Biochemistry Trivia On Carbohydrates

Reviewed by Stephen Reinbold
Stephen Reinbold, PhD, Biological Sciences |
Biology Expert
Review Board Member
Stephen Reinbold has a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences with a particular interest in teaching. He taught General Biology, Environmental Science, Zoology, Genetics, and Anatomy & Physiology for almost thirty years at Metropolitan Community College in Kansas City, Missouri. He particularly enjoyed emphasizing scientific methodology and student research projects. Now, enjoying retirement, he works part-time as an editor while also engaging in online activities.
, PhD, Biological Sciences
Approved & Edited by ProProfs Editorial Team
The editorial team at ProProfs Quizzes consists of a select group of subject experts, trivia writers, and quiz masters who have authored over 10,000 quizzes taken by more than 100 million users. This team includes our in-house seasoned quiz moderators and subject matter experts. Our editorial experts, spread across the world, are rigorously trained using our comprehensive guidelines to ensure that you receive the highest quality quizzes.
Learn about Our Editorial Process
| By Astosich
A
Astosich
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 13 | Total Attempts: 96,547
Questions: 10 | Viewed: 45,907

1.

Another word that might describe complex carbohydrates is...

Answer: Polysaccharide
Explanation:
Polysaccharide is another word that describes complex carbohydrates. Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharide units linked together by glycosidic bonds. They include substances like starch, glycogen, and cellulose. These complex carbohydrates serve various functions, such as energy storage in plants (starch) and animals (glycogen), and providing structural support in plant cell walls (cellulose). Unlike simple carbohydrates like monosaccharides and disaccharides, polysaccharides have more complex structures and provide sustained energy release.
2.

The sugars glucose, fructose, and galactose all belong to which category of carbohydrates?

Answer: Monosaccharides
Explanation:
Glucose, fructose, and galactose all belong to the category of monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates and cannot be hydrolyzed into smaller carbohydrate units. They are fundamental building blocks for more complex carbohydrates like disaccharides and polysaccharides. Glucose is a primary energy source, fructose is found in many fruits, and galactose is part of lactose, the sugar found in milk. These monosaccharides are crucial in various metabolic pathways and energy production processes in living organisms.
3.

The sugars lactose, maltose, and sucrose all belong to which category of carbohydrates?

Answer: Disaccharides
Explanation:
Lactose, maltose, and sucrose all belong to the category of disaccharides. Disaccharides are carbohydrates composed of two monosaccharide units linked together by a glycosidic bond. Lactose is made up of glucose and galactose, maltose consists of two glucose molecules, and sucrose is composed of glucose and fructose. These sugars are commonly found in dairy products, malted grains, and table sugar, respectively. Disaccharides are important dietary sugars that provide energy and are broken down into their monosaccharide components during digestion.
4.

What is the most common monosaccharide found in the human body?

Answer: Glucose
Explanation:
Glucose is the most common monosaccharide found in the human body. It is a primary source of energy for cells and is essential for metabolic processes. Glucose is transported through the bloodstream to provide energy to all body tissues. It is also a building block for more complex carbohydrates like starch and glycogen. Monitoring glucose levels is crucial in managing conditions like diabetes, highlighting its importance in biochemistry and health.
5.

What polysaccharide is used by plants to store energy?

Answer: Starch
Explanation:
Starch is the polysaccharide used by plants to store energy. It is made up of glucose units linked together and is stored in plant cells as granules. When energy is needed, plants break down starch into glucose, which can then be used in cellular respiration to produce ATP, the energy currency of cells. Starch is also an important dietary carbohydrate for humans and animals, providing a significant source of energy.
6.

What enzyme is responsible for breaking down starch into simpler sugars?

Answer: Amylase
Explanation:
Amylase is the enzyme responsible for breaking down starch into simpler sugars like maltose and glucose. Amylase is produced in the salivary glands and the pancreas. When we eat starchy foods, amylase in saliva begins the digestion process in the mouth, and pancreatic amylase continues the process in the small intestine. This enzyme plays a crucial role in carbohydrate digestion, ensuring that complex carbohydrates can be converted into a form that the body can use for energy.
7.

What carbohydrate is the main structural component of plant cell walls?

Answer: Cellulose
Explanation:
Cellulose is the main structural component of plant cell walls. It is a polysaccharide composed of glucose units linked by β-1,4-glycosidic bonds. This structure gives cellulose its strength and rigidity, allowing plants to stand upright and grow. Unlike starch, humans cannot digest cellulose due to the lack of enzymes that break down β-1,4-glycosidic bonds. However, it is an important part of dietary fiber, aiding in digestive health.
8.

What carbohydrate is stored in the liver and muscles for energy?

Answer: Glycogen
Explanation:
Glycogen is the carbohydrate stored in the liver and muscles for energy. It is a polysaccharide composed of glucose units linked together in a highly branched structure. When the body needs energy, glycogen is broken down into glucose, which is then used in cellular respiration to produce ATP. Glycogen storage allows for quick release of glucose during physical activity or between meals, maintaining blood sugar levels and energy supply.
9.

What is the main sugar found in milk?

Answer: Lactose
Explanation:
Lactose is the main sugar found in milk. It is a disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose. Lactose is digested in the small intestine by the enzyme lactase, which breaks it down into its monosaccharide components for absorption. Lactose is an important source of energy for infants and young mammals. Some people have lactose intolerance, which means they lack sufficient lactase to digest lactose properly, leading to digestive discomfort.
10.

What type of bond links monosaccharides together in polysaccharides?

Answer: Glycosidic bond
Explanation:
A glycosidic bond links monosaccharides together in polysaccharides. This covalent bond forms between the hydroxyl group of one monosaccharide and the anomeric carbon of another, releasing a molecule of water. Glycosidic bonds can vary in their position and configuration, leading to different structures and properties of polysaccharides, such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose. Understanding glycosidic bonds is fundamental in biochemistry, as it explains how complex carbohydrates are built from simple sugars.
Back to Top Back to top
Advertisement
×

Wait!
Here's an interesting quiz for you.

We have other quizzes matching your interest.