Food Science Carbohydrates Test

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Food Science Carbohydrates Test - Quiz

FCS-FS-6 Students will discuss why carbohydrates are important in food preparation and preservation.
  ; a. Identify the functions of carbohydrates.
  ; b. Summarize how carbohydrates are produced through the process of photosynthesis.
  ; c. Define and identify the functions of simple and complex carbohydrates, define monosaccharides and disaccharides, and identify the role and function Read moreof sugars in food products.
  ; d. Define and identify starches and their role in food preparation.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Due to the linear arrangement of its molecules, fiber cannot be digested by humans.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the linear arrangement of fiber molecules makes it resistant to digestion by humans. Unlike other carbohydrates, fiber cannot be broken down by the digestive enzymes in our body. Instead, it passes through the digestive system intact, providing bulk and aiding in the movement of waste through the intestines. This is why consuming fiber-rich foods can help promote regular bowel movements and prevent constipation.

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  • 2. 

    Glucose is made available to the body by the process of syneresis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is incorrect. Glucose is not made available to the body by the process of syneresis. Syneresis refers to the separation of liquid from a gel or solid material. Glucose is made available to the body through the process of digestion and absorption in the small intestine.

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  • 3. 

    Molecular starches, which are made in the laboratory, may combine traits of starches found in nature.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Molecular starches, which are made in the laboratory, are not capable of combining traits of starches found in nature. This is because molecular starches are synthetic compounds created through chemical processes and do not possess the same properties or characteristics as naturally occurring starches. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 4. 

    Crystallization is a process central to candy making.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Crystallization is indeed a process central to candy making. During candy making, sugar is dissolved in a liquid and then heated to create a syrup. As the syrup cools, sugar molecules start to come together and form crystals, giving the candy its texture and structure. This process is crucial in achieving the desired consistency and appearance of various types of candies, such as fudge, rock candy, and caramel. Therefore, the statement "Crystallization is a process central to candy making" is true.

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  • 5. 

    Plants produce carbohydratres by the process of hydrolysis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Plants do not produce carbohydrates by the process of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is a process in which complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones by the addition of water. In plants, carbohydrates are produced through photosynthesis, a process that converts sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose and oxygen. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 6. 

    Amylose strach molecules are arranged in a line.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Amylose starch molecules are arranged in a line because they consist of long chains of glucose units that are linearly linked together. These chains are unbranched, allowing them to align in a straight, linear fashion. This linear arrangement gives amylose starch its characteristic structure and properties, such as its ability to form a compact, organized structure when it undergoes gelatinization.

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  • 7. 

    Viscosity is more pronounced in a pudding than in pancake syrup.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Viscosity refers to the resistance of a fluid to flow. Pudding has a higher viscosity compared to pancake syrup because it is thicker and more resistant to flow. Pudding has a higher concentration of solids, such as starch or gelatin, which contribute to its thicker consistency. On the other hand, pancake syrup is more liquid and flows easily due to its lower viscosity. Therefore, it is true that viscosity is more pronounced in a pudding than in pancake syrup.

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  • 8. 

    Complex carbohydrates are the most commonly used sweeteners.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "Complex carbohydrates are the most commonly used sweeteners" is false. Complex carbohydrates, such as starches and fibers, are not commonly used as sweeteners. Instead, simple carbohydrates like sugar and high fructose corn syrup are the most commonly used sweeteners in various food and beverage products.

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  • 9. 

    Sucrose belongs to the class of saccharides called polysaccharides.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Sucrose does not belong to the class of saccharides called polysaccharides. It is actually a disaccharide made up of glucose and fructose molecules. Polysaccharides, on the other hand, are complex carbohydrates made up of many monosaccharide units joined together.

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  • 10. 

    A starch used to make a custard pie should be high in amylose molecules.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A custard pie requires a starch that can form a gel-like consistency when cooked. Amylose molecules, which are long chains of glucose units, have the ability to form a stable gel when heated. Therefore, a starch high in amylose molecules would be ideal for making a custard pie as it would help give the pie a smooth and creamy texture.

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  • 11. 

    Invertase helps regulte the flow of blood sugar to the cells.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Invertase is an enzyme that helps in the breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose. It does not have any direct role in regulating the flow of blood sugar to the cells. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 12. 

    Glucose is the sugar most critical to the functioning of the brain.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the brain. It is the only fuel that the brain can use efficiently to perform its various functions. The brain relies heavily on glucose to support its high energy demands for activities such as thinking, memory, and decision-making. Without an adequate supply of glucose, the brain would not be able to function optimally. Therefore, it is true that glucose is the sugar most critical to the functioning of the brain.

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  • 13. 

    Gravies and sauces owe their thickness to the process of retrogradation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Gravies and sauces do not owe their thickness to the process of retrogradation. The process of retrogradation refers to the firming up or hardening of starch molecules after they have been cooked and cooled. In the case of gravies and sauces, their thickness is typically achieved through the use of thickeners such as flour, cornstarch, or roux. These thickeners help to create a desired consistency and texture in the gravies and sauces. Therefore, the statement that gravies and sauces owe their thickness to the process of retrogradation is false.

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  • 14. 

    Diabetes is an illness that can cause dangerously high lvels of blood sugar.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Diabetes is a chronic medical condition characterized by high levels of blood sugar. It occurs when the body either does not produce enough insulin or cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. This leads to an accumulation of glucose in the bloodstream, which can be dangerous if left uncontrolled. Therefore, it is true that diabetes can cause dangerously high levels of blood sugar.

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  • 15. 

    Supersaturated sugar solutions are possible because ________.

    • A.

      Sugar is more soluble in a hotter solute

    • B.

      Sugar carmelizes at high pH levels

    • C.

      Starches absorb water as a solution is heated

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Sugar is more soluble in a hotter solute
    Explanation
    Supersaturated sugar solutions are possible because sugar is more soluble in a hotter solute. When a solute, in this case sugar, is dissolved in a solvent, such as water, the solubility of the solute increases with temperature. As the temperature of the solvent increases, more sugar molecules can dissolve, resulting in a supersaturated solution where the concentration of sugar exceeds its normal solubility limit. This occurs because the increased kinetic energy of the heated solvent allows for more effective solute-solvent interactions and breaks down the intermolecular forces holding the sugar molecules together.

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  • 16. 

    The effects of diabetes illustrate the _________.

    • A.

      Value of fruits as a source of vitamin C

    • B.

      Problems associated with low-fiber diets

    • C.

      Importance of glucose to the body

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Importance of glucose to the body
    Explanation
    The effects of diabetes illustrate the importance of glucose to the body. Diabetes is a condition characterized by high blood sugar levels, which occurs when the body is unable to properly regulate glucose. This highlights the crucial role that glucose plays in the body's functioning and the negative consequences that can arise when this regulation is disrupted.

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  • 17. 

    A simple sugar's properties result from ________.

    • A.

      The type of plant that produces it

    • B.

      Its ratio of amylose to amylopectin

    • C.

      How atoms are arranged in its molecules

    • D.

      The degree of crystallization

    Correct Answer
    C. How atoms are arranged in its molecules
    Explanation
    The properties of a simple sugar are determined by how atoms are arranged in its molecules. The arrangement of atoms affects the sugar's solubility, sweetness, and ability to form crystals. Different arrangements can result in different physical and chemical properties, such as the ability to be easily dissolved in water or the tendency to form solid crystals. Therefore, the arrangement of atoms in a sugar molecule plays a crucial role in determining its properties.

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  • 18. 

    All of the following statements are true of candy making EXCEPT ________.

    • A.

      The syrup's concentration is reflected in its temperature

    • B.

      Larger crystals produce a smoother candy

    • C.

      Agitation begins as the solution cools

    • D.

      Interfering agents are used to limit crystallization

    Correct Answer
    B. Larger crystals produce a smoother candy
    Explanation
    Larger crystals do not produce a smoother candy. In fact, smaller crystals produce a smoother texture in candy making. When the syrup cools and crystallizes, smaller crystals form, resulting in a smoother texture. Larger crystals can make the candy feel gritty or rough.

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  • 19. 

    The structure of fiber _________.

    • A.

      Resists human digestive enzymes

    • B.

      Lends support to a plant's woody parts

    • C.

      Consists of parallel chains of glucose

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above". Fiber has several characteristics that are mentioned in the options. It resists human digestive enzymes, meaning it cannot be broken down and absorbed by the body. It also lends support to a plant's woody parts, providing structural integrity. Additionally, fiber consists of parallel chains of glucose, which is the basic building block of carbohydrates. Therefore, all three statements are true about the structure of fiber.

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  • 20. 

    Hydrolysis is important to physical health because it ________.

    • A.

      Reduces carbohydrates to glucose

    • B.

      Removes excess glucose from the blood

    • C.

      Aids in the digestion of fiber

    • D.

      Stimulates insulin production

    Correct Answer
    A. Reduces carbohydrates to glucose
    Explanation
    Hydrolysis is important to physical health because it reduces carbohydrates to glucose. This process breaks down complex carbohydrates into simpler forms that can be easily absorbed and used by the body for energy. Glucose is the primary source of fuel for cells, and hydrolysis helps to convert carbohydrates into a usable form, ensuring a steady supply of energy for bodily functions.

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  • 21. 

    When choosing a sugar as a sweetener, food technologists must consider that __________.

    • A.

      Some sugars are sweeter than others

    • B.

      Temperature affects the sweetness of some sugars

    • C.

      Different people may percieve sweetness in different ways

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    When choosing a sugar as a sweetener, food technologists must consider that some sugars are sweeter than others. This means that they need to choose a sugar that will provide the desired level of sweetness in the final product. Additionally, temperature can affect the sweetness of some sugars, so the technologists need to take this into account when formulating recipes. Lastly, different people may perceive sweetness in different ways, so the technologists must consider the target audience and their preferences when selecting a sugar.

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  • 22. 

    What hormone is essential to the body's use of glucose?

    Correct Answer
    Insulin
    Explanation
    Insulin is a hormone that is essential to the body's use of glucose. It is produced by the pancreas and helps regulate blood sugar levels by allowing cells to take in glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy. Without insulin, glucose cannot enter the cells, leading to high blood sugar levels and potentially causing diabetes. Insulin also plays a role in storing excess glucose in the liver for later use.

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  • 23. 

    What process produces a high-carbon form of sugar?

    Correct Answer
    Carmelization
    Explanation
    Carmelization is the process that produces a high-carbon form of sugar. During this process, sugar is heated to a high temperature, causing it to break down and undergo a series of chemical reactions. This results in the formation of a brown, caramel-like substance with a rich flavor and aroma. Carmelization is commonly used in cooking and baking to add depth and complexity to dishes, such as caramelizing onions or creating caramel sauce.

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  • 24. 

    What is the chemical term for a sugar that consists of one type of molecule?

    Correct Answer
    Monosaccharide
    Explanation
    A monosaccharide is the chemical term for a sugar that consists of one type of molecule. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates and cannot be further hydrolyzed into smaller sugar units. They are made up of a single sugar molecule and are typically sweet-tasting and soluble in water. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose.

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  • 25. 

    What process might give leftover gravy a grainy look and feel?

    Correct Answer
    Retrogradation
    Explanation
    Retrogradation is a process that occurs when starch molecules in a food product, such as gravy, reorganize and form a crystalline structure. This can happen when the gravy is cooled or stored for a long time. The formation of these starch crystals can give the gravy a grainy texture and appearance.

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  • 26. 

    What sugar is the building block of all others?

    Correct Answer
    Glucose
    Explanation
    Glucose is the correct answer because it is the primary sugar molecule that serves as the building block for all other sugars. It is a simple sugar that is essential for energy production in living organisms. Glucose can be converted into other sugars, such as fructose and galactose, through various biochemical processes. Therefore, glucose is considered the fundamental sugar from which all others are derived.

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  • 27. 

    What process is at work when a starch solution is heated and thickens?

    Correct Answer
    Gelatinization
    Explanation
    When a starch solution is heated, the process of gelatinization occurs. Gelatinization is the process in which starch granules absorb water, swell, and burst, releasing starch molecules into the surrounding liquid. This causes the liquid to thicken and form a gel-like consistency. The heat breaks down the hydrogen bonds within the starch granules, allowing water molecules to penetrate and interact with the starch molecules. As a result, the starch molecules undergo structural changes, leading to the thickening of the solution.

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  • 28. 

    A base in which few molecules ionize is called _______________.

    • A.

      Weak

    • B.

      Dilute

    • C.

      Neutral

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Weak
    Explanation
    A base in which few molecules ionize is called weak. This means that only a small proportion of the base molecules dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. In contrast, a strong base would fully ionize, meaning that almost all of its molecules dissociate into ions. Therefore, the correct answer is weak, as it accurately describes a base with low ionization.

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  • 29. 

    Acids in foods pose little health risk because __________________________.

    • A.

      They are only slightly soluble

    • B.

      They are weak

    • C.

      They are not often used in food

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. They are weak
    Explanation
    Acids in foods pose little health risk because they are weak. Weak acids do not ionize completely in water, meaning they do not release a large number of hydrogen ions. As a result, they do not have a strong corrosive effect on tissues and are less likely to cause harm when consumed in moderate amounts. Therefore, the statement that acids in foods are weak provides a valid explanation for why they pose little health risk.

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  • 30. 

    A positively charged particle

    • A.

      Hydrogen ion

    • B.

      Hydroxide ion

    • C.

      Titration

    • D.

      Anthocyanin

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrogen ion
    Explanation
    A hydrogen ion is a positively charged particle that consists of a single proton. It is formed when a hydrogen atom loses its electron. In chemistry, hydrogen ions play a crucial role in various reactions and processes, such as acid-base reactions and electrolysis. They are highly reactive and can easily combine with other ions or molecules to form compounds. Therefore, the given answer "hydrogen ion" is correct as it accurately describes a positively charged particle in the context of chemistry.

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  • 31. 

    The sensitivity to pH makes red cabbage a natural ___________________________.

    • A.

      Indicator

    • B.

      Buffer

    • C.

      Titration

    • D.

      Sugar

    Correct Answer
    A. Indicator
    Explanation
    Red cabbage has a sensitivity to pH, meaning that it can change color in response to changes in acidity or alkalinity. This property makes it a natural indicator, as it can be used to determine the pH of a solution by observing the color change. A buffer is a solution that resists changes in pH, so it is not the correct answer. Titration is a process used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, and sugar is not related to pH sensitivity. Therefore, the correct answer is indicator.

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  • 32. 

    Because it creates your first impression, a food's ___________________ can affect whether you like it before you taste it.

    • A.

      Appearance

    • B.

      Taste

    • C.

      Sounds

    • D.

      Olfactory

    Correct Answer
    A. Appearance
    Explanation
    FCS-FS 2 d. Discuss factors affecting a person’s food preference such as physical, psychological, cultural, and environmental influences.

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  • 33. 

    An atom is made of all of the following EXCEPT _______________________.

    • A.

      Proton

    • B.

      Neutron

    • C.

      Electron

    • D.

      Reacton

    Correct Answer
    D. Reacton
    Explanation
    FCS-FS-3 a. Describe the parts of an atom.

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  • 34. 

    A mixture in which particles are evenly distributed but do not dissolve.

    • A.

      Density

    • B.

      Electronegativity

    • C.

      Colloidal dispersion

    • D.

      Latent heat

    Correct Answer
    C. Colloidal dispersion
    Explanation
    A colloidal dispersion is a mixture in which particles are evenly distributed but do not dissolve. In a colloidal dispersion, the particles are larger than individual molecules but smaller than the particles in a suspension. They are dispersed throughout the mixture and do not settle out over time. This type of mixture is often opaque and exhibits the Tyndall effect, where light is scattered by the dispersed particles. Colloidal dispersions can be found in various substances such as milk, paint, and fog.

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  • 35. 

    What is a nutritionist's term for a starch?

    Correct Answer
    Complex carbohydrates
    Explanation
    A nutritionist refers to a starch as complex carbohydrates. Starch is a type of carbohydrate made up of long chains of glucose molecules. It is considered a complex carbohydrate because it takes longer for the body to break down and digest compared to simple carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates provide a steady release of energy and are found in foods like whole grains, legumes, and starchy vegetables.

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  • 36. 

    What process occurs as water evaporates from a supersaturated solution?

    Correct Answer
    Crystallization
    Explanation
    When water evaporates from a supersaturated solution, the excess solute in the solution becomes unstable and starts to come out of the solution. This process is known as crystallization. The solute molecules come together and arrange themselves in a regular repeating pattern, forming solid crystals. This occurs because the concentration of the solute in the solution exceeds its solubility limit, causing the excess solute to precipitate out and form crystals.

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  • 37. 

    What condition results when glucose builds up, unused, in the blood?

    Correct Answer
    Hyperglycemia
    Explanation
    Hyperglycemia occurs when there is an excessive amount of glucose in the bloodstream that is not being utilized by the body. This can happen due to various reasons such as insulin resistance, insufficient insulin production, or a combination of both. When glucose builds up in the blood, it can lead to a range of symptoms including increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, and slow healing of wounds. Hyperglycemia is commonly associated with conditions like diabetes mellitus and requires proper management to prevent complications.

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