MCQ On Pathophysiology Of Asthma

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MCQ On Pathophysiology Of Asthma - Quiz


How well do you understand the pathophysiology of asthma? Try this quiz with MCQs on the pathophysiology of asthma. Asthma is a respiratory condition whereby someone becomes short of breath and becomes difficult to breathe. There seems to be some sort of blockage in the respiratory path. The pathophysiology of asthma quiz below will enlighten you more. You can see what score you get. Accordingly, you can take the quiz again if required. Do not forget to share the quiz with others.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following are risk factors for the development of asthma?

    • A.

      High exposure to airborne allergens

    • B.

      Exposure to tobacco smoke

    • C.

      High birth weight

    • D.

      Genetic factors

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. High exposure to airborne allergens
    B. Exposure to tobacco smoke
    D. Genetic factors
    Explanation
    Exposure to airborne allergens, exposure to tobacco smoke, and genetic factors are all risk factors for the development of asthma. High exposure to airborne allergens can trigger asthma symptoms in individuals who are already susceptible to the condition. Exposure to tobacco smoke can irritate the airways and increase the risk of developing asthma. Genetic factors play a role in determining an individual's susceptibility to asthma, as it can be passed down through family members. High birth weight, however, is not considered a risk factor for asthma development.

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  • 2. 

    Susceptibility for asthma is primarily determined in adulthood (around 20-25 years of age)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Susceptibility for asthma is not primarily determined in adulthood. Asthma is a chronic condition that can develop at any age, including childhood. While some individuals may develop asthma later in life, it is not solely determined in adulthood. Genetic factors, environmental exposures, and other factors can contribute to the development of asthma at any age.

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  • 3. 

    What are some adult-onset risk factors for the development of asthma?

    • A.

      Occupational exposure to irritants

    • B.

      Alcohol consumption

    • C.

      Smoking

    • D.

      Obesity

    • E.

      Hormonal influences

    • F.

      Exposure to pollutants and infectious agents

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Occupational exposure to irritants
    C. Smoking
    D. Obesity
    E. Hormonal influences
    F. Exposure to pollutants and infectious agents
    Explanation
    Adult-onset asthma is a form of asthma that develops in adulthood, typically after the age of 20. The risk factors mentioned in the answer are known to contribute to the development of adult-onset asthma. Occupational exposure to irritants, such as chemicals or dust, can trigger asthma symptoms in adults. Smoking, both active and passive, is a well-known risk factor for asthma. Obesity is also associated with an increased risk of developing asthma in adulthood. Hormonal influences, such as changes in estrogen levels, can play a role in the development of asthma. Lastly, exposure to pollutants and infectious agents can also contribute to the development of adult-onset asthma.

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  • 4. 

    Asthma is characterized by chest tightness, wheezing, sputum production, cough, and airway hyperresponsiveness. What other factor is also a characteristic?

    • A.

      Irreversible lower airway constriction

    • B.

      Persistent symptoms

    • C.

      Reversible lower airway constriction

    • D.

      Symptoms are the same for every person with asthma

    Correct Answer
    C. Reversible lower airway constriction
    Explanation
    Reversible lower airway constriction is a characteristic of asthma. This means that the narrowing of the airways in the lungs can be reversed with appropriate treatment. This is different from irreversible lower airway constriction, which would indicate that the narrowing cannot be fully reversed. Persistent symptoms are also a characteristic of asthma, but the specific characteristic being asked for in this question is the reversible nature of the lower airway constriction. Symptoms are not the same for every person with asthma, as they can vary in severity and presentation.

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  • 5. 

    Which definition best suits the term "inflammation" in relation to asthma?

    • A.

      Inflammation is caused by infectious agents in asthma and is mediated by antiproteases

    • B.

      Inflammation is associated with airway remodeling in asthma. Inflammation is triggered by a stimulus and causes epithelial injury, among other things

    • C.

      Inflammation is caused by airway remodeling in asthma.

    • D.

      Mast cells can help to reduce inflammation by releasing histamine and preventing further lung damage.

    Correct Answer
    B. Inflammation is associated with airway remodeling in asthma. Inflammation is triggered by a stimulus and causes epithelial injury, among other things
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains that inflammation in relation to asthma is associated with airway remodeling. It states that inflammation is triggered by a stimulus and causes epithelial injury, among other things. This suggests that inflammation in asthma leads to changes in the structure of the airways and can cause damage to the epithelial cells lining the airways.

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  • 6. 

    There are two phases in extrinsic asthma, the _______________ and ______________ phases

    Correct Answer
    early, late
    Explanation
    Extrinsic asthma is characterized by two distinct phases, the early and late phases. In the early phase, an immediate allergic response occurs when the individual is exposed to an allergen. This leads to the release of inflammatory mediators, such as histamine, causing symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. The late phase follows the early phase and is characterized by a prolonged inflammatory response. During this phase, additional inflammatory cells are recruited to the airways, leading to further airway narrowing and persistent symptoms.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following are characteristics of extrinsic asthma?

    • A.

      Airway hyperresponsiveness

    • B.

      IgE hypersensitivity mediation

    • C.

      Exercise mediation

    • D.

      Allergy mediation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Airway hyperresponsiveness
    B. IgE hypersensitivity mediation
    D. Allergy mediation
    Explanation
    Extrinsic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, which means that the airways in the lungs are easily irritated and constrict in response to certain triggers. This type of asthma is also associated with IgE hypersensitivity mediation, where the immune system overreacts to allergens, causing inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Additionally, extrinsic asthma is often triggered by allergies, such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following are characteristics of intrinsic asthma?

    • A.

      Exercise is a trigger

    • B.

      Cold air is a trigger

    • C.

      Allergy mediated

    • D.

      Hormonal changes are triggers

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Exercise is a trigger
    B. Cold air is a trigger
    D. Hormonal changes are triggers
    Explanation
    Intrinsic asthma is a type of asthma that is not caused by allergies. It is characterized by triggers such as exercise, cold air, and hormonal changes. These triggers can lead to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Unlike extrinsic asthma, which is caused by allergies, intrinsic asthma is not triggered by allergens. Instead, it is triggered by factors such as physical activity, exposure to cold air, and hormonal fluctuations. Therefore, the correct characteristics of intrinsic asthma are that exercise, cold air, and hormonal changes can all act as triggers for asthma symptoms.

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  • 9. 

    Airway remodeling is a major player in the pathology of asthma.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Airway remodeling refers to the structural changes that occur in the airways of individuals with asthma. These changes can include thickening of the airway walls, increased smooth muscle mass, and excessive production of mucus. These alterations contribute to the long-term progression and severity of asthma symptoms. Therefore, it is accurate to say that airway remodeling is a significant factor in the pathology of asthma.

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  • 10. 

    Which statement is false regarding airway remodeling?

    • A.

      There is an increase in goblet cells and mucus production

    • B.

      Thickened smooth muscle cells with hyperplasia and hypertrophy

    • C.

      Decreased collagen deposition in airways

    • D.

      Increased vascularity in the airway wall

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreased collagen deposition in airways
    Explanation
    There is actually an increase in collagen and other protein deposition.

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  • 11. 

    Airway remodeling can be seen in young children with asthma.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Airway remodeling refers to the structural changes that occur in the airways of individuals with asthma over time. These changes can include thickening of the airway walls, increased smooth muscle mass, and excessive mucus production. While airway remodeling is typically associated with long-standing and severe asthma, research has shown that even young children with asthma can exhibit signs of airway remodeling. This suggests that the structural changes in the airways can occur early in the disease process and highlights the importance of early intervention and appropriate management of asthma in children.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following statements is false regarding the early phase of extrinsic asthma?

    • A.

      It occurs within 10-20 minutes of triggering stimuli exposure

    • B.

      The allergen binds to IgE receptors on the surface of airways and activates mast cells

    • C.

      Decreased mucus secretion, leading to less airway protection, occurs

    • D.

      Increased vascular permeability and bronchoconstriction occur

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreased mucus secretion, leading to less airway protection, occurs
    Explanation
    During the early phase of extrinsic asthma, several physiological changes occur in the airways. These include increased vascular permeability and bronchoconstriction, which lead to inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Additionally, the allergen triggers the binding of IgE receptors on the surface of airways, activating mast cells and releasing inflammatory mediators. However, decreased mucus secretion does not occur during the early phase of extrinsic asthma. In fact, mucus production usually increases as a protective response to the inflammation and irritation in the airways.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is false regarding the late phase of an extrinsic asthma event?

    • A.

      Occurs within 4-8 hours of the trigger and may persist for days/weeks

    • B.

      Inflammatory mediators cause the recruitment of WBCs, such as neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and lymphocytes

    • C.

      Macrophages are activated

    • D.

      Decreased airway responsiveness occurs

    Correct Answer
    D. Decreased airway responsiveness occurs
    Explanation
    During the late phase of an extrinsic asthma event, there is actually an increased airway responsiveness rather than a decreased one. This is because the inflammatory mediators released during this phase cause the airway smooth muscles to contract, leading to narrowing of the airways and increased resistance to airflow. This increased airway responsiveness contributes to the symptoms of asthma such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing.

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  • 14. 

    Which inflammatory mediators are released when mast cells degranulate and after degranulation?

    • A.

      Histamine

    • B.

      Leukotrienes

    • C.

      Prostaglandin D2

    • D.

      Chemotactic chemokines

    • E.

      Dopamine

    • F.

      Antiproteases

    • G.

      TNFa

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Histamine
    B. Leukotrienes
    C. Prostaglandin D2
    D. Chemotactic chemokines
    G. TNFa
    Explanation
    When mast cells degranulate, they release various inflammatory mediators. Histamine is one of the mediators released, which causes vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. Leukotrienes are also released, which are lipid mediators that promote inflammation and bronchoconstriction. Prostaglandin D2 is another mediator released, which has pro-inflammatory effects. Chemotactic chemokines are released to attract immune cells to the site of inflammation. TNFa, or tumor necrosis factor alpha, is a cytokine released by mast cells that promotes inflammation and can induce cell death.

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  • 15. 

    What are some symptoms that clients with asthma may encounter?

    • A.

      Dyspnea/SOB

    • B.

      Chest tightness

    • C.

      Cough

    • D.

      Quiet breathing

    • E.

      Wheezing

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Dyspnea/SOB
    B. Chest tightness
    C. Cough
    E. Wheezing
    Explanation
    Clients with asthma may experience symptoms such as dyspnea (shortness of breath) and SOB (shortness of breath), chest tightness, cough, and wheezing. These symptoms are commonly associated with asthma and can vary in severity from mild to severe. Dyspnea and SOB refer to difficulty in breathing or feeling breathless, chest tightness is a sensation of pressure or discomfort in the chest, cough can be persistent and may worsen at night or with physical activity, and wheezing is a high-pitched whistling sound produced during breathing. These symptoms can be triggered by various factors including allergens, exercise, cold air, and respiratory infections.

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  • 16. 

    During an asthma attack, air becomes trapped with impaired function, and _______________ ensues. Alveolar ______________ occurs due to increasing interpleural and alveolar gas pressure. _________________ is triggered. ___________/perfusion mismatch occurs. First alkalosis occurs due to decreased _________ concentration in the blood, but the resulting hypoventilation eventually causes ______________. Respiratory failure can result.

    Correct Answer(s)
    hyperinflation, hypoventilation, Hyperventilation, Ventilation, CO2, Acidosis
    Explanation
    During an asthma attack, air becomes trapped with impaired function, and hyperinflation ensues. Alveolar hypoventilation occurs due to increasing interpleural and alveolar gas pressure. Hyperventilation is triggered. Ventilation/perfusion mismatch occurs. First alkalosis occurs due to decreased CO2 concentration in the blood, but the resulting hypoventilation eventually causes acidosis. Respiratory failure can result.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following are clinical SIGNS of asthma?

    • A.

      Shortness of breath

    • B.

      Wheezing heard on auscultation

    • C.

      Vital signs such as tachypnea decreased 02 sats

    • D.

      Chest tightness

    • E.

      Increased work of breathing observed

    • F.

      In the ability to maintain a conversation with the healthcare provider

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Wheezing heard on auscultation
    C. Vital signs such as tachypnea decreased 02 sats
    E. Increased work of breathing observed
    F. In the ability to maintain a conversation with the healthcare provider
    Explanation
    The clinical signs of asthma include wheezing heard on auscultation, vital signs such as tachypnea (rapid breathing) and decreased oxygen saturation levels, increased work of breathing observed, and the ability to maintain a conversation with the healthcare provider. These signs indicate the presence of respiratory distress and narrowing of the airways, which are characteristic of asthma. Shortness of breath and chest tightness are symptoms of asthma rather than clinical signs, as they are subjective experiences reported by the patient.

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  • 18. 

    During the initial stage of an asthma attack, respiratory ______________ occurs in the blood. After a period of time without enough 02, the respiratory ____________ occurs. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    alkalosis, acidosis
    Explanation
    During the initial stage of an asthma attack, there is an increase in the respiratory rate, leading to hyperventilation. This causes a decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood, resulting in respiratory alkalosis. However, if the asthma attack persists and the person is unable to get enough oxygen (O2), the body will switch to anaerobic metabolism, leading to an increase in the concentration of CO2 in the blood. This results in respiratory acidosis.

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  • 19. 

    What are some things that may be seen on a chest x-ray of someone with asthma?

    • A.

      Under inflation of the lower lobes

    • B.

      Enlarged heart

    • C.

      Hyperinflation

    • D.

      Increase or decrease flattening in the hemidiaphragms

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Hyperinflation
    D. Increase or decrease flattening in the hemidiaphragms
    Explanation
    On a chest x-ray of someone with asthma, hyperinflation may be seen. This refers to an abnormal increase in the size of the lungs, indicating air trapping and difficulty in exhaling. Additionally, an increase or decrease in flattening of the hemidiaphragms may be observed. The hemidiaphragms are the muscles that separate the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity, and their flattening can be a sign of increased air pressure in the lungs. These findings are characteristic of asthma and can help in diagnosing and monitoring the condition.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is false about lung spirometry tests?

    • A.

      They are used in the initial diagnosis and to evaluate treatment

    • B.

      Their red zone is less than 90% of the expected value

    • C.

      They are used with bronchial provocation tests

    • D.

      They evaluate the function of the lungs

    Correct Answer
    B. Their red zone is less than 90% of the expected value
    Explanation
    Lung spirometry tests are used in the initial diagnosis and to evaluate treatment, they are used with bronchial provocation tests, and they evaluate the function of the lungs. However, the statement that is false is that their red zone is less than 90% of the expected value. In spirometry tests, the red zone typically represents a value below 60% or 80% of the predicted or expected value, indicating severe impairment.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is long-term pharmacotherapy for asthma?

    • A.

      Anticholinergics

    • B.

      Systemic corticosteroids

    • C.

      Mast cell stabilizers

    • D.

      Inhaled corticoid steroids

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Mast cell stabilizers
    D. Inhaled corticoid steroids
    Explanation
    Mast cell stabilizers and inhaled corticoid steroids are considered long-term pharmacotherapy for asthma. Mast cell stabilizers, such as cromolyn sodium, work by preventing the release of inflammatory substances from mast cells, reducing airway inflammation and preventing asthma symptoms. Inhaled corticosteroids, such as fluticasone and budesonide, are the most effective long-term control medications for asthma. They work by reducing airway inflammation and suppressing the immune response, helping to prevent asthma attacks and improve overall asthma control. Systemic corticosteroids are typically used for short-term relief of severe asthma symptoms, while anticholinergics are used as a bronchodilator to relax the airway muscles.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is shorting acting pharmacotherapy for asthma?

    • A.

      Short broncodilaters

    • B.

      Monoclonal antibody therapy

    • C.

      Anticholinergics

    • D.

      Systemic corticosteroids

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Short broncodilaters
    C. Anticholinergics
    D. Systemic corticosteroids
    Explanation
    Short-acting bronchodilators, anticholinergics, and systemic corticosteroids are all considered short-acting pharmacotherapy options for asthma. Short-acting bronchodilators, such as albuterol, provide quick relief by relaxing the muscles around the airways. Anticholinergics, like ipratropium, also help relax the airway muscles and can be used as a short-term treatment for asthma symptoms. Systemic corticosteroids, such as prednisone, are used for short periods to reduce inflammation and improve asthma control. These medications are typically used in combination with long-term control medications for asthma management.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of asthma?

    • A.

      Increase in IgG immunoglobulins

    • B.

      Airway hyperresponsiveness

    • C.

      Infiltration of eosinophils into the airways

    • D.

      Increased mucus production

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase in IgG immunoglobulins
    Explanation
    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, infiltration of eosinophils into the airways, and increased mucus production. IgG immunoglobulins are not typically associated with asthma. IgE immunoglobulins, on the other hand, play a significant role in the pathophysiology of asthma by triggering an allergic response and causing inflammation in the airways. Therefore, an increase in IgG immunoglobulins is not a characteristic of asthma.

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  • Aug 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Feb 15, 2013
    Quiz Created by
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