Human Growth And Development Quiz Ch. 1 - 5 Number 3

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Human Growth And Development Quiz Ch. 1 - 5 Number 3 - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than the other. 

    • A.

      Hemispheres

    • B.

      Brain Specialization

    • C.

      Accommodation

    • D.

      Lateralization

    Correct Answer
    D. Lateralization
    Explanation
    Lateralization refers to the process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than the other. This means that specific functions, such as language processing or spatial awareness, are predominantly controlled by either the left or right hemisphere. Lateralization allows for specialization and efficient processing of different tasks in the brain.

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  • 2. 

    The support for leaning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth. 

    • A.

      Laterilzation

    • B.

      Scaffolding

    • C.

      Zone of Proximal Development

    • D.

      Social Competence

    Correct Answer
    B. Scaffolding
    Explanation
    Scaffolding refers to the support provided to learners by teachers or peers in order to help them solve problems and develop their skills. It involves breaking down complex tasks into smaller, more manageable steps and gradually reducing the support as the learner becomes more independent. This approach promotes independence and growth by allowing learners to build on their existing knowledge and abilities, while still providing the necessary guidance and assistance.

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  • 3. 

    Thinking that ignores the viewpoints of others. 

    • A.

      Centration

    • B.

      Egocentric Thought

    • C.

      Egocentrism

    • D.

      Psychology

    Correct Answer
    A. Centration
    Explanation
    Centration refers to the cognitive tendency to focus on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring other relevant perspectives. It is characterized by a lack of consideration for the viewpoints of others. This type of thinking is often observed in young children who are unable to understand or take into account multiple viewpoints. They tend to be egocentric and believe that their own perspective is the only valid one. This narrow focus can limit their ability to problem-solve, empathize, and understand the world from different angles.

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  • 4. 

    The second stage of Piaget’s theory which ranges from age 2 to 7 characterized by symbolic thinking. Mental reasoning emerges as does the use of concepts. 

    • A.

      Initiative-Versus-Guilt Stage

    • B.

      Sensorimotor Stage

    • C.

      Preoperational Stage

    • D.

      Concrete Operational Stage

    Correct Answer
    C. Preoperational Stage
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Preoperational Stage. This stage, according to Piaget's theory, occurs between the ages of 2 and 7 and is characterized by symbolic thinking. During this stage, children begin to develop mental reasoning abilities and use concepts to understand the world around them. They are able to use symbols, such as words and images, to represent objects and events. However, their thinking is still egocentric and lacks logical reasoning.

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  • 5. 

    Memory of particular events from one’s own life. 

    • A.

      Biographical Memory

    • B.

      Syntax

    • C.

      Autobiographical Memory

    • D.

      Memory

    Correct Answer
    C. Autobiographical Memory
    Explanation
    Autobiographical memory refers to the ability to recall specific events and experiences from one's own life. It involves remembering personal details such as people, places, emotions, and the context of the event. This type of memory is unique to each individual and is closely linked to a person's sense of identity and self. Autobiographical memory plays a crucial role in forming a coherent narrative of one's life and contributes to a person's overall understanding of themselves and their personal history.

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  • 6. 

    The aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others.

    • A.

      Grammar

    • B.

      Pragmatics

    • C.

      Memory

    • D.

      Syntax

    Correct Answer
    B. Pragmatics
    Explanation
    Pragmatics is the aspect of language that focuses on how language is used in context to communicate effectively and appropriately with others. It involves understanding and using language in a way that takes into account the social and cultural norms, as well as the intentions and expectations of the speaker and the listener. Pragmatics deals with aspects such as tone of voice, body language, and context, which play a crucial role in understanding and interpreting meaning in communication.

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  • 7. 

    Thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others. 

    • A.

      Egocentric Thought

    • B.

      Centration

    • C.

      Centric Thought

    • D.

      Scaffolding

    Correct Answer
    A. Egocentric Thought
    Explanation
    Egocentric thought refers to thinking that is self-centered and does not consider the perspectives or viewpoints of others. It is a cognitive bias where individuals prioritize their own thoughts, feelings, and needs over those of others. This type of thinking can lead to a lack of empathy, difficulty in understanding others' perspectives, and a tendency to only see things from one's own point of view.

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  • 8. 

    The way in which an individual combines words and phrases to form sentences. 

    • A.

      Grammar

    • B.

      Syntax

    • C.

      Pragmatics

    • D.

      Language

    Correct Answer
    B. Syntax
    Explanation
    Syntax refers to the way in which an individual combines words and phrases to form sentences. It involves the rules and principles that govern the structure and order of words in a sentence. Syntax is important in understanding and producing meaningful and grammatically correct sentences in a language. It helps to convey the intended meaning and ensure effective communication.

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  • 9. 

    A key aspect of preoperational thought is ____________ , which is the ability to use symbols, words, or an object to represent something that is not physically present.

    • A.

      Symbolism

    • B.

      Symbolic Function

    • C.

      Sensorimotor Stage

    • D.

      Object Permanence

    Correct Answer
    B. Symbolic Function
    Explanation
    Preoperational thought is a stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development where children aged 2 to 7 start to use symbols to represent objects or ideas. Symbolic function refers to the ability to use symbols, words, or objects to represent something that is not physically present. This ability allows children to engage in pretend play, use language, and understand the concept of numbers and letters. Symbolic function is a key aspect of preoperational thought as it demonstrates the child's increasing cognitive abilities and their ability to think beyond the immediate physical world.

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  • 10. 

    The period during which children experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action.

    • A.

      Trust-vs-Mistrust Stage

    • B.

      Autonomy-vs-Shame-And-Doubt Stage

    • C.

      Initiative-Versus-Guilt Stage

    Correct Answer
    C. Initiative-Versus-Guilt Stage
    Explanation
    The period during which children experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action is known as the Initiative-Versus-Guilt Stage. During this stage, children begin to assert their independence and take initiative in their actions and decision-making. However, they also start to feel guilty or ashamed when their actions lead to negative outcomes or disapproval from others. This stage is important for the development of a sense of purpose and the ability to take responsibility for one's actions.

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  • 11. 

    The initial, major stage of cognitive development in Piaget’s theory which ranges from the first month of life to age 18 months to 2 years. It can be broken down into 6 substages, with the major milestone of the stage being the development of object permanence.

    • A.

      Preoperational Stage

    • B.

      Concrete Operational Stage

    • C.

      Sensorimotor Stage

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensorimotor Stage
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Sensorimotor Stage. This stage is the initial and major stage of cognitive development in Piaget's theory. It occurs from the first month of life to around 18 months to 2 years of age. During this stage, infants learn about the world through their senses and actions. They develop object permanence, which is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight. This stage can be further divided into 6 substages, making it a crucial period for the development of cognitive abilities.

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  • 12. 

    The realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen.

    • A.

      Object Permanence

    • B.

      Invisible

    • C.

      Scaffolding

    • D.

      Object Disappearance

    Correct Answer
    A. Object Permanence
    Explanation
    Object permanence refers to the understanding that objects and people continue to exist even when they are not visible. This cognitive development milestone is typically achieved by infants around the age of 8 to 12 months. It allows them to comprehend that objects do not cease to exist just because they are out of sight. This understanding is crucial for various aspects of development, including memory, problem-solving, and social interactions.

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  • 13. 

    The system of rules that determine how our thoughts can be expressed. 

    • A.

      Grammar

    • B.

      Syntax

    • C.

      Pragmatics

    Correct Answer
    A. Grammar
    Explanation
    Grammar refers to the system of rules that govern the structure and formation of sentences in a language. It includes rules for word order, sentence structure, verb tense, and other linguistic elements. Grammar helps us to express our thoughts and ideas in a coherent and understandable way. It ensures that our sentences are grammatically correct and convey the intended meaning. Therefore, the given correct answer for this question is "Grammar".

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  • 14. 

    Defined as a body weight more than 20% higher than the average weight for a person of a given age and height.

    • A.

      ADHD

    • B.

      Fat

    • C.

      Obesity

    • D.

      Overweight

    Correct Answer
    C. Obesity
    Explanation
    Obesity is defined as having a body weight more than 20% higher than the average weight for a person of a given age and height. This means that someone who is classified as obese has a significantly higher body weight compared to what is considered normal for their age and height. Obesity is a medical condition that can lead to various health issues and is often associated with an increased risk of developing chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

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  • 15. 

    Abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children’s behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning.  

    • A.

      Psychological Maltreatment

    • B.

      Psychological Harm

    • C.

      Abuse

    • D.

      Cycle of Violence Hypothesis

    Correct Answer
    A. Psychological Maltreatment
    Explanation
    Psychological maltreatment refers to the abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children's behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning. This type of abuse involves actions such as belittling, rejecting, or constantly criticizing the child, which can have severe negative effects on their psychological well-being. It is a form of abuse that can cause long-lasting emotional and psychological harm to the child. The other options, psychological harm and abuse, are broad terms that encompass various types of maltreatment, whereas the cycle of violence hypothesis refers to the belief that individuals who have been abused as children are more likely to become abusers themselves in the future.

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  • 16. 

    Parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but try to reason with their children giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way. 

    • A.

      Authoritarian Parents

    • B.

      Authoritative Parents

    • C.

      Permissive Parents

    • D.

      Non-caring Parents

    Correct Answer
    B. Authoritative Parents
    Explanation
    Authoritative parents are the correct answer because they are firm and set clear and consistent limits for their children. However, they also try to reason with their children by giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way. This approach allows children to understand the rationale behind rules and develop critical thinking skills. Authoritative parents balance discipline with open communication, creating a supportive and nurturing environment for their children.

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  • 17. 

    Refers to changes in people's sense of justice and of what is right and wrong, and in their behavior related to moral issues.

    • A.

      Superego

    • B.

      Moral Behavior

    • C.

      Modeling

    • D.

      Egotistic Behavior

    Correct Answer
    B. Moral Behavior
    Explanation
    Moral behavior refers to the actions and choices individuals make based on their sense of justice and what they believe is right or wrong. It is a reflection of their moral values and principles. This can include acts of kindness, honesty, fairness, and empathy towards others. Moral behavior is influenced by various factors such as upbringing, cultural norms, and personal beliefs. It is important for individuals to engage in moral behavior as it promotes a harmonious and ethical society.

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  • 18. 

    This theory emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others.

    • A.

      Collective Orientation

    • B.

      Psychological Maltreatment

    • C.

      Behavioral Theory

    • D.

      Social Learning Approach

    Correct Answer
    D. Social Learning Approach
    Explanation
    The social learning approach is a theory that highlights the significance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. This theory suggests that individuals learn and acquire new behaviors through observing and imitating others. It emphasizes the role of social interactions and the influence of the environment in shaping an individual's behavior. This approach suggests that individuals learn not only through direct experiences but also through vicarious learning, where they learn by observing the consequences of others' actions.

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  • 19. 

    A general process in which persons serve as models for others, exhibiting the behavior to be imitated by the others.

    • A.

      Modeling

    • B.

      Cycle of Violence Hypothesis

    • C.

      Morality

    • D.

      Moral Behavior

    Correct Answer
    A. Modeling
    Explanation
    Modeling refers to a general process where individuals serve as role models for others by exhibiting behavior that can be imitated. This process involves observing and imitating the actions, attitudes, and values of others, which can influence the behavior and development of individuals. Modeling is an important aspect of social learning theory, where individuals learn by observing and imitating the behavior of others. By observing positive role models, individuals can learn and adopt desirable behaviors, skills, and values, leading to personal growth and development.

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  • 20. 

    The realization that one is permanenty male or female.

    • A.

      Gender Identity

    • B.

      Gender Constansy

    • C.

      Gender Awareness

    Correct Answer
    B. Gender Constansy
    Explanation
    Gender constancy refers to the understanding that one's gender remains the same regardless of external appearances or changes in behavior. It is the realization that one is permanently male or female. This concept is crucial for the development of a stable gender identity. Gender awareness, on the other hand, refers to the recognition and understanding of gender as a social construct. While related, these two concepts are distinct from each other. Therefore, the correct answer is gender constancy.

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  • 21. 

    Parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children.

    • A.

      Permissive Parents

    • B.

      Authoritarian Parents

    • C.

      Authoritative Parents

    Correct Answer
    A. Permissive Parents
    Explanation
    Permissive parents are characterized by their lenient and inconsistent approach to parenting. They provide little guidance or structure for their children and have low expectations. They often avoid setting rules or enforcing consequences, allowing their children to have a great deal of freedom. This parenting style can result in children who lack discipline, struggle with self-control, and have difficulty following rules.

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  • 22. 

    The period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age. This stage is characterized by the active, and appropriate use of logic.

    • A.

      Preoperationial Stage

    • B.

      Sensorimotor Stage

    • C.

      Nonpoerationial Stage

    • D.

      Concrete Operational Stage

    Correct Answer
    D. Concrete Operational Stage
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Concrete Operational Stage. This stage occurs between 7 and 12 years of age and is characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic. During this stage, children develop the ability to think logically about concrete events and understand concepts such as conservation, reversibility, and classification. They can also engage in more complex problem-solving and understand the concept of cause and effect. This stage marks a significant milestone in cognitive development as children move from concrete thinking to more abstract and logical thinking.

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  • 23. 

    Promotes the notion of interdependence, blending in, and being interconnected.

    • A.

      Collective Orientation

    • B.

      Individualistic Orientation

    Correct Answer
    A. Collective Orientation
    Explanation
    Collective Orientation refers to a cultural mindset that emphasizes the importance of working together, interdependence, and interconnectedness. In such societies, individuals prioritize the needs and goals of the group over their own personal interests. This promotes a sense of unity, cooperation, and harmony within the community. People in collective-oriented cultures tend to value conformity, fitting in, and maintaining social harmony. They believe that the success and well-being of the group as a whole are more important than individual achievements or aspirations.

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  • 24. 

    The theory that the abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children. 

    • A.

      Cycle of Harm Hypothesis

    • B.

      Psychological Maltreatment

    • C.

      Cycle of Violence Hypothesis

    • D.

      Obesity

    Correct Answer
    C. Cycle of Violence Hypothesis
    Explanation
    The Cycle of Violence Hypothesis suggests that individuals who experience abuse and neglect as children are more likely to perpetuate the same behavior as adults, thus creating a cycle of violence. This theory proposes that the trauma and negative experiences from childhood can shape one's beliefs and behaviors, leading them to repeat the patterns of abuse and neglect with their own children. This hypothesis highlights the intergenerational transmission of violence and emphasizes the importance of breaking this cycle through intervention and support.

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  • 25. 

    The perception (sense) of oneself as male or female. 

    • A.

      Gender Constancy

    • B.

      Gender Awareness

    • C.

      Gender Identity

    • D.

      Gender Self Awareness

    Correct Answer
    C. Gender Identity
    Explanation
    Gender identity refers to the perception or sense of oneself as male or female. It is an individual's deep, internal sense of their own gender, which may or may not align with the sex they were assigned at birth. Gender identity is an important aspect of a person's self-concept and can have a significant impact on their identity, behavior, and overall well-being.

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  • 26. 

    Emphasizes personal identity, uniqueness of the individual, and competition. 

    • A.

      Individualistic Orientation

    • B.

      Collective Orientation

    Correct Answer
    A. Individualistic Orientation
    Explanation
    This answer emphasizes personal identity, uniqueness of the individual, and competition. It suggests that individuals prioritize their own interests and goals over the collective group. They value independence, self-reliance, and individual achievements. This orientation promotes individual rights, freedom, and autonomy. It is commonly seen in societies where individual success is highly valued and encouraged.

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  • 27. 

    Parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, and whose word is law; they value strict, unquestioning obedience from their children and do not tolerate expressions of disagreement.

    • A.

      Authoritative Parents

    • B.

      Authoritarian Parents

    • C.

      Permissive Parents

    Correct Answer
    B. Authoritarian Parents
    Explanation
    Authoritarian parents are characterized by their controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold behavior towards their children. They expect strict, unquestioning obedience and do not tolerate any expressions of disagreement. These parents value discipline and order, often enforcing their rules with punishment. Unlike permissive parents who have a more laid-back approach, authoritarian parents are strict and have a "my way or the highway" mentality. They believe that their word is law and expect their children to comply without question.

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  • 28. 

    A learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity.

    • A.

      Obesity

    • B.

      AIDS

    • C.

      ADD

    • D.

      ADHD

    Correct Answer
    D. ADHD
    Explanation
    ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, which is a learning disability characterized by symptoms such as inattention, impulsiveness, low frustration tolerance, and inappropriate activity. Obesity and AIDS are not related to the given symptoms, while ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) is an outdated term that is now encompassed within the broader diagnosis of ADHD. Therefore, ADHD is the correct answer based on the given description.

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  • 29. 

    The ability to deal with new problems and situations. It is intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory. 

    • A.

      IQ

    • B.

      Fluid Intelligence

    • C.

      Crystalized Intellgience

    • D.

      Nonverbal Intelligence

    Correct Answer
    B. Fluid Intelligence
    Explanation
    Fluid intelligence refers to the ability to solve new problems and adapt to new situations. It involves information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory. This type of intelligence is not dependent on prior knowledge or experience, but rather focuses on the ability to think abstractly and solve problems in novel ways. It is different from crystalized intelligence, which is based on knowledge and experience gained over time. Nonverbal intelligence, on the other hand, refers to the ability to understand and use nonverbal cues and communication. IQ is a measure of overall intelligence, which includes both fluid and crystalized intelligence.

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  • 30. 

    An individual's overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation.

    • A.

      Self-Esteem

    • B.

      Self-Concept

    • C.

      Social Comparison

    • D.

      Social Awareness

    Correct Answer
    A. Self-Esteem
    Explanation
    Self-esteem refers to an individual's overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation. It involves how a person perceives and values themselves, including their beliefs, abilities, and worth. Self-esteem plays a crucial role in shaping one's thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. It influences how individuals interact with others and navigate through various life situations. Having a healthy level of self-esteem is important for overall well-being and success in different areas of life.

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  • 31. 

    The desire to evaluate one's own behavior, abilities, expertise, and opinions by comparing them to those of others who are roughly of the same age and educational level.

    • A.

      Downward Social Comparsion

    • B.

      Self-Concept

    • C.

      Self-Contradiction

    • D.

      Social Comparison

    Correct Answer
    D. Social Comparison
    Explanation
    Social Comparison refers to the desire to evaluate one's own behavior, abilities, expertise, and opinions by comparing them to those of others who are roughly of the same age and educational level. This process allows individuals to gain a better understanding of themselves and their own standing in relation to others. By comparing themselves to others, individuals can assess their strengths and weaknesses, gain motivation, and adjust their self-perception. This concept plays a significant role in shaping one's self-concept and can impact their self-esteem and overall well-being.

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  • 32. 

    The level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent. 

    • A.

      Zone of Proximal Development

    • B.

      Scaffolding

    • C.

      Memory

    • D.

      Self-Concept

    Correct Answer
    A. Zone of Proximal Development
    Explanation
    The Zone of Proximal Development refers to the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent. This concept, developed by psychologist Lev Vygotsky, suggests that children learn best when they are challenged just beyond their current abilities, with the guidance and support of a more knowledgeable individual. It emphasizes the importance of social interaction and collaboration in the learning process.

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  • 33. 

    The period from ages 6 to 12 characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world. Success in this stage is evidenced by feelings of mastery, proficiency, and confidence. Difficulties lead to feelings of failure and inadequacy and to withdrawal from academics and socialization with peers.

    • A.

      Trust-vs-Mistrust Stage

    • B.

      Autonomy-vs-Shame-And-Doubt Stage

    • C.

      Industry-vs-Inferiority Stage

    • D.

      Initiative-vs-Guilt Stage

    Correct Answer
    C. Industry-vs-Inferiority Stage
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Industry-vs-Inferiority Stage. This stage, which occurs between the ages of 6 and 12, is characterized by a focus on developing competence and meeting challenges. Success in this stage leads to feelings of mastery, proficiency, and confidence. Difficulties in meeting these challenges can result in feelings of failure and inadequacy, causing withdrawal from academics and socialization with peers.

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  • 34. 

    The process by which information is initially encoded, stored, and retrieved.  

    • A.

      Pragmatics

    • B.

      Memory

    • C.

      Intellectual Capabilities

    • D.

      IQ

    Correct Answer
    B. Memory
    Explanation
    Memory refers to the process by which information is initially encoded, stored, and retrieved. It involves the ability to retain and recall information, experiences, and knowledge. Memory plays a crucial role in various cognitive processes such as learning, problem-solving, and decision-making. It is a complex system that involves different stages, including encoding (inputting information into memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (accessing stored information when needed). Memory can be influenced by various factors such as attention, motivation, and emotional state.

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  • 35. 

    The collection of social skills that permit individuals to perform successfully in social settings. 

    • A.

      Social Competence

    • B.

      Self-Concept

    • C.

      Social Awareness

    • D.

      Downward Social Competence

    Correct Answer
    A. Social Competence
    Explanation
    Social competence refers to the collection of social skills that enable individuals to navigate and succeed in social settings. It includes abilities such as communication, empathy, cooperation, and problem-solving. People who are socially competent are able to build and maintain positive relationships, resolve conflicts effectively, and adapt to different social situations. They are aware of social norms and cues, and can adjust their behavior accordingly. Social competence is essential for individuals to interact effectively with others and achieve success in various aspects of life, such as school, work, and personal relationships.

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  • 36. 

    The store of information, skills, and strategies that people have acquired through education and prior experiences, which they can apply in problem-solving situations. 

    • A.

      Fluid Intelligence

    • B.

      Crystallized Intelligence

    Correct Answer
    B. Crystallized Intelligence
    Explanation
    Crystallized Intelligence refers to the knowledge and skills that individuals have acquired throughout their lives through education and past experiences. It represents the store of information, strategies, and problem-solving abilities that individuals can draw upon in various situations. Unlike Fluid Intelligence, which involves the ability to think and reason abstractly and solve novel problems, Crystallized Intelligence is based on previously learned information and is more dependent on long-term memory and accumulated knowledge.

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  • 37. 

    Comparisons made with others who are less competent or successful to raise or protect self-esteem. 

    • A.

      Social Comparison

    • B.

      Upward Social Comparison

    • C.

      Downward Social Comparison

    • D.

      Self-Esteem

    Correct Answer
    C. Downward Social Comparison
    Explanation
    Downward social comparison refers to the act of comparing oneself to others who are less competent or successful. This behavior is often done to boost or protect one's self-esteem. By comparing oneself to individuals who are worse off, one may feel better about their own abilities and accomplishments. This type of comparison can help individuals maintain a positive self-image and enhance their self-esteem.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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    Tinamide
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