1.
What is the symbol for the Newtonian constant of gravitation?
Correct Answer
A. G
Explanation
The symbol for the Newtonian constant of gravitation is G. In physics, symbols are used to represent physical quantities, and G represents the gravitational constant. This constant is a fundamental part of Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, describing the strength of the gravitational force between two objects.
2.
The SI unit for the Newtonian constant of gravitation is:
Correct Answer
D. Newtons meters squared per kilogram squared
Explanation
The SI unit for the Newtonian constant of gravitation is newtons meters squared per kilogram squared. This complex unit reflects the dimensions of the gravitational constant G, highlighting its role in determining the force of gravity between masses when expressed in the SI unit system.
3.
The value of the Newtonian constant of gravitation is approximately:
Correct Answer
B. 6.6743 x 10^-11 m^3/kg^2
Explanation
The value of the Newtonian constant of gravitation is approximately 6.6743 x 10^-11 m^3/kg^2. This numerical value quantifies the strength of the gravitational force and is crucial in various scientific calculations, ranging from celestial mechanics to understanding the interactions between everyday objects.
4.
According to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, the gravitational force between two objects is directly proportional to:
Correct Answer
A. The product of their masses
Explanation
According to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, the gravitational force between two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses. This fundamental principle states that the force of gravity is influenced by the masses of the interacting objects, with a higher mass leading to a stronger gravitational attraction.
5.
The gravitational force between two objects is inversely proportional to:
Correct Answer
C. The square of the distance between their centers
Explanation
The gravitational force between two objects is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. This inverse square law signifies that as the distance between two masses increases, the gravitational force weakens proportionally to the square of that distance, providing insights into the nature of gravitational interactions.
6.
If the distance between two objects doubles, the gravitational force between them:
Correct Answer
B. Decreases by a factor of 4
7.
What is the gravitational force between a mass of 1 kg and a mass of 2 kg separated by a distance of 1 meter?
Correct Answer
A. 1.33486×10 ^ −10 N
8.
Which of the following factors does NOT affect the gravitational force between two objects?
Correct Answer
A. Their composition
Explanation
The following factor does NOT affect the gravitational force between two objects: their composition. According to the Law of Universal Gravitation, the nature or composition of the objects involved does not influence the gravitational force between them. Gravity acts universally on all objects regardless of their composition.
9.
The acceleration due to gravity on Earth is approximately:
Correct Answer
A. 9.8 m/s^2
Explanation
The acceleration due to gravity on Earth is approximately 9.8 m/s^2. This value represents the acceleration experienced by objects in free fall near the surface of the Earth, demonstrating the gravitational force's impact on objects in the planet's gravitational field.
10.
What is the escape velocity from the surface of Earth?
Correct Answer
A. 11.2 km/s
Explanation
The escape velocity from the surface of Earth is 11.2 km/s. This speed is required for an object to overcome Earth's gravitational pull and enter space without falling back. Escape velocity is determined by the mass of the celestial body and its radius, emphasizing the role of gravity in space exploration.
11.
What is the main limitation of using the Newtonian constant of gravitation for astronomical calculations?
Correct Answer
A. It does not account for the effects of general relativity.
Explanation
The main limitation of using the Newtonian constant of gravitation for astronomical calculations is that it does not account for the effects of general relativity. While Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation is highly accurate in many scenarios, it does not address the relativistic effects that become significant in extreme conditions, such as those near massive celestial bodies or at high velocities.
12.
Which scientist first formulated the Law of Universal Gravitation?
Correct Answer
A. Isaac Newton
Explanation
The scientist who first formulated the Law of Universal Gravitation is Isaac Newton. Newton, a pioneering physicist and mathematician, introduced this groundbreaking law in his work "PhilosophiÃ¦ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in 1687, revolutionizing our understanding of gravity.
13.
What experiment provided evidence for the Law of Universal Gravitation?
Correct Answer
A. Cavendish experiment
Explanation
The Cavendish experiment provided evidence for the Law of Universal Gravitation. This landmark experiment, conducted by Henry Cavendish in 1797â€“1798, involved measuring the small gravitational attraction between lead spheres, confirming the predictions of Newton's law and providing crucial experimental validation.
14.
Modern technology relies on the accurate measurement of the Newtonian constant of gravitation for applications such as:
Correct Answer
D. All of the above
Explanation
Modern technology relies on the accurate measurement of the Newtonian constant of gravitation for applications such as satellite orbits, gravitational wave detection, and GPS navigation. Precise knowledge of G is essential for calculating orbits, predicting gravitational wave characteristics, and ensuring the accuracy of global positioning systems, showcasing the practical importance of this constant in contemporary technology.
15.
What are some current research areas related to the Newtonian constant of gravitation?
Correct Answer
D. All of the above
Explanation
Some current research areas related to the Newtonian constant of gravitation include testing its universality in different environments, searching for deviations from its predicted value, and developing more precise measurement techniques. Ongoing scientific investigations aim to explore the constancy of G in diverse conditions, identify potential variations, and enhance measurement techniques to refine our understanding of gravity at both macroscopic and microscopic scales.