Carbon readily makes four stable bonds, in single, double or triple configurations.
Carbon is a very dense & heavy element, giving living things stability.
Carbon is the least electronegative non-metal
Carbon has a high affinity for Oxygen & Hydrogen, which make bonds easily with C
Oxygen has six outer valence electrons, and makes up to 2 bonds
Oxygen is highly electronegative; it is an 'electron hog', sharing them unevenly
The uneven sharing of electrons results in Oxygen forming polar covalent bonds
The presence of oxygen in Carbohydrates makes them highly insoluble in water
Provide energy, either immediate or long-term (storage)
Provide structure, support, strength in certain organisms
Formation of muscle tissues & bone in vertebrate bodies
Osmoregulation - moderating fluid balance in living organisms