Out of 300 fatal crashes 99% were considered frontal impacts.
10,000 ambulances crashes occur every year that cause death or injury.
82% of fatally injured rear occupants were restrained properly.
Evaluate EMS transport practices and formulate recommendations for inter-hospital transport.
Address urgent transportation services provided by ambulances only.
Address transportation services from vehicle accident scene to hospital only.
Provide general recommendations (i.e., the “dos and don’ts) for transporting children in ambulances.
Address protocol and policy development.
Recommend children who are not patients ride properly restrained in an alternate passenger vehicle whenever possible.
Protect the child from damaging their extremities during a crash.
Position the child upright on the cot for medical procedures.
Prevent ejection, spread forces over a wide area via use of a five-point-harness contacting the body at the strongest parts, slow down the body reducing crash forces, and protect the brain, spinal cord and internal organs.
Have been established since 1982 for CSS use in the rear compartment.
Do not exist.
Are established for CSS use on the captain’s chair only.
Use non-regulated products and padding under and behind the child if needed.
Read all manufacturer’s instructions before use.
Install CSS if it has been involved in a moderate or severe crash.
The harness retainer clip should be positioned below the arm pits.
The harness should fit snug enough to fit one finger under the strap.
The harness should fit snuggly so that you are unable to pinch the webbing at the shoulder and the retainer clip should be positioned at arm pit level.
It can only be used forward-facing in the vehicle.
It can usually accommodate infants up to 40 pounds.
It can never be used in front of an air bag
Can only be used forward-facing in the vehicle.
Can be used rear-facing and forward-facing using the same belt path.
Can be used rear-facing and forward-facing using different belt paths for each mode (2 belt paths are present).
A lap belt
A lap and shoulder belt.
In the front passenger seat of the ambulance using their child restraint.
In the rear compartment of the ambulance riding in a convertible car seat.
In a passenger vehicle in a child restraint appropriate for their height, weight, and age when possible.
Be used in any seating position with seat belts that meet FMVSS standards
Never be installed on a side-facing bench seat or captain’s chair.
Be carried on the lap of the parent if the harness is used to restrain the child.
This type of CSS has only one belt path.
This type of CSS does not have a belt path.
This type of CSS does not have a five-point-harness.
On the front passenger seat of the ambulance chaise with no active air bag.
On the rear-facing captain’s chair.
On the forward-facing captain’s chair that meets FMVSS 208 and 209.
Choose CSS with a three-point harness and install facing the rear of the ambulance.
Choose CSS with a five-point harness and install facing the rear of the ambulance.
Do not elevate the cot backrest to fully upright position.
The child may have a spinal cord injury.
The child is uninjured but must be transported in the ambulance.
The child is injured but not acutely ill and able to be treated in a semi-reclined position.
Only use car bed using two belt systems by obtaining a second set of loops from the manufacturer.
Do not elevate cot backrest to fully upright position.
Position head away from side of vehicle.
The child’s injuries are able to be treated while secured in the car bed.
The child is acutely ill or unable to maintain thermoregulatory stability.
The child does not have a spinal cord injury.
Adult cot-mounted harness systems provide adequate protection to children if adjusted properly.
Adult cot-mounted harness systems provide adequate protection to children if extra strapping is used to restrain the child.
Adult cot-mounted harness systems may not provide adequate restraint to pediatric patients in the event of a crash.
Regulate ambulance specific crash test criteria similar to FMVSS 213.
Have not been developed.
Regulate height and weight of patients that can use Ambulance Specific restraints on the ambulance cot.
Secure them with a seat belt on the lap of an adult when possible.
Secure them with a child restraint on a side-facing bench seat.
Secure them by utilizing an integrated child restraint when possible.
A transparent shield for viewing infant.
Staps to secure restraint to the ambulance cot and straps for infant.
Precise temperature controls for acutely ill or low birth weight infants.
Can be installed on the ambulance cot using one belt path.
Should not be installed in any seating position in the rear-compartment.
Can be installed on the ambulance cot if tether requirements are met.