, the Dani people express and redirect any underlying tensions or conflicts within their society. It serves as a symbolic outlet for these tensions, allowing them to be acknowledged and potentially resolved in a controlled and ritualistic manner. This explanation aligns with the concept of ritual warfare being a social and cultural practice rather than solely driven by the desire for material gain or revenge.

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  • 14. 

    How might the warfare among the Dani aid in maintaining the quality of their environment?

    • A.

      War deaths keep the population down

    • B.

      It alters land holdings and allows some land to lie fallow

    • C.

      Its expense helps establish trade networks with the outside

    • D.

      It promotes reproduction to try to counter war deaths

    Correct Answer
    B. It alters land holdings and allows some land to lie fallow
    Explanation
    The warfare among the Dani aids in maintaining the quality of their environment by altering land holdings and allowing some land to lie fallow. This means that as a result of warfare, land ownership and boundaries are rearranged, which allows certain areas of land to remain unused for a period of time. This practice of leaving land fallow helps in the regeneration of soil fertility and prevents overexploitation of resources, ultimately contributing to the sustainability of their environment.

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  • 15. 

    The Dani also have secular wars.  Which of the following is NOT a reason for these?

    • A.

      Disputes over pigs

    • B.

      Disputes over wives

    • C.

      Inability to resolve some conflict

    • D.

      Defense from outside invaders

    Correct Answer
    D. Defense from outside invaders
    Explanation
    The reason "defense from outside invaders" is not a cause for the secular wars among the Dani. This suggests that the Dani do not engage in conflicts with other groups or tribes for the purpose of defending themselves against external threats. The other options, such as disputes over pigs, disputes over wives, and inability to resolve conflicts, are all potential reasons for the secular wars among the Dani.

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  • 16. 

    Kuru among the Fore of Papua New Guinea is caused by:

    • A.

      Cannibalism

    • B.

      A bacterial infection

    • C.

      A inherited genetic condition

    • D.

      An abnormal protein

    Correct Answer
    D. An abnormal protein
    Explanation
    Kuru among the Fore of Papua New Guinea is caused by an abnormal protein. Kuru is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disease that was prevalent among the Fore people due to their practice of cannibalism. It was later discovered that the disease is caused by the consumption of infected human brain tissue, which contains an abnormal protein called prion. This abnormal protein causes other proteins in the brain to misfold and clump together, leading to the characteristic symptoms of Kuru.

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  • 17. 

    Kuru among the Fore of Papua New Guinea is passed from person to person by:

    • A.

      Cannibalism

    • B.

      Sharing drinking vessels

    • C.

      Airborne microorganisms

    • D.

      Sexual contact

    Correct Answer
    A. Cannibalism
    Explanation
    Cannibalism is the correct answer because Kuru is a rare, degenerative, and fatal brain disorder that was prevalent among the Fore people of Papua New Guinea. The disease was transmitted through the consumption of infected human brain tissue during cannibalistic funeral rituals. The Fore people practiced endocannibalism, where deceased family members were consumed as a way to honor and respect them. The disease spread through the ingestion of infected neural tissue, leading to the accumulation of abnormal proteins in the brain and subsequent neurological damage.

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  • 18. 

    Anthropological analysis indicates that the function of Fore cannibalism among mainly the women was:

    • A.

      To help cure kuru

    • B.

      As a "fertilizer" to aid growth of crops

    • C.

      To supplement their diet in an increasingly protein poor society

    • D.

      To try to possess the power of the men whose bodies they ate

    Correct Answer
    C. To supplement their diet in an increasingly protein poor society
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to supplement their diet in an increasingly protein poor society. Anthropological analysis suggests that Fore cannibalism, particularly among women, served as a means to supplement their diet due to the lack of protein in their society. This practice allowed them to obtain essential nutrients and maintain their nutritional needs in an environment where protein sources were scarce.

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  • 19. 

    The Fore attributed the kuru epidemic to:            

    • A.

      The coming of Europeans

    • B.

      The work of sorcerers hired by the less well-off Fore

    • C.

      The invasion of a new microorganism

    • D.

      The reintroduction of cannibalism among the women

    Correct Answer
    B. The work of sorcerers hired by the less well-off Fore
  • 20. 

    How did the kuru epidemic affect Fore economics?

    • A.

      Wealth decreased due to the high cost of medical care

    • B.

      People had to rely more heavily on cash crops to get money from the outside

    • C.

      Wealth was redistributed as money went to sorcerers to help stop kuru

    • D.

      Because most victims were women the labor force was severely depleted

    Correct Answer
    C. Wealth was redistributed as money went to sorcerers to help stop kuru
    Explanation
    During the kuru epidemic, wealth was redistributed as money went to sorcerers to help stop kuru. This suggests that the economic resources of the Fore community were redirected towards addressing the epidemic. The allocation of funds towards sorcerers indicates that the community believed in their abilities to combat the disease, and this led to a redistribution of wealth within the community. The emphasis on stopping kuru likely took precedence over other economic activities, potentially impacting the overall economic well-being of the Fore people.

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  • 21. 

    Altruism is:

    • A.

      A statement that is, by definition, true

    • B.

      An act performed mainly to benefit the performer

    • C.

      An act that leads to one's death

    • D.

      An act performed for the benefit of another

    Correct Answer
    D. An act performed for the benefit of another
    Explanation
    Altruism refers to an act that is performed with the intention of benefiting someone else, rather than oneself. It involves selflessness and the desire to help others without expecting anything in return. This definition aligns with the given answer choice, "an act performed for the benefit of another." Altruistic actions can range from simple acts of kindness to more significant sacrifices, all done with the genuine aim of improving the well-being of another individual or group.

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  • 22. 

    In the "nature vs. nurture" debate, the position that emphasizes the "nature" part is formally called:

    • A.

      Biological determinism

    • B.

      Cultural determinism

    • C.

      Cultural relativity

    • D.

      Sociobiology

    Correct Answer
    A. Biological determinism
    Explanation
    Biological determinism is the correct answer in the "nature vs. nurture" debate. This position emphasizes that an individual's behavior and traits are primarily determined by their biological factors, such as genetics and heredity. It suggests that nature plays a significant role in shaping human characteristics and behavior, while downplaying the influence of environmental and cultural factors. This perspective argues that individuals are born with inherent qualities that largely determine their development and outcomes in life.

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  • 23. 

    In the "nature vs. nurture" debate, the position that emphasizes the "nurture" part is formally called:

    • A.

      Biological determinism

    • B.

      Cultural determinism

    • C.

      Cultural relativity

    • D.

      Sociobiology

    Correct Answer
    B. Cultural determinism
    Explanation
    Cultural determinism is the position in the "nature vs. nurture" debate that emphasizes the influence of cultural and environmental factors on human behavior and development. It suggests that individuals are shaped primarily by their cultural upbringing and social surroundings rather than biological factors. This perspective argues that cultural norms, values, and socialization play a significant role in shaping an individual's beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. It recognizes the importance of cultural diversity and acknowledges that different cultures may have different norms and values, leading to variations in human behavior.

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  • 24. 

    Kin selection refers to:

    • A.

      The conscious choosing of mates

    • B.

      Instinctive behaviors that help one choose the best mate

    • C.

      Passing on of one's genes by aiding the survival and reproduction of close kin

    • D.

      Deciding whether a society is bilateral or unilineal

    Correct Answer
    C. Passing on of one's genes by aiding the survival and reproduction of close kin
    Explanation
    Kin selection refers to the passing on of one's genes by aiding the survival and reproduction of close kin. This concept is based on the idea that individuals can increase their own genetic fitness by helping their relatives, who share a proportion of their genes, to survive and reproduce. By doing so, they indirectly pass on their own genes to future generations. This behavior can be observed in various species, where individuals may sacrifice their own reproductive success to support their relatives.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following is NOT a synonym for a fairly new area of evolutionary biology?

    • A.

      Sociobiology

    • B.

      Evolutionary psychology

    • C.

      Behavior ecology

    • D.

      Ethnographic analogy

    Correct Answer
    D. Ethnographic analogy
    Explanation
    Ethnographic analogy is not a synonym for a fairly new area of evolutionary biology. Ethnographic analogy refers to the use of observations and comparisons of different cultures to gain insights into human behavior and society. It is a method used in anthropology, not evolutionary biology. On the other hand, sociobiology, evolutionary psychology, and behavioral ecology are all fields within evolutionary biology that study the relationship between behavior and evolution.

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  • 26. 

    The premise of sociobiology with regard to humans is that:

    • A.

      Human behaviors all have a biological basis

    • B.

      Only human social behaviors have a biological basis

    • C.

      Some behavioral themes evolved because they had a reproductive advantage

    • D.

      We are aware of the reproductive consequences of all our cultural choices

    Correct Answer
    C. Some behavioral themes evolved because they had a reproductive advantage
    Explanation
    Sociobiology proposes that certain behavioral patterns in humans have evolved because they provided a reproductive advantage. This means that these behaviors increased the chances of individuals passing on their genes to future generations. It suggests that natural selection has played a role in shaping human behavior, as those behaviors that were beneficial for reproduction became more prevalent over time. This explanation aligns with the principles of evolutionary biology, which emphasize the importance of reproductive success in driving the evolution of species.

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  • Sep 02, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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