Block 9 Path Cellular Injury

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Injury Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

     A pathologist notes the following findings after light microscopic examination of a section of liver from a chronic alcoholic. Which of the following is an example of a reversible injury?

    • A.

      Pyknosis

    • B.

      Cytoplasmic vacuoles

    • C.

      Rupture of cell membrane

    • D.

      Karyolysis

    • E.

      Karyorrhexis

    Correct Answer
    B. Cytoplasmic vacuoles
    Explanation
    Cytoplasmic vacuoles are an example of a reversible injury. In this case, the chronic alcoholism has caused the liver cells to accumulate excess fat, leading to the formation of vacuoles within the cytoplasm. This is a reversible injury because if the underlying cause, in this case, chronic alcoholism, is addressed and eliminated, the liver cells can recover and return to their normal state.

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  • 2. 

     You are asked to review an electron micrograph  of a section of liver from a chronic alcoholic Which of the following is an example of an irreversible injury?

    • A.

      Cellular edema

    • B.

      Chromatin clumping

    • C.

      Cytoplasmic inclusions

    • D.

      Mitochondrial swelling

    • E.

      Rupture of cell membrane

    Correct Answer
    E. Rupture of cell membrane
    Explanation
    The rupture of the cell membrane is an example of irreversible injury. Once the cell membrane is ruptured, the cell loses its integrity and cannot function properly. This can lead to cell death and cannot be reversed. In contrast, cellular edema, chromatin clumping, cytoplasmic inclusions, and mitochondrial swelling are examples of reversible injuries, where the cell can recover and return to normal function if the underlying cause is removed.

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  • 3. 

     A patient is admitted with severe substernal chest pain of 4 hours duration. Lab tests reveal  increased level of the serum creatine kinase.  This is most likely due to:  

    • A.

      Mitochondrial swelling

    • B.

      Nuclear lysis

    • C.

      Damage of plasma membranes

    • D.

      Increased endoplasmic reticulum

    • E.

      Increased golgi activity

    Correct Answer
    C. Damage of plasma membranes
    Explanation
    The increased level of serum creatine kinase indicates damage to the plasma membranes. Creatine kinase is an enzyme found in high concentrations in muscle tissue, including the heart. When the plasma membranes of cells are damaged, creatine kinase leaks out into the bloodstream, leading to an increase in its levels. This suggests that the patient's chest pain may be due to damage to the plasma membranes of the heart muscle cells.

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  • 4. 

    You are asked to review a liver biopsy from a patient with history of alcohol abuse. Which of the following pathologic changes will most likely lead to death of hepatocytes and liver cirrhosis? 

    • A.

      Fatty change in liver cells

    • B.

      Hydropic change of hepatocytes

    • C.

      Karyolysis in myocardial cells

    • D.

      Glycogen deposition in hepatocyte nuclei

    Correct Answer
    C. Karyolysis in myocardial cells
  • 5. 

    A pathologist notes that a biopsy from the lung of living patients shows the morphologic changes indicative of irreversible injury and cell death. Which of the following is most likely responsible for  cell death in a living body? 

    • A.

      Cytolysis

    • B.

      Necrosis

    • C.

      Putrefaction

    • D.

      Autolysis

    • E.

      Somatic death

    Correct Answer
    D. Autolysis
    Explanation
    Autolysis refers to the self-digestion of cells by their own enzymes after they die. In this scenario, the pathologist observes morphologic changes indicative of irreversible injury and cell death in the lung biopsy of living patients. This suggests that the cells in the lung tissue are undergoing autolysis, which is the most likely cause of cell death in a living body. Cytolysis refers to the bursting of cells due to osmotic imbalance, necrosis is the death of cells due to injury or disease, putrefaction is the decomposition of tissues after death, and somatic death refers to the death of the entire organism.

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  • 6. 

     You are asked to participate in a research project on myocardial infarctions in a rat model. Which of the following occurs in ischemic cell injury?

    • A.

      Efflux of K+ and Na+

    • B.

      Influx of K+ and Ca++

    • C.

      Influx of K+ and H2O

    • D.

      Influx of Na+ and Ca++

    • E.

      Influx of Na+ and K+

    Correct Answer
    D. Influx of Na+ and Ca++
    Explanation
    During ischemic cell injury, there is a disruption in the blood supply to the cells, leading to oxygen and nutrient deprivation. This results in the failure of the sodium-potassium pump, which normally maintains the balance of sodium and potassium ions inside and outside the cell. As a result, there is an influx of sodium ions into the cell, causing cell swelling and damage. Additionally, calcium ions also enter the cell, further contributing to cellular injury and death. Therefore, the correct answer is the influx of Na+ and Ca++.

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  • 7. 

     Cell death causes by autolysis is produced by

    • A.

      Antibodies

    • B.

      Endogenous enzymes

    • C.

      Phagocytic leukocytes

    • D.

      Bacterial enzymes

    • E.

      Anoxia

    Correct Answer
    B. Endogenous enzymes
    Explanation
    Cell death caused by autolysis is produced by endogenous enzymes. Autolysis refers to the process of self-digestion that occurs when cells die. Endogenous enzymes, which are enzymes naturally produced within the body, are responsible for breaking down the cellular components and leading to cell death. This process is a normal part of the body's natural cell turnover and is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis.

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  • 8. 

     A 10-year-old black man with a known history of sickle cell disease presents to the emergency department complaining of left upper quadrant pain suggestive of a splenic infarct. Microscopic examination of the spleen would most likely reveal

    • A.

      Caseous necrosis

    • B.

      Coagulative necrosis

    • C.

      Fibrinoid necrosis

    • D.

      Gangrenous necrosis

    • E.

      Liquefactive necrosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Coagulative necrosis
    Explanation
    In a patient with sickle cell disease presenting with left upper quadrant pain suggestive of a splenic infarct, the most likely microscopic finding in the spleen would be coagulative necrosis. Sickle cell disease is characterized by the presence of abnormal sickle-shaped red blood cells, which can cause blockage of blood vessels leading to tissue ischemia and infarction. Coagulative necrosis is a type of necrosis characterized by the preservation of tissue architecture, with the affected tissue appearing pale and firm. This is consistent with the pathophysiology of infarction, where the blood supply to the tissue is blocked, leading to ischemia and subsequent necrosis while the tissue structure remains intact.

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  • 9. 

    A pathologist  notes cloudy swelling, hydropic change and fatty change in the liver of a patient with a history of alcohol abuse.  These morphological changes are all examples of

    • A.

      Early neoplastic change

    • B.

      Hyaline change

    • C.

      Patterns of cell death

    • D.

      Postmortem artefact

    • E.

      Reversible cell injury

    Correct Answer
    E. Reversible cell injury
    Explanation
    The morphological changes described in the liver of the patient, including cloudy swelling, hydropic change, and fatty change, are all indicative of reversible cell injury. These changes are commonly seen in cases of alcohol abuse, where the liver cells are exposed to chronic alcohol toxicity. Reversible cell injury refers to cellular changes that can be reversed if the damaging stimulus is removed. In this case, if the patient stops consuming alcohol, the liver cells have the potential to recover and return to their normal state.

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  • 10. 

      •Which of the following is an example of an agent capable of producing a toxic metabolite and indirect chemical injury?

    • A.

      Alcohol

    • B.

      Aspirin

    • C.

      Carbon monoxide

    • D.

      Mercury poisoning

    • E.

      Cyanide

    Correct Answer
    A. Alcohol
    Explanation
    Alcohol is an example of an agent capable of producing a toxic metabolite and indirect chemical injury. When alcohol is metabolized in the liver, it produces a toxic byproduct called acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde can cause damage to various organs and tissues in the body, leading to indirect chemical injury. This can result in conditions such as alcoholic liver disease, pancreatitis, and alcoholic neuropathy.

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  • 11. 

     A circumscribed mass of light yellow crumbly to pasty material associated microscopically with a macrophage response is  characteristic of

    • A.

      Caseous necrosis

    • B.

      Coagulative necrosis

    • C.

      Fibrinoid necrosis

    • D.

      Gangrenous necrosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Caseous necrosis
    Explanation
    A circumscribed mass of light yellow crumbly to pasty material associated microscopically with a macrophage response is characteristic of caseous necrosis.

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  • 12. 

     A well-demarcated lesion with increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia, karyolysis, and intact tissue architecture is characteristic of

    • A.

      Caseous necrosis

    • B.

      Enzymatic fat necrosis

    • C.

      Coagulative necrosis

    • D.

      Cloudy swelling

    • E.

      Liquefactive necrosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Coagulative necrosis
    Explanation
    A well-demarcated lesion with increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia, karyolysis, and intact tissue architecture is characteristic of coagulative necrosis. Coagulative necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs due to ischemia or hypoxia. It is characterized by the preservation of tissue architecture, with the cells appearing eosinophilic due to denaturation of proteins. Karyolysis refers to the dissolution of the nucleus, which is also seen in coagulative necrosis. This type of necrosis is commonly seen in organs such as the heart, kidney, and liver.

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  • 13. 

    The pattern of cell death that is characterized by conversion of a single cell to an acidophilic body, usually with loss of the  nucleus but with preservation of its shape to permit recognition of cell boundaries is termed 

    • A.

      Apoptosis

    • B.

      Caseous necrosis

    • C.

      Fibrinoid necrosis

    • D.

      Liquefactive necrosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Apoptosis
    Explanation
    Apoptosis is the correct answer because it refers to the pattern of cell death described in the question. Apoptosis is a highly regulated process in which a single cell undergoes programmed cell death. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes changes such as condensation of the nucleus and fragmentation of the DNA, resulting in the formation of acidophilic bodies. Despite these changes, the cell boundaries remain intact, allowing for the recognition of cell boundaries. This pattern of cell death is distinct from the other options provided, which involve different mechanisms and characteristics of cell death.

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  • 14. 

       A 65 year old man presents with angina and dyspnea. He has a family history of hypercholesterolemia.  Unfortunately despite thrombolytic therapy he dies.  What would you expect to see on light microscopic examination of cardiac tissue?

    • A.

      Caseous necrosis

    • B.

      Enzymatic fat necrosis

    • C.

      Liquefactive necrosis

    • D.

      Coagulative necrosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Coagulative necrosis
    Explanation
    Coagulative necrosis is the most likely finding on light microscopic examination of the cardiac tissue in this case. Coagulative necrosis is a type of cell death characterized by the preservation of tissue architecture, as seen in the heart muscle. It is commonly caused by ischemia, which can occur in conditions like angina. The presence of angina and dyspnea suggests that the patient had reduced blood flow to the heart, leading to ischemia and subsequent coagulative necrosis.

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  • 15. 

    Laproscopic examination of the abdomen was performed on a 50 year old chronic alcoholic man.  The surgeon noted digestion of tissue with soap formation and calcification. Which of the following is this most likely characteristic of?

    • A.

      Coagulative necrosis

    • B.

      Caseous necrosis

    • C.

      Enzymatic fat necrosis

    • D.

      Liquefactive necrosi

    Correct Answer
    C. Enzymatic fat necrosis
    Explanation
    The description of digestion of tissue with soap formation and calcification suggests the presence of enzymatic fat necrosis. In this condition, pancreatic lipases are activated and cause the digestion of fat cells, resulting in the release of fatty acids. These fatty acids then combine with calcium ions to form insoluble soaps, which appear as white, chalky deposits. This process is commonly seen in cases of pancreatitis, which is often associated with chronic alcoholism.

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  • 16. 

     The action of putrefactive bacteria on necrotic tissue results in

    • A.

      Coagulation

    • B.

      Infarction

    • C.

      Gangrene

    • D.

      Embolism

    • E.

      Caseation

    Correct Answer
    C. Gangrene
    Explanation
    Putrefactive bacteria are known to cause the decay and decomposition of dead tissue. When these bacteria act on necrotic tissue, they release toxins that lead to tissue death and subsequent decay. This process is commonly referred to as gangrene, which is characterized by the death and decay of body tissue.

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  • 17. 

     A well-demarcated area of myocardium appears paler than surrounding tissue and microscopically consists of eosinophilic muscle fibers with only a few karyorrhectic and pyknotic nuclei remaining. Many polys are seen, especially at the margin of this area. The age of the myocardial infarct is most likely 

    • A.

      2 minutes

    • B.

      2 hours

    • C.

      2 days

    • D.

      2 weeks

    • E.

      2 months

    Correct Answer
    C. 2 days
    Explanation
    The given description indicates that there is a well-demarcated area of paler myocardium with eosinophilic muscle fibers and few remaining nuclei. This suggests that the area is undergoing coagulative necrosis, which is characteristic of a myocardial infarct. The presence of many polys at the margin of the area indicates an inflammatory response, which typically occurs around 48-72 hours after the onset of myocardial infarction. Therefore, the age of the myocardial infarct is most likely 2 days.

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  • 18. 

     You are asked to write a microscopic description of the coagulative  necrosis that was noted in the heart of a patient who died of a heart attack because of cocaine abuse.  Which of the following best described coagulative necrosis?

    • A.

      Eosinophilic cytoplasm with cell outlines preserved

    • B.

      Granular, friable mass of material devoid of cell outlines

    • C.

      Localized, solid, basophilic lesion with calcification

    • D.

      Necrosis in which tissue is converted into a fluid

    Correct Answer
    A. Eosinophilic cytoplasm with cell outlines preserved
    Explanation
    Coagulative necrosis is a type of cell death characterized by the preservation of cell outlines and the presence of eosinophilic cytoplasm. This type of necrosis typically occurs in the heart during a heart attack. The other options, such as a granular, friable mass devoid of cell outlines or a localized, solid, basophilic lesion with calcification, do not accurately describe coagulative necrosis. Additionally, necrosis in which tissue is converted into a fluid is not characteristic of coagulative necrosis.

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  • 19. 

     Caseous necrosis is characterized morphologically by 

    • A.

      Preservation of tissue outlines

    • B.

      Basophilia

    • C.

      Semi-liquid consistency

    • D.

      Wedge-shaped periphery

    • E.

      Amorphous appearance

    Correct Answer
    E. Amorphous appearance
    Explanation
    Amorphous appearance is a characteristic feature of caseous necrosis. It refers to the tissue appearing structureless and lacking any defined shape or organization. This is due to the breakdown of cellular and tissue components, resulting in a granular and homogeneous appearance. The amorphous appearance is commonly observed in diseases such as tuberculosis, where the necrotic tissue forms a cheesy, amorphous mass.

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  • 20. 

     Caseous necrosis is characterized morphologically by 

    • A.

      Preservation of tissue outlines

    • B.

      Basophilia

    • C.

      Semi-liquid consistency

    • D.

      Wedge-shaped periphery

    • E.

      Amorphous appearance

    Correct Answer
    E. Amorphous appearance
    Explanation
    Caseous necrosis is a form of necrosis characterized by the formation of a cheese-like, amorphous material in the affected tissue. This material lacks distinct tissue outlines and has a semi-liquid consistency. The amorphous appearance is due to the breakdown of cellular structures and the accumulation of debris and inflammatory cells. This type of necrosis is commonly seen in tuberculosis and certain fungal infections.

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  • 21. 

    Which tissue is the most susceptible to liquefactive necrosis following ischemic injury?

    • A.

      Pancreas

    • B.

      Liver

    • C.

      Spleen

    • D.

      Brain

    • E.

      Intestine

    Correct Answer
    D. Brain
    Explanation
    The brain is the most susceptible tissue to liquefactive necrosis following ischemic injury. Ischemic injury occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to a tissue, leading to cell death. Liquefactive necrosis is characterized by the formation of liquid-filled spaces within the affected tissue. The brain is highly dependent on a constant blood supply for oxygen and nutrients, and any interruption in this supply can quickly lead to tissue damage and necrosis. Therefore, the brain is particularly vulnerable to liquefactive necrosis following ischemic injury.

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  • 22. 

     A patient suffers a stroke and has left sided weakness and paralysis in the upper extremity. The type of necrosis associated with a well-developed infarct of the brain is

    • A.

      Coagulative

    • B.

      Enzymatic fat

    • C.

      Liquefactive

    • D.

      Gangrenous

    Correct Answer
    C. Liquefactive
    Explanation
    When a patient suffers a stroke and develops an infarct in the brain, the type of necrosis associated with it is liquefactive necrosis. Liquefactive necrosis is characterized by the rapid digestion of cells, resulting in the formation of a liquid-filled cystic space. In the brain, this type of necrosis occurs due to the action of enzymes released by inflammatory cells, which break down the tissue. This leads to the formation of a cavity filled with liquefied debris, resulting in the loss of tissue structure and function.

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  • 23. 

     75-year-old woman has a complaint of shortness of breath and chest pain that radiates to the left shoulder.  Serum levels of CK-MB (myocardial creatine kinase) and cardiac muscle troponin I (cTnI) are elevated. Which of the following types of myocardial cell death would best account for these findings?

    • A.

      Apoptosis

    • B.

      Caseous necrosis

    • C.

      Coagulative necrosis

    • D.

      Fat necrosis

    • E.

      Liquefactive necrosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Coagulative necrosis
    Explanation
    The elevated levels of CK-MB and cTnI indicate myocardial cell death. Coagulative necrosis is the most likely type of cell death in this scenario because it is commonly seen in ischemic conditions such as myocardial infarction. In coagulative necrosis, the architecture of the tissue is preserved, but the cells undergo irreversible damage due to lack of blood supply. This type of necrosis is characterized by protein denaturation and loss of cell nuclei, which can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath and chest pain.

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  • 24. 

     Coagulative necrosis usually results from

    • A.

      Abscess formation

    • B.

      Ischemia

    • C.

      Trauma

    • D.

      Tuberculosis

    • E.

      Syphilis

    Correct Answer
    B. Ischemia
    Explanation
    Coagulative necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs due to ischemia, which is the lack of blood supply to a particular tissue or organ. Ischemia leads to the deprivation of oxygen and nutrients, causing the affected cells to undergo coagulative necrosis. This process is characterized by the preservation of cell architecture and the formation of a firm, pale area of tissue. Abscess formation, trauma, tuberculosis, and syphilis can cause tissue damage, but they do not directly lead to coagulative necrosis.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 06, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Chachelly
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