Test Your Knowledge About Respiratory System! Pathophysiology Trivia Quiz

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Test Your Knowledge About Respiratory System! Pathophysiology Trivia Quiz - Quiz

Do you want to test your knowledge about the respiratory system using this pathophysiology trivia quiz? The respiratory system is one of the major systems within the body, and this is because it is charged with ensuring the body takes in oxygen and takes out carbon dioxide. Test your understanding of organs involved and how the organ works by taking the quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Pleural effusion refers to?

    • A.

      Fluid collected in the lungs

    • B.

      Fluid collected in the pleural space

    • C.

      Fluid collected in a fistula in the pleural space

    • D.

      Fluid collected in the pulmonary circulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Fluid collected in the pleural space
    Explanation
    Pleural effusion refers to the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which is the space between the two layers of the pleura (the thin membrane that lines the lungs and chest cavity). This condition can occur due to various reasons, such as infections, heart failure, lung cancer, or trauma. The accumulation of fluid in the pleural space can cause difficulty in breathing and may require medical intervention to drain the fluid and treat the underlying cause.

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  • 2. 

    The production of yellowish-green, cloudy, thick sputum is often an indication of:

    • A.

      Bacterial infection

    • B.

      Cancer tumor

    • C.

      Damage of lung tissue due to smoking

    • D.

      Emphysema

    Correct Answer
    A. Bacterial infection
    Explanation
    The production of yellowish-green, cloudy, thick sputum is often an indication of a bacterial infection. Bacterial infections can cause the body to produce excess mucus, which can appear yellow or green in color. The thickness of the sputum is also a common characteristic of bacterial infections. Other symptoms such as fever, cough, and difficulty breathing may also be present in cases of bacterial infection. It is important to seek medical attention if these symptoms occur to receive appropriate treatment.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is not an obstructive pulmonary disease?

    • A.

      Pneumoconioses

    • B.

      Bronchiectasis

    • C.

      Cystic fibrosis

    • D.

      Chronic bronchitis

    Correct Answer
    A. Pneumoconioses
    Explanation
    Pneumoconioses is not an obstructive pulmonary disease because it refers to a group of lung diseases caused by inhaling certain dust particles, such as coal dust, silica, or asbestos. These particles can cause inflammation and scarring in the lungs, but they do not directly obstruct the airways or cause airflow limitation, which are characteristic features of obstructive pulmonary diseases.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following causes bronchodilation?

    • A.

      Epinephrine

    • B.

      Histamine

    • C.

      Parasympathetic nervous system

    • D.

      Drugs that block Beta 2 adrenergic receptors

    Correct Answer
    A. Epinephrine
    Explanation
    Epinephrine causes bronchodilation. Epinephrine is a hormone that stimulates the beta 2 adrenergic receptors in the smooth muscles of the bronchioles, leading to relaxation and dilation of the airways. This helps to improve airflow and relieve symptoms of bronchoconstriction, such as wheezing and shortness of breath.

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  • 5. 

    A mutation in chromosome 7 is associated with:

    • A.

      Emphysema

    • B.

      Adenocarcinoma

    • C.

      Cystic fibrosis

    • D.

      Primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Correct Answer
    C. Cystic fibrosis
    Explanation
    A mutation in chromosome 7 is associated with cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the lungs, digestive system, and other organs. It is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which is located on chromosome 7. These mutations result in the production of a defective protein that leads to the buildup of thick, sticky mucus in the lungs and other organs. This mucus can clog the airways and lead to respiratory problems, frequent lung infections, and other complications associated with cystic fibrosis.

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  • 6. 

    The central chemoreceptors in the medulla are normally most sensitive to:

    • A.

      Low oxygen level

    • B.

      Low concentration of hydrogen ions

    • C.

      Elevated oxygen level

    • D.

      Elevated carbon dioxide level

    Correct Answer
    D. Elevated carbon dioxide level
    Explanation
    The central chemoreceptors in the medulla are normally most sensitive to elevated carbon dioxide levels. These chemoreceptors detect changes in the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood and play a crucial role in regulating breathing. When carbon dioxide levels increase, it leads to an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions in the cerebrospinal fluid, which in turn stimulates the central chemoreceptors to increase the rate and depth of breathing. This helps to remove excess carbon dioxide and restore normal blood pH levels.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following would result from hyperventilation?

    • A.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    • C.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • D.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Respiratory alkalosis
    Explanation
    Hyperventilation is the act of breathing rapidly and deeply, leading to an excessive elimination of carbon dioxide from the body. This causes a decrease in the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, leading to a decrease in carbonic acid formation. As a result, the pH of the blood increases, making it more alkaline. Therefore, the correct answer is respiratory alkalosis.

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  • 8. 

    Causes of pulmonary edema?

    • A.

      ARDS

    • B.

      Left ventricular failure

    • C.

      Cancer

    • D.

      Infection

    Correct Answer
    B. Left ventricular failure
    Explanation
    Left ventricular failure refers to the inability of the left side of the heart to pump blood effectively. This can lead to an increase in pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs, causing fluid to leak into the air sacs, leading to pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema is a condition where there is an accumulation of fluid in the lungs, making it difficult for oxygen to pass into the bloodstream. Therefore, left ventricular failure is a known cause of pulmonary edema.

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  • 9. 

    How is primary tuberculosis identified?

    • A.

      Cavitation in the lungs and spread of the microbe to other organs

    • B.

      Persistent productive cough, low-grade fever, and fatigue

    • C.

      Caseation necrosis and formation of a tubercle in the lungs

    • D.

      Multiple granulomas in the lungs and rapid spread of the microbe

    Correct Answer
    C. Caseation necrosis and formation of a tubercle in the lungs
    Explanation
    Primary tuberculosis is identified through the caseation necrosis and formation of a tubercle in the lungs. Caseation necrosis refers to the death of cells in a particular area, resulting in a cheese-like appearance. In tuberculosis, this necrosis occurs within the tubercle, which is a characteristic lesion formed by the infection. The tubercle is a granulomatous structure that contains the bacteria and immune cells. Therefore, the presence of caseation necrosis and tubercle formation in the lungs is indicative of primary tuberculosis.

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  • 10. 

    Respiratory alkalosis can be caused by?

    • A.

      Pneumonia

    • B.

      Lung cancer

    • C.

      Alveolar hypoventilation/ hypercapnea

    • D.

      Alveolar hyperventilation/ hypocapnia

    Correct Answer
    D. Alveolar hyperventilation/ hypocapnia
    Explanation
    Alveolar hyperventilation/hypocapnia can cause respiratory alkalosis. This is because hyperventilation leads to excessive elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body, resulting in a decrease in the partial pressure of CO2 in the blood. This decrease in CO2 causes a shift in the acid-base balance towards alkalinity, leading to respiratory alkalosis.

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  • 11. 

    What are typical pathological changes with bronchiectasis?

    • A.

      Bronchospasm and increased mucous secretion

    • B.

      Adhesions and fibrosis in the pleural membranes

    • C.

      Airway obstructions and weak, dilated bronchial walls

    • D.

      Fixation of the ribs in the inspiratory position

    Correct Answer
    C. Airway obstructions and weak, dilated bronchial walls
    Explanation
    Bronchiectasis is a condition characterized by the permanent dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles due to chronic inflammation and damage to the airways. The typical pathological changes associated with bronchiectasis include airway obstructions, which can occur due to the accumulation of mucus and debris in the dilated bronchi. Additionally, the weakened and dilated bronchial walls contribute to the development of bronchiectasis. These changes can lead to recurrent infections, impaired mucus clearance, and further damage to the airways.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is an effect of a large open pneumothorax (sucking wound)?

    • A.

      Mediastinal flutter, impairing venous return

    • B.

      Increased venous return

    • C.

      Progressive atelectasis of both lungs

    • D.

      Overexpansion of the uneffected lungs

    Correct Answer
    A. Mediastinal flutter, impairing venous return
    Explanation
    A large open pneumothorax, also known as a sucking wound, occurs when there is a hole in the chest wall that allows air to enter the pleural space. This can lead to mediastinal flutter, which is the abnormal movement of the mediastinum (the space between the lungs) due to changes in pressure. This fluttering can compress the great vessels in the chest, impairing venous return to the heart and leading to decreased cardiac output. Therefore, the effect of a large open pneumothorax is mediastinal flutter, impairing venous return.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is not true about asthma?

    • A.

      It has a generic link, particularly on the paternal side

    • B.

      People with asthma are also more likely to suffer from hayfever and eczema

    • C.

      It is associated with reversible airflow obstruction

    • D.

      It usually responds well to inhaled beta-2 agonists

    Correct Answer
    A. It has a generic link, particularly on the paternal side
    Explanation
    Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. While asthma does have a genetic component, it is not linked specifically to the paternal side. Genetic factors can influence a person's susceptibility to developing asthma, but it is not limited to one side of the family. Asthma is a complex condition that can be influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

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  • 14. 

    Infant respiratory distress syndrome results from:

    • A.

      Insufficient surfactant production

    • B.

      Incomplete expiration shortly after birth

    • C.

      Retention of fluid in the lungs after birth

    • D.

      Immature neural control of respirations

    Correct Answer
    A. Insufficient surfactant production
    Explanation
    Infant respiratory distress syndrome occurs due to insufficient surfactant production. Surfactant is a substance that helps reduce surface tension in the alveoli of the lungs, preventing them from collapsing during expiration. In premature infants, the production of surfactant may be inadequate, leading to difficulty in breathing and respiratory distress. This condition can cause severe respiratory problems and requires medical intervention to support the infant's lung function. The other options mentioned, such as incomplete expiration, retention of fluid in the lungs, and immature neural control of respirations, do not directly contribute to the development of infant respiratory distress syndrome.

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  • 15. 

    Obstruction in the upper airway is usually indicated by:

    • A.

      Stridor

    • B.

      Rales

    • C.

      Wheezing

    • D.

      Orthopnea

    Correct Answer
    A. Stridor
    Explanation
    Stridor is a high-pitched, harsh sound heard during inspiration that indicates obstruction in the upper airway. It is typically caused by a narrowing or blockage of the air passages, such as from inflammation, foreign bodies, or tumors. Stridor is commonly associated with conditions like croup, epiglottitis, or an allergic reaction. Rales refer to abnormal crackling sounds heard during breathing and typically indicate fluid in the lungs. Wheezing is a whistling sound caused by narrowed airways, often seen in conditions like asthma or bronchitis. Orthopnea refers to difficulty breathing while lying flat and is usually associated with heart failure or lung disease.

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  • 16. 

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a/an:

    • A.

      Rhinovirus

    • B.

      Mycoplasma

    • C.

      Influenza virus

    • D.

      Coronavirus

    Correct Answer
    D. Coronavirus
    Explanation
    SARS is caused by a coronavirus. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). In the case of SARS, the coronavirus responsible for the outbreak in 2002-2003 was named SARS-CoV. This virus spreads primarily through respiratory droplets and can cause severe respiratory symptoms, leading to pneumonia and even death in some cases.

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  • 17. 

    What is the pathophysiology of an acute attack of extrinsic asthma?

    • A.

      Gradual degeneration and fibrosis

    • B.

      Continous severe attacks unresponsive to medication

    • C.

      A hypersensitivity reaction involving release of chemical mediators 

    • D.

      Hyperresponsive mucosa

    Correct Answer
    C. A hypersensitivity reaction involving release of chemical mediators 
    Explanation
    During an acute attack of extrinsic asthma, there is a hypersensitivity reaction involving the release of chemical mediators. This means that the immune system overreacts to an allergen, such as pollen or dust mites, causing the airways to become inflamed and constricted. This inflammation leads to the release of chemical mediators, such as histamine, which further exacerbates the symptoms of asthma, including wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. This hypersensitivity reaction is a key component of the pathophysiology of an acute attack of extrinsic asthma.

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  • 18. 

    Consolidation on a chest x-ray most likely points to

    • A.

      Pneumonia

    • B.

      COPD

    • C.

      Asthma

    • D.

      Lung cancer

    Correct Answer
    A. Pneumonia
    Explanation
    Consolidation on a chest x-ray refers to an area of the lung that appears denser than the surrounding tissues, indicating the presence of fluid or inflammation. Pneumonia is the most likely cause of consolidation on a chest x-ray, as it is an infection that causes inflammation and fluid buildup in the lungs. COPD, asthma, and lung cancer may also appear as abnormalities on a chest x-ray, but consolidation is more commonly associated with pneumonia.

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  • 19. 

    The sweat test can be used to diagnose:

    • A.

      Cystic fibrosis

    • B.

      Tuberculosis

    • C.

      Pneumonia

    • D.

      Asthma

    Correct Answer
    A. Cystic fibrosis
    Explanation
    The sweat test is a diagnostic tool used to detect cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the lungs, pancreas, and other organs. It is characterized by the production of thick, sticky mucus that can clog the airways and lead to respiratory problems. The sweat test measures the amount of salt in the sweat, as individuals with cystic fibrosis have higher levels of salt in their sweat. This test is a reliable method for diagnosing cystic fibrosis and is often performed in infants and young children who show symptoms of the disease.

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  • 20. 

    A pneumothorax refers to

    • A.

      Collection of air in the pleural cavity of the chest

    • B.

      Build up of blood in the pleural cavity

    • C.

      Build up of fluid in the pleural cavity

    • D.

      Build up of lymph in the pleural cavity

    Correct Answer
    A. Collection of air in the pleural cavity of the chest
    Explanation
    A pneumothorax refers to the collection of air in the pleural cavity of the chest. This condition occurs when air enters the space between the lung and the chest wall, causing the lung to collapse partially or completely. The presence of air in the pleural cavity can disrupt the normal pressure balance, preventing the lung from expanding properly during breathing. This can lead to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and decreased oxygen levels. Treatment for a pneumothorax may involve the removal of air from the pleural cavity and measures to prevent recurrence.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is not true about cystic fibrosis?

    • A.

      It is a dominant genetic condition

    • B.

      Symptoms are often present in early infancy

    • C.

      It may be associated with clubbing and/or haemoptysis

    • D.

      The first sign may be meconium ileus causing bowel obstruction in newborns

    Correct Answer
    C. It may be associated with clubbing and/or haemoptysis
    Explanation
    Cystic fibrosis is a recessive genetic condition, not a dominant one. Symptoms of cystic fibrosis are often present in early infancy, and it may be associated with clubbing and/or haemoptysis. However, the first sign of cystic fibrosis may be meconium ileus, which causes bowel obstruction in newborns.

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  • 22. 

    Difficulty breathing, unilateral stabbing chest pain and a productive cough is most suggestive of...

    • A.

      Pneumonia

    • B.

      Myocardial infarction

    • C.

      An excaberation of asthma

    • D.

      COPD

    Correct Answer
    A. Pneumonia
    Explanation
    The symptoms of difficulty breathing, unilateral stabbing chest pain, and a productive cough are most suggestive of pneumonia. Pneumonia is an infection that causes inflammation in the lungs, leading to symptoms such as chest pain, coughing, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be caused by other conditions as well, but in this case, pneumonia is the most likely explanation based on the given symptoms.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is NOT an obstructive conditon?

    • A.

      Fibrosis

    • B.

      Asthma

    • C.

      COPD

    • D.

      Bronchiectasis

    Correct Answer
    A. Fibrosis
    Explanation
    Fibrosis is not an obstructive condition because it refers to the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue, which can lead to scarring and stiffening. While fibrosis can occur in the lungs, it is not specifically classified as an obstructive condition. On the other hand, asthma, COPD, and bronchiectasis are all obstructive conditions that involve narrowing or blockage of the airways, leading to difficulty in breathing.

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  • 24. 

    Wheezing is the hallmark symptom of?

    • A.

      Asthma

    • B.

      COPD

    • C.

      Cystic fibrosis

    • D.

      Lung cancer

    Correct Answer
    A. Asthma
    Explanation
    Wheezing is commonly associated with asthma, which is a chronic respiratory condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. During an asthma attack, the muscles surrounding the airways tighten, and the airways become swollen and filled with mucus, leading to wheezing sounds during breathing. This hallmark symptom of wheezing is often a result of the obstruction of airflow caused by the narrowed airways in asthma patients.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following comorbidities is not commonly associated with cystic fibrosis?

    • A.

      Type 2 diabetes

    • B.

      Bronchiectasis

    • C.

      Frequent chest infections

    • D.

      Malnutrition

    Correct Answer
    A. Type 2 diabetes
    Explanation
    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the lungs and digestive system. It is commonly associated with comorbidities such as bronchiectasis, frequent chest infections, and malnutrition due to the thick and sticky mucus that builds up in the airways and blocks the pancreas. However, type 2 diabetes is not commonly associated with cystic fibrosis. While cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a known complication, it is different from type 2 diabetes and is specific to individuals with cystic fibrosis.

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  • 26. 

    On auscultation, which finding suggests a right pneumothorax?

    • A.

      Bilateral inspiratory and expiratory crackles

    • B.

      Absence of breaths sound in the right thorax

    • C.

      Inspiratory wheezes in the right thorax

    • D.

      Bilateral pleural friction rub

    Correct Answer
    B. Absence of breaths sound in the right thorax
    Explanation
    The absence of breath sounds in the right thorax suggests a right pneumothorax. A pneumothorax is a condition where air accumulates in the pleural space, causing the lung to collapse. When the lung collapses, there is no air movement in that area, leading to the absence of breath sounds. This finding is specific to a pneumothorax and can help in diagnosing the condition. Bilateral inspiratory and expiratory crackles, inspiratory wheezes in the right thorax, and bilateral pleural friction rub are not typical findings of a pneumothorax.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is an accurate characteristic of Emphysema? 

    • A.

      Lung fibrosis

    • B.

      Destruction of the alveolar wall

    • C.

      Decrease diameter of chest 

    • D.

      Hemoptysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Destruction of the alveolar wall
    Explanation
    Emphysema is a chronic lung condition characterized by the destruction of the alveolar walls. This destruction leads to the enlargement of the air spaces within the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing. Lung fibrosis refers to the formation of excessive fibrous connective tissue in the lungs, which is not a characteristic of emphysema. Decrease in the diameter of the chest is not a specific characteristic of emphysema. Hemoptysis, which is the coughing up of blood, is not directly associated with emphysema. Therefore, the accurate characteristic of emphysema is the destruction of the alveolar wall.

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  • 28. 

    In a patient with emphysema, a nurse may observe a 'barrel chest." What causes this physical abnormality?

    • A.

      Too much fluid trapped in the lungs

    • B.

      Airway swelling and increased mucous production   

    • C.

      Increased pressure in the vascular space from pulmonary HTN 

    • D.

      Too much air trapped in the thoracic cavity with increase A-P diameter

    Correct Answer
    D. Too much air trapped in the thoracic cavity with increase A-P diameter
    Explanation
    In emphysema, the destruction of lung tissue leads to the loss of elasticity in the lungs. This causes the air sacs to become enlarged and lose their ability to fully deflate. As a result, too much air gets trapped in the thoracic cavity, leading to an increase in the anterior-posterior (A-P) diameter of the chest. This results in a "barrel chest" appearance, where the chest becomes rounded and enlarged.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following does not characterize a "flail chest"?

    • A.

      Chest wall injury Paradoxical motion 

    • B.

      Rib cage goes inward during inspiration 

    • C.

      Disruption of air flow

    • D.

      Barrel chest

    Correct Answer
    A. Chest wall injury Paradoxical motion 
    Explanation
    A flail chest is a condition characterized by a chest wall injury where multiple ribs are fractured in two or more places, resulting in a segment of the chest wall becoming detached from the rest of the chest. This causes paradoxical motion, where the detached segment moves in the opposite direction to the rest of the chest during inspiration and expiration. Disruption of air flow is also a characteristic of flail chest, as the detached segment can interfere with normal breathing. However, barrel chest is not a characteristic of flail chest. Barrel chest refers to a rounded, bulging chest shape often associated with chronic lung conditions such as emphysema.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following would NOT be a cause of pulmonary edema?

    • A.

      Left sided congested heart failure

    • B.

      Excessive blood volume (overload)

    • C.

      Inhalation of toxic gases causing inflammation in the lungs

    • D.

      Hyperproteinemia and increasing osmotic pressure in the blood

    Correct Answer
    D. Hyperproteinemia and increasing osmotic pressure in the blood
    Explanation
    Hyperproteinemia and increasing osmotic pressure in the blood would not be a cause of pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema occurs when there is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, usually due to increased pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs. Left-sided congested heart failure can cause pulmonary edema by increasing pressure in the pulmonary veins. Excessive blood volume can also cause pulmonary edema by increasing pressure in the blood vessels. Inhalation of toxic gases causing inflammation in the lungs can lead to pulmonary edema by damaging the lung tissue and increasing vascular permeability. However, hyperproteinemia and increasing osmotic pressure in the blood would not directly cause fluid accumulation in the lungs.

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  • 31. 

    Pulmonary edema causes severe hypoxia because

    • A.

      Decreased diffusion of carbon dioxide from the alveoli

    • B.

      Diffusion of oxygen into the pulmonary capillaries is impaired

    • C.

      Interference with expansion of the lungs

    • D.

      Both diffusion of oxygen into the pulmonary capillaries is impaired AND interference with expansion of the lungs

    Correct Answer
    D. Both diffusion of oxygen into the pulmonary capillaries is impaired AND interference with expansion of the lungs
    Explanation
    Pulmonary edema causes severe hypoxia because both the diffusion of oxygen into the pulmonary capillaries is impaired and there is interference with the expansion of the lungs. When there is fluid accumulation in the lungs, it hinders the diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries, leading to a decrease in oxygen supply to the body. Additionally, the presence of fluid in the lungs can interfere with the expansion of the lungs during inhalation, further compromising the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

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  • 32. 

    What is the common source of a pulmonary embolus?

    • A.

      Thrombus from the left ventricle

    • B.

      Thrombus attatched to atheromas in the aortra

    • C.

      Thrombus forming in femoral veins

    • D.

      A blood clot in the pulmonary vein

    Correct Answer
    C. Thrombus forming in femoral veins
    Explanation
    A pulmonary embolus is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in the lungs. It commonly occurs when a thrombus (blood clot) forms in the deep veins of the legs, known as the femoral veins. These clots can break loose and travel through the bloodstream, eventually reaching the lungs and causing a pulmonary embolism. This is the most common source of a pulmonary embolus. Thrombus from the left ventricle, thrombus attached to atheromas in the aorta, and a blood clot in the pulmonary vein are not typically associated with the development of a pulmonary embolus.

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  • 33. 

    What is a large-sized pulmonary embolus likely to cause?

    • A.

      Hypertension and left sided heart failure

    • B.

      Atelectasis and respiratory failure

    • C.

      Hypotension and right sided heart failure

    • D.

      Pleural effusion and atelectasis

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypotension and right sided heart failure
    Explanation
    A large-sized pulmonary embolus can cause hypotension and right sided heart failure. This occurs because the embolus blocks the blood flow in the pulmonary artery, leading to decreased blood supply to the right side of the heart. This can result in decreased cardiac output and hypotension. Additionally, the increased pressure in the right side of the heart can cause fluid to back up into the venous system, leading to right sided heart failure.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following conditions could cause respiratory acidosis

    • A.

      Diabetes mellitus

    • B.

      Pneumonia

    • C.

      Vomitting

    • D.

      Renal shutdown

    Correct Answer
    B. Pneumonia
    Explanation
    Pneumonia can cause respiratory acidosis because it is an infection that affects the lungs, leading to inflammation and fluid accumulation in the air sacs. This can result in impaired gas exchange, causing a buildup of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream and a decrease in oxygen levels. The increased carbon dioxide levels can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increase in blood acidity.

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  • 35. 

    What acid-base imbalance could develop with hyperventilation?

    • A.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • B.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • C.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • D.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Respiratory alkalosis
    Explanation
    Hyperventilation is the rapid breathing that leads to excessive elimination of carbon dioxide from the body. This results in a decrease in the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, leading to a condition called respiratory alkalosis. In respiratory alkalosis, the pH of the blood increases, becoming more alkaline. This occurs because the decrease in carbon dioxide causes a decrease in carbonic acid, which is responsible for maintaining the acid-base balance in the body. As a result, the blood becomes more alkaline.

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  • 36. 

    Choose the correct information applying to laryngotracheobronchitis:

    • A.

      Viral infection in infant under 12 months

    • B.

      Viral infection in child, 3 months to 3 years

    • C.

      Bacterial infection in infant under 6 months

    • D.

      Fetid (smelly) breath and sore throat

    Correct Answer
    B. Viral infection in child, 3 months to 3 years
    Explanation
    Laryngotracheobronchitis is a viral infection that affects the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. It commonly occurs in children between the ages of 3 months and 3 years. Symptoms of laryngotracheobronchitis include a hoarse voice, barking cough, difficulty breathing, and sometimes fever. The infection is usually caused by a virus, such as the parainfluenza virus, and is not typically associated with bacterial infections. Fetid breath and sore throat are not specific symptoms of laryngotracheobronchitis.

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  • 37. 

    What would be a reason that the flu shot varies from year to year?

    • A.

      Elderly patients are predisposed to secondary infections

    • B.

      The virus is transmitted by numerous routes

    • C.

      The virus is very difficult to destroy

    • D.

      The influenza virus constantly mutate

    Correct Answer
    D. The influenza virus constantly mutate
    Explanation
    The reason that the flu shot varies from year to year is because the influenza virus constantly mutates. This means that the virus undergoes genetic changes, leading to the emergence of new strains each year. As a result, the flu shot needs to be updated annually to include the most prevalent strains of the virus. By targeting these specific strains, the flu shot can provide better protection against the circulating viruses and reduce the risk of infection.

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  • 38. 

    How is primary tuberculosis identified?

    • A.

      Cavitation in the lungs and spread of the microbe to other organs

    • B.

      Persistent productive cough, low-grade fever, and fatigue

    • C.

      Formation of a tubercle

    • D.

      Multiple granulomas and rapid spread

    Correct Answer
    C. Formation of a tubercle
    Explanation
    Primary tuberculosis is identified through the formation of a tubercle. A tubercle is a small, rounded nodule that forms in the lungs as a result of the immune system's response to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. This is the initial stage of tuberculosis infection and is characterized by the presence of the tubercle, which contains the bacteria. Other symptoms such as persistent productive cough, low-grade fever, and fatigue may also be present, but the formation of a tubercle is the key characteristic used to identify primary tuberculosis.

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  • 39. 

    What are the typical signs and symptoms of epiglottits? 

    • A.

      Hyperinflation of the chest and stridor (harsh or grating sound)

    • B.

      Hoarse voice and barking cough

    • C.

      Sudden fever, sore throat, and drooling saliva

    • D.

      Sneezing, mild cough and fever

    Correct Answer
    C. Sudden fever, sore throat, and drooling saliva
    Explanation
    The typical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis include sudden fever, sore throat, and drooling saliva. Epiglottitis is a condition where the epiglottis, a flap of cartilage at the base of the tongue, becomes inflamed and swollen. This can cause difficulty in breathing and swallowing, leading to the characteristic symptoms of fever, sore throat, and drooling saliva. It is important to seek immediate medical attention if epiglottitis is suspected, as it can be a life-threatening condition.

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  • 40. 

    What is the most common cause of viral pneumonia?

    • A.

      Rhinovirus

    • B.

      Influenza virus

    • C.

      Haemophilus influenza

    • D.

      Pneumococcus

    Correct Answer
    B. Influenza virus
    Explanation
    The most common cause of viral pneumonia is the influenza virus. Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory illness that can cause severe symptoms and complications, including pneumonia. It is transmitted through respiratory droplets and can affect people of all ages. Influenza viruses can cause inflammation and infection in the lungs, leading to pneumonia. This is why it is important to get vaccinated against influenza every year to reduce the risk of developing viral pneumonia.

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  • 41. 

    When does active (secondary) infection by M.tuberculosis with tissue destruction?

    • A.

      Host resistance is decreased for any reason

    • B.

      A hypersensitivity reaction initiated

    • C.

      BCG vaccine is not administered immediately following exposure to the microbe

    • D.

      Ghon complexes form

    Correct Answer
    A. Host resistance is decreased for any reason
    Explanation
    Active (secondary) infection by M.tuberculosis with tissue destruction occurs when the host's resistance is decreased for any reason. This means that when the immune system is weakened or compromised, the bacteria can multiply and cause damage to the tissues. This can happen due to various factors such as malnutrition, immunosuppressive medications, HIV infection, or other underlying health conditions that weaken the immune response. In such cases, the body is unable to effectively control the infection, leading to active disease and tissue destruction.

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  • 42. 

    Histoplasmosis is caused by a

    • A.

      Fungus

    • B.

      Virus

    • C.

      Bacillus

    • D.

      Protozoa

    Correct Answer
    A. Fungus
    Explanation
    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. This fungus is commonly found in soil that contains bird or bat droppings. When the soil is disturbed, spores of the fungus can become airborne and be inhaled by humans, leading to infection. Histoplasmosis primarily affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body. Therefore, the correct answer is fungus.

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  • 43. 

    The basic pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis is considered to be

    • A.

      An abnormality of the exocrine glands

    • B.

      Impaired function of the endocrine gland

    • C.

      Chronic inflammatory condition of the lungs

    • D.

      An abnormal immune response in the lungs and other organs

    Correct Answer
    A. An abnormality of the exocrine glands
    Explanation
    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the exocrine glands, which are responsible for producing sweat, mucus, and digestive enzymes. In individuals with cystic fibrosis, there is a mutation in the CFTR gene, which leads to a defective protein that affects the movement of salt and water in and out of cells. This results in the production of thick, sticky mucus that clogs the airways, pancreas, and other organs. Therefore, the basic pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis is an abnormality of the exocrine glands.

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  • 44. 

    What is the sign indicating total obstruction of the airway by aspirated material?

    • A.

      Hoarse cough

    • B.

      Rapid loss of consciousness

    • C.

      Dyspnea

    • D.

      Inflammation of the mucosa

    Correct Answer
    B. Rapid loss of consciousness
    Explanation
    Rapid loss of consciousness is the sign indicating total obstruction of the airway by aspirated material. When the airway is completely blocked by aspirated material, it prevents the flow of air to the lungs, leading to a lack of oxygen supply to the brain. This can cause a person to rapidly lose consciousness due to the lack of oxygen reaching the brain.

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  • 45. 

    What is the basis for acute attacks of extrinsic asthma?

    • A.

      Gradual degeneration and fibrosis

    • B.

      Continous severe attacks unresponsive to medication

    • C.

      Hyperresponsive mucosa

    • D.

      Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction

    Correct Answer
    D. Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction
    Explanation
    The basis for acute attacks of extrinsic asthma is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction. In this type of reaction, the immune system overreacts to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites, and releases chemicals that cause inflammation and constriction of the airways. This leads to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Gradual degeneration and fibrosis, continuous severe attacks unresponsive to medication, and hyperresponsive mucosa are not the primary causes of acute attacks in extrinsic asthma.

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  • 46. 

    Why does cor pulmonale develop with chronic pulmonary disease?

    • A.

      The right ventricle pumps more blood than the left ventricle

    • B.

      Pulmonary fibrosis and vasoconstriction increase vascular resistance

    • C.

      Demands on the left ventricle are excessive

    • D.

      Blood viscosity is increased, adding to cardiac workload

    Correct Answer
    B. Pulmonary fibrosis and vasoconstriction increase vascular resistance
    Explanation
    Pulmonary fibrosis and vasoconstriction both contribute to increasing vascular resistance in the lungs. This increased resistance makes it harder for the right ventricle to pump blood to the lungs for oxygenation. As a result, the right ventricle has to work harder and pump more blood than the left ventricle, leading to the development of cor pulmonale. Additionally, increased blood viscosity also adds to the workload of the heart, further contributing to the development of cor pulmonale.

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  • 47. 

    How does a large pleural effusion lead to atelectasis?

    • A.

      The cohesion between the pleural membranes is disrupted.

    • B.

      There is decreased intrapleural pressure.

    • C.

      The mediastinal contents compress the affected side.

    • D.

      Pleuritic pain causes very shallow breathing.

    Correct Answer
    A. The cohesion between the pleural membranes is disrupted.
    Explanation
    A large pleural effusion refers to the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which is the space between the two layers of pleural membranes that surround the lungs. When this fluid accumulates, it disrupts the cohesion between the pleural membranes, causing them to separate. This separation leads to a loss of negative intrapleural pressure, which is necessary for the expansion of the lungs during inspiration. Without this negative pressure, the affected lung cannot fully expand, resulting in atelectasis, which is the collapse or partial collapse of the lung tissue.

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  • 48. 

    The maximum volume of air a person can exhale after a maximum inspiration is termed the:

    • A.

      Expiratory reserve volume

    • B.

      Inspiratory reserve volume

    • C.

      Total lung capacity

    • D.

      Vital capacity

    Correct Answer
    D. Vital capacity
    Explanation
    Vital capacity refers to the maximum volume of air that a person can exhale after taking a deep breath in. It is the sum of the inspiratory reserve volume, the tidal volume, and the expiratory reserve volume. This measurement is important as it provides information about the overall lung function and can be used to diagnose respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following applies to the blood in the pulmonary artery?

    • A.

      PC02 is low

    • B.

      P02 is low

    • C.

      Hydrostatic pressure is very high

    • D.

      It is flowing into the left atrium

    Correct Answer
    B. P02 is low
    Explanation
    The correct answer is P02 is low. The blood in the pulmonary artery is low in P02 because it has just been pumped from the right ventricle of the heart and has not yet been oxygenated in the lungs. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation.

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  • 50. 

    Carbon dioxide is primarily transported in the blood:

    • A.

      As dissolved gas

    • B.

      Attatched to the iron molecule in hemoglobin

    • C.

      As a bicarbonate ion

    • D.

      As a carbon acid

    Correct Answer
    C. As a bicarbonate ion
    Explanation
    Carbon dioxide is primarily transported in the blood as a bicarbonate ion. When carbon dioxide enters the red blood cells, it combines with water to form carbonic acid. This carbonic acid then dissociates into bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions. The majority of the bicarbonate ions are transported out of the red blood cells and into the plasma, where they can be carried to the lungs for elimination. This bicarbonate ion transport mechanism allows for efficient removal of carbon dioxide from the body while maintaining the pH balance of the blood.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 29, 2019
    Quiz Created by
    Belinda
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