Medical Terminology - Urinary System Quiz 2

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| By Mtdnavarro
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Quizzes Created: 4 | Total Attempts: 12,706
Questions: 10 | Attempts: 1,379

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Medical Terminology - Urinary System Quiz 2 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and on the kidney.

    • A.

      Bladder

    • B.

      Wilms Tumor

    • C.

      Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

    Correct Answer
    C. Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
    Explanation
    Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is the correct answer because it is a condition characterized by the presence of multiple fluid-filled cysts within and on the kidney. These cysts can grow in size and number over time, leading to the enlargement of the kidneys. PKD is a genetic disorder and can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, high blood pressure, and kidney dysfunction. It is important to diagnose and manage PKD to prevent complications and preserve kidney function.

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  • 2. 

    Inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma.

    • A.

      Pyelonephritis

    • B.

      Renal Failure

    • C.

      Bladder Cancer

    Correct Answer
    A. Pyelonephritis
    Explanation
    Pyelonephritis refers to the inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma, which are parts of the kidney. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that starts in the bladder and ascends to the kidneys. Common symptoms include pain in the lower back or side, fever, and frequent urination. If left untreated, pyelonephritis can lead to complications such as renal failure. Bladder cancer is unrelated to the inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma.

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  • 3. 

    Cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood.

    • A.

      Wilms Tumor

    • B.

      Renal Cell Carcinoma (Hypernephroma)

    • C.

      Diabetes Mellitus

    Correct Answer
    B. Renal Cell Carcinoma (Hypernephroma)
    Explanation
    Renal cell carcinoma, also known as hypernephroma, is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. It typically occurs in individuals over the age of 40 and is characterized by the development of cancerous tumors in the kidney. Unlike Wilms tumor, which is a type of kidney cancer that primarily affects children, renal cell carcinoma is typically seen in adulthood. Diabetes mellitus, on the other hand, is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels and is not directly related to kidney cancer. Therefore, the correct answer is renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma).

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  • 4. 

    Measurement of urea levels in blood.

    • A.

      Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

    • B.

      Diabetes

    • C.

      Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Correct Answer
    A. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
    Explanation
    Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) is a commonly used test to measure the levels of urea in the blood. Urea is a waste product that is produced when the body breaks down proteins. Elevated levels of BUN can indicate conditions such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In diabetes, high blood sugar levels can lead to increased production of urea. In CKD, the kidneys are not able to effectively remove urea from the blood, leading to elevated BUN levels. Therefore, measuring BUN levels can provide valuable information about the functioning of the kidneys and the presence of certain diseases.

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  • 5. 

    Measurement of the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.

    • A.

      CT Scan

    • B.

      Renal Angiography

    • C.

      Creatinine Clearance

    Correct Answer
    C. Creatinine Clearance
    Explanation
    Creatinine clearance is the measurement of the rate at which creatinine, a waste product produced by the muscles, is cleared from the blood by the kidneys. This test is used to assess the kidney function and estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). By measuring the amount of creatinine in the urine and comparing it to the amount in the blood, the creatinine clearance can be calculated. A higher creatinine clearance indicates better kidney function, while a lower clearance may suggest impaired kidney function or disease. This test is commonly used in clinical practice to evaluate kidney health and monitor the progression of kidney disease.

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  • 6. 

    Direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope).

    • A.

      Cystoscopy

    • B.

      Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    • C.

      Kidney, Ureters, and Bladder (KUB)

    Correct Answer
    A. Cystoscopy
    Explanation
    Cystoscopy is the correct answer because it involves the direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder using an endoscope called a cystoscope. This procedure allows doctors to examine the inside of the bladder and urethra for any abnormalities or signs of disease. It is a common diagnostic tool used to investigate urinary tract problems such as urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections, or blood in the urine. Other options like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Kidney, Ureters, and Bladder (KUB) are not suitable for direct visualization of the urethra and bladder.

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  • 7. 

    Cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis

    • A.

      Hematuria

    • B.

      Trigone

    • C.

      Calyx (Calix)

    Correct Answer
    C. Calyx (Calix)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Calyx (Calix). The calyx is a cup-like structure that is part of the renal pelvis. It collects urine from the renal pyramids and transports it to the renal pelvis. Hematuria refers to the presence of blood in the urine, and the trigone is a triangular area in the bladder. However, neither of these options are related to the cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis.

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  • 8. 

    Voiding

    • A.

      Outer section of the kidney

    • B.

      Urination; micturition

    • C.

      Renin

    Correct Answer
    B. Urination; micturition
    Explanation
    Urination, also known as micturition, refers to the process of expelling urine from the bladder through the urethra. It is a vital function of the urinary system that helps eliminate waste products, excess water, and toxins from the body. Voiding, on the other hand, refers to the act of emptying the bladder during urination. Therefore, the correct answer is "Urination; micturition."

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  • 9. 

    Small molecule that carries an electric charge in solution.

    • A.

      Hilum

    • B.

      Electrolyte

    • C.

      Renal Cortex

    Correct Answer
    B. Electrolyte
    Explanation
    An electrolyte is a small molecule that carries an electric charge in solution. It is able to conduct electricity when dissolved in water or other solvents. Electrolytes are important for various physiological processes in the body, such as maintaining proper fluid balance, nerve and muscle function, and pH regulation. They are commonly found in bodily fluids like blood, urine, and sweat.

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  • 10. 

    Inner region of the kidney.

    • A.

      Renal Medulla

    • B.

      Renin

    • C.

      Meatus

    Correct Answer
    A. Renal Medulla
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Renal Medulla. The renal medulla is the innermost region of the kidney. It is composed of renal pyramids, which contain the loops of Henle and collecting ducts. The renal medulla plays a crucial role in the concentration and dilution of urine. It is responsible for maintaining the osmotic balance in the body by reabsorbing water and electrolytes. The renal medulla is also involved in the production of renin, an enzyme that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

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