Renal Pathophysiology Inflammatory Processes Part 1

23 Questions | Total Attempts: 36

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Renal Pathophysiology Inflammatory Processes Part 1

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Acute pyelonephritis is acute inflammation of the ________________ renal tissue and an acute bacterial inflammation of the renal _________, __________, and ___________. Basically, an inflammation of the _________ kidney.
  • 2. 
    The most common cause of a kidney infection is ___________ of __________. (_____________ ___________)
  • 3. 
    90% of kidney infections occur from a ________________ reflux (UTI)
  • 4. 
    Acute Pyelonephritis Imaging studies are usually _____________ because the diagnosis is determined clinically by the patient's _____________.
  • 5. 
    Acute pyelonephritis Clinically:
    • A. 

      Usually a female disposition (90%)

    • B. 

      Inflammatory process (fever, pain, leukocytosis)

    • C. 

      Flank and back pain

    • D. 

      Frequent and urgent urination (polyuria, dysuria)

  • 6. 
    ______________ is inflammation of the kidney whereas _____________ is pus in the collecting system of the kidney.
  • 7. 
    Acute Pyelonephritis- Sono appearance
    • A. 

      Commonly unilateral but can be bilateral

    • B. 

      Commonly bilateral but can be unilateral

    • C. 

      Left side affected more often

    • D. 

      Right side affected more often

    • E. 

      Normal appearing kidneys

    • F. 

      Can be focal or diffuse

    • G. 

      Focal only

    • H. 

      Increase in size

    • I. 

      Areas of increased echogenicity

    • J. 

      Areas of decreased echogenicity

    • K. 

      Absence of perfusion

    • L. 

      Loss of corticomedullary distinction

    • M. 

      Compression of renal parenchyma

    • N. 

      Compression of renal sinus

  • 8. 
    Acute "itis"- ________ kidneys, ____________ parenchyma.
  • 9. 
    Severe "itis"- lose appearance of sinus __________, __________ flow and bacteria, _________ ___________ form in pyramids.
  • 10. 
    ___________ __________- Acute focal bacterial nephritis is a pyelonephritis that is localized within the parenchyma and does not include the calyces. It is a focal lobar infection.
  • 11. 
    Acute focal bacterial nephritis- Sono appearance Similar to an __________, _____________ wedge-shaped area, occurs most commonly at the ________________ ______________ ______________.
  • 12. 
    _________ _________ _________ is interstitial nephritis resulting from ongoing or recurring urinary tract infections. Occurs from multiple or recurrent renal infections.
  • 13. 
    Chronic atrophic nephritis is a ___________ and __________ disease that causes ___________ and eventual renal ____________. It accounts for approximately ____(#)% of all renal failure cases.
  • 14. 
    Chronic Pyelonephritis- clinically:
    • A. 

      Chronic, recurrent infections

    • B. 

      Nocturia

    • C. 

      Proteinurea

    • D. 

      **50% are due to compromised renal function

    • E. 

      ** HTN further contributes to the disease process

  • 15. 
    Chronic Pyelonephritis- Sono appearance
    • A. 

      Small echogenic kidneys

    • B. 

      Enlarged, hypoechoic kidneys

    • C. 

      Unilateral or bilateral focal areas of cortical thinning and increased echogenicity

    • D. 

      Poorly visualized borders because surrounded by perinephric fat

    • E. 

      Increased echogenicity due to scarring (pelvis, parenchyma, and calyces)

  • 16. 
    ________________ pyelonephritis is a rare type of ***severe pyelonephritis.
  • 17. 
    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is characterized by replacement of normal parenchyma with ______________ _____________ and ___________ ____________.
  • 18. 
    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis can be secondary to acute multiple ___________ that were not responsive to _____________.
  • 19. 
    Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis- 70% of patients have renal ___________, especially __________ ___________ which results in renal obstruction.
  • 20. 
    Huge stones that take up the whole collecting system are called ____________.
  • 21. 
    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: Any obstruction that is not relieved for a long time causes hydronephrosis which becomes __________, forms ___________ and leads to a __________ condition. (_______________->________________->_________________->________________ _________________)
  • 22. 
    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis- Clinically: Prevalent in ____________ and ______________. Similar to acute pyelonephritis but may have ___________ __________ or palpable mass (from _____________).
  • 23. 
    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis- sono appearance __________ is the modality of choice becaseu the patient has probably been misdiagnosed many times before. May have renal ____________ from recurrent acute infections. May have parenchymal ____________ or ______________, possible _____________ ______________.
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