Cross-company code purchasing
The material master is divided into several views. When entering general data in a particular view, you must specify an organizational level.
The data in the basic view is valid on the client-level.
A SAP ERP user's authorizations for data maintenance can be limited to particular views of a material master.
When maintaining client-specific data in the MRP views, you must enter a specific plant at the organizational level.
When maintaining purchasing-relevant data in the material master you must specify the purchasing organization as the organizational level.
When maintaining purchasing-relevant data in the material master you must specify the plant as the organizational level.
Data maintained in the general data view are valid on client-level.
The vendor master data cannot be maintained without specifying the purchasing organization.
The reconciliation account is maintained in the purchasing data view.
Accounting data are stored on the company code level.
Purchasing data about a vendor are maintained on the purchasing the organization level.
You must maintain the accounting data of a vendor on the company code level to be able to accomplish the purchase-to-pay business process.
The data for a purchasing info record is divided into client-specific data, purchasing organization-specific data as well as purchasing organization-specific and company-code-specific data.
You can maintain prices and conditions in a purchasing info record.
Purchasing info records must have a validity date or validity period.
Conditions maintained in purchasing info records apply to all purchase order items containing the material or vendor of the purchasing info record.
You can define vendor data and vendor-specific data about a material in a purchasing info record.
The purchase requisition can be created manually.
A purchase requisition can be created automatically due to a MRP run.
A purchasing requisition can be created as follow up to a purchase order.
You cannot create a purchase requisition for a material that does not have a master data record.
A purchasing requisition derives information from material and vendor master records.
A consumable material is purchased specifically for a particular account assignment object and is consumed without being put on stock.
When a material is procured directly for consumption, no material master is required.
Consumable materials with a master data record are never subject to inventory management.
Consumable materials with master data record, can be subject to quantity-based inventory management but never to value-based inventory management.
Materials with a master data record cannot be procured for direct consumption.
Stock materials always have a material master record.
The valuation class in the material master of a stock material specifies the account assignment category in the purchase order for material.
A consumable material is a material without a material master record.
You cannot procure stock material for consumption.
The account assignment category must be entered in the purchasing document when procuring material for consumption.
When procuring stock materials, the consumption account specified in the purchase order is debited with the procurement value at the time of goods receipt and/or invoice receipt.
Purchase orders contain a header level, an item detail level, and an item summarization.
A purchase order can be created without reference to a purchase requisition.
A purchase order must be created with reference to a purchase requisition, a request for a quotation, or another document.
A purchase order derives information from vendor master data, material master data, and purchasing info records.
A purchase order can initiate a stock transport order in another plant of the company.
You must enter the account assignment category for both material types.
The Goods Receipt posting is mandatory for stock materials.
The Goods Receipt posting is mandatory for consumable materials.
When procuring consumable materials, the consumption account specified in the purchase order is debited with the procurement value at the time of goods receipt and/or invoice receipt.
When procuring stock materials, the stock account assigned to this material is debited with the procurement value at the time of goods receipt and/or invoice receipt.
The status of the purchase order history of the relevant purchasing document items is updated automatically.
A material document is only created when posting goods receipt in the warehouse if the material is a stock material.
The goods receipt updates the vendor account and the reconciliation account.
An accounting document is created, which records the effects the material movement has on the value of the stock.
You can enter several goods receipt items against a purchase order item in one operation.
The movement type controls whether a goods movement is a goods issue or a goods receipt.
Each movement type has its respective cancellation movement type, which corresponds to the number of the movement type + A.
In inventory management the movement type of a goods movement controls which stock account in Management Accounting is used for value-based stock changes.
The screen layout of the input mask for document entry or for updating quantity fields is controlled by the movement type used.
A goods receipt for the warehouse can be posted into the following stock types: unrestricted-use stock, quality inspection stock, blocked stock.
If you want to withdraw materials from stock for consumption purposes, this can only be carried out from unrestricted-use stock and quality-inspection stock, but not from blocked stock.
You can transfer materials from blocked stock only to quality-inspection stock.
From quality-inspection stock and blocked stock, you can only withdraw material samples, scrap a quantity, or post an inventory difference. You cannot withdraw materials for consumption in any case.
Invoice items can be posted with reference to a goods receipt, a purchase order and a purchase requisition.
The system transfers the items from the purchase order together with their quantities that are still to be invoiced into the invoice document.
If the variances between the invoice values and the expected values from a purchase order exceed specified tolerances, the invoice is automatically blocked for payment.
An accounting document is not created, since accounts in Financial Accounting are not involved in this step.
Posting of an invoice creates an open item on the vendor account in General Ledger.
Posting of an invoice creates an open item on the vendor account in the Sub-ledger Accounts Payable and a corresponding item in the reconciliation account in General Ledger.
When posting a goods receipt for a stock material an accounting document is created that debits the particular General Ledger stock account and credits the goods receipt/invoice receipt clearing account with the value of the material received.
When posting a vendor invoice an accounting document is created that credits the vendor account in the Accounts Payable Sub-ledger and debits the goods receipt/invoice receipt clearing account with the value of the material invoiced.
Since the receipt of the good must take place before the invoice posting, the receipt of the goods/invoice receipt clearing account is always balanced out after the invoice receipt.
Upon goods receipt, the Accounts Payable sub-ledger reconciliation account in the General Ledger is debited with the value of the material received.
Upon invoice receipt, the Accounts Payable Sub-ledger reconciliation account in the General Ledger is credited with the value of the material invoiced.
The payment of the vendor invoice does not create an accounting document. Only the accounting document from the invoice posting is cleared.
Payment of the vendor invoice creates an accounting document that debits the vendor account in the Accounts Payable Sub-ledger and the reconciliation account in General Ledger.
Terms of payment
The material master record can be assigned to different material types in different plants.
The data maintained in a view, can be used in more than one organizational unit.
All logistic modules use the same material master record.
Each plant has to have its own material master record.
Valuated stock that is assigned to WBS-element.
Equipment that is assigned to a maintenance order.
Office supplies that are assigned to a cost center.
Material that is procured for an internal order.
The vendor master is updated with the invoice receipt.
An open item is created on the vendor's account.
The warehouse stock of the material is raised.
The invoice document is entered in the purchase order history.
The vendor master record is updated.
The provisions in the GR/IR clearing account are reversed.
The on-hand quantity in the material master is updated.
The purchase order history is updated.
An open item is created in the vendor's account.
The payment is applied to the vendor's account.
The standard price in the material master is recalculated.
An accounting document is generated which posts directly to the Accounts Payable account within the general ledger.
The GR/IR account wihtin the general ledger is debited.