Psych Study Guide: Chapter 9

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _______ development involves growth and changes in the body and brain, the senses, motor skills, and health and wellness

    • A.

      Cognitive

    • B.

      Learning 

    • C.

      Physical

    • D.

      Psychosocial 

    Correct Answer
    C. Physical
    Explanation
    Physical development refers to the growth and changes that occur in the body and brain, as well as the development of the senses, motor skills, and overall health and wellness. This includes changes in height, weight, muscle strength, coordination, and the development of sensory abilities such as vision, hearing, and touch. Physical development is crucial during childhood and adolescence, as it lays the foundation for future growth and functioning. It is also influenced by genetics, nutrition, physical activity, and environmental factors.

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  • 2. 

    What does the normative approach ask regarding the lifespan?

    • A.

      What do people think about development?

    • B.

      What is biological about development?

    • C.

      What is normal development?

    • D.

      Who decided what constituted normal development?

    Correct Answer
    C. What is normal development?
    Explanation
    The normative approach in lifespan development asks about what is considered normal development. It seeks to understand the typical patterns and milestones of development across different age groups. This approach examines the average or typical behaviors, abilities, and characteristics that individuals are expected to display at certain stages of life. It helps in identifying deviations from the norm and understanding the factors that influence development.

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  • 3. 

    The germinal stage is the period from conception to _______; the _______ stage begins with lining of the mother’s uterus and extends to about the eighth week of development; the __ stage begins around the ninth week and continues until birth.

    • A.

      Implantation; embryonic

    • B.

      Quickening; neural; placenta

    • C.

      Implantation; fetal; embryonic

    • D.

      Quickening; placenta; neural

    Correct Answer
    A. Implantation; embryonic
    Explanation
    The germinal stage refers to the period from conception to implantation. After implantation, the embryonic stage begins, which lasts until about the eighth week of development. Following this, the fetal stage begins around the ninth week and continues until birth.

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  • 4. 

    Specific normative events are also called ________.

    • A.

      Age-related standards

    • B.

      Averages

    • C.

      Benchmarks

    • D.

      Developmental milestones

    Correct Answer
    D. Developmental milestones
    Explanation
    Developmental milestones refer to specific normative events that mark the progress and achievements of individuals as they grow and develop. These milestones are often used as benchmarks or standards to assess and monitor an individual's physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development.

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  • 5. 

    The continuous development approach views development as a ________.

    • A.

      Biological imperative

    • B.

      Cumulative process

    • C.

      Series of accidents

    • D.

      Unique progress

    Correct Answer
    B. Cumulative process
    Explanation
    The continuous development approach views development as a cumulative process. This means that development is seen as a result of the accumulation of knowledge, skills, and experiences over time. It suggests that each stage of development builds upon the previous ones, leading to continuous growth and progress. This perspective emphasizes the importance of continuous learning and improvement in achieving developmental goals.

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  • 6. 

    ________ development involves learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity

    • A.

      Artistic

    • B.

      Cognitive

    • C.

      Emotional 

    • D.

      Psychosocial 

    Correct Answer
    B. Cognitive
    Explanation
    Cognitive development refers to the growth and improvement of various mental processes, such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity. This type of development involves the acquisition and refinement of cognitive skills and abilities, which are essential for problem-solving, decision-making, and overall intellectual functioning. It encompasses the development of knowledge, understanding, and the ability to process and interpret information. Therefore, the given answer of "cognitive" is correct as it accurately describes the specific type of development that includes these mental processes.

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  • 7. 

    Theorists who view development as ________ believe that development takes place in unique stages.

    • A.

      Continuous

    • B.

      Discontinuous

    • C.

      Progressive

    • D.

      Regressive

    Correct Answer
    B. Discontinuous
    Explanation
    Theorists who view development as discontinuous believe that development takes place in unique stages. This means that individuals go through specific periods of growth and change, with each stage representing a distinct and qualitatively different phase. Discontinuous development suggests that there are critical periods where significant shifts in behavior, cognition, or physical development occur, and these stages are not easily reversible or interchangeable. This perspective contrasts with the idea of continuous development, which proposes that development is a gradual and cumulative process without distinct stages.

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  • 8. 

    Turning in response to a touch on the cheek is the _______ reflex and extending arms, arching back and bringing arms toward each other, often in response to loud noises involves the _______ reflex.

    • A.

      Sucking; moro

    • B.

      Moro; sucking

    • C.

      Rooting; moro

    • D.

      Grasping; rooting

    Correct Answer
    C. Rooting; moro
    Explanation
    The given answer is "rooting; moro". This is because turning in response to a touch on the cheek is known as the rooting reflex, where a baby turns its head towards the direction of the touch in order to find a source of food. On the other hand, extending arms, arching back, and bringing arms toward each other in response to loud noises is known as the moro reflex, which is a startle reflex commonly seen in newborns.

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  • 9. 

    Which concept refers to the persistent difference in grades, test scores, and graduation rates that exist among students of different ethnicities, races, and sexes?

    • A.

      Achievement gap

    • B.

      Bell curve

    • C.

      Attrition

    • D.

      Racism

    Correct Answer
    A. Achievement gap
    Explanation
    The concept that refers to the persistent difference in grades, test scores, and graduation rates that exist among students of different ethnicities, races, and sexes is the achievement gap. This term is used to describe the disparities in educational outcomes between different groups of students, highlighting the unequal access to resources, opportunities, and support that can contribute to these differences. The achievement gap is a complex issue influenced by various factors such as socioeconomic status, systemic inequalities, and educational policies.

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  • 10. 

    Who called the stages of development psychosexual stages?

    • A.

      Erik Erikson

    • B.

      Jean Piaget

    • C.

      Lawrence Kohlberg

    • D.

      Sigmund Freud

    Correct Answer
    D. Sigmund Freud
    Explanation
    Sigmund Freud is attributed to calling the stages of development psychosexual stages. Freud believed that individuals pass through distinct stages of psychosexual development, each characterized by a different focus of pleasure and potential conflict. These stages include the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages. Freud's theory of psychosexual development has had a significant impact on the field of psychology and continues to be influential in understanding human development.

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  • 11. 

    Ego identity is our _____.

    • A.

      Early personality

    • B.

      Nature

    • C.

      Primary character

    • D.

      Sense of self 

    Correct Answer
    D. Sense of self 
    Explanation
    Ego identity refers to our sense of self, which encompasses our understanding of who we are, our beliefs, values, and goals. It involves the integration of various aspects of our personality and experiences, shaping our identity and guiding our behavior. Ego identity is crucial for establishing a coherent and stable sense of self, allowing us to navigate through life and make meaningful choices.

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  • 12. 

    ________ development involves emotions, personality, and social relationships. 

    • A.

      Mental 

    • B.

      Physical 

    • C.

      Psychological

    • D.

      Psychosocial 

    Correct Answer
    D. Psychosocial 
    Explanation
    Psychosocial development refers to the combination of psychological and social factors that influence an individual's growth and development. It encompasses emotional, personality, and social aspects, emphasizing the interplay between these factors. This term is often used in the context of Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory, which outlines eight stages of development throughout the lifespan, each characterized by specific psychosocial challenges and outcomes.

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  • 13. 

    Who developed the psychosocial theory of development?

    • A.

      Abraham Maslow

    • B.

      Erik Erikson 

    • C.

      Jean Piaget

    • D.

      Lawrence Kohlberg

    Correct Answer
    B. Erik Erikson 
    Explanation
    Erik Erikson developed the psychosocial theory of development. This theory suggests that individuals go through eight stages of psychosocial development throughout their lives, each stage characterized by a specific conflict or challenge that needs to be resolved. Erikson believed that successful resolution of these conflicts leads to healthy development and the acquisition of certain virtues. This theory emphasizes the importance of social interactions and relationships in shaping an individual's development.

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  • 14. 

    ________ are concepts (mental models) that are used to help us categorize and interpret information.

    • A.

      Categories

    • B.

      Cognitions

    • C.

      Facsimiles

    • D.

      Schemata

    Correct Answer
    D. Schemata
    Explanation
    Schemata are mental models or frameworks that we use to organize and make sense of information. They help us categorize and interpret new information based on our existing knowledge and experiences. Schemata allow us to quickly process and understand new information by fitting it into pre-existing mental frameworks. They are essential for cognitive processes such as perception, memory, and problem-solving.

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  • 15. 

    A(an) _____ begins as a one-cell structure that is created when a sperm and egg merge

    • A.

      Embryo

    • B.

      Placenta

    • C.

      Protean

    • D.

      Zygote

    Correct Answer
    D. Zygote
    Explanation
    A zygote is the correct answer because it is the initial stage of development in which a one-cell structure is formed by the fusion of a sperm and an egg. It is the earliest stage of an embryo and eventually develops into a multicellular organism. The other options, embryo, placenta, and protean, do not accurately describe the one-cell stage of development.

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  • 16. 

    The _______ type of infant attaches to the mother and uses her as a secure base to explore the environment

    • A.

      Secure

    • B.

      Avoidant

    • C.

      Resistant

    • D.

      Bold

    Correct Answer
    A. Secure
    Explanation
    Secure attachment is a type of infant attachment where the baby feels safe and comfortable with their caregiver, usually the mother, and uses her as a secure base to explore their surroundings. This means that the baby feels confident to explore and interact with the environment, knowing that their caregiver is there for support and comfort if needed. This type of attachment is characterized by a healthy balance between dependence and independence, and is considered to be the most desirable and beneficial for the child's overall development.

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  • 17. 

    The concept conservation refers to _____

    • A.

      Knowing that, even if you change the appearance of something, it is still equal in size as long as nothing has been removed or added.

    • B.

      Knowing that symbols represent words, images, and ideas

    • C.

      Thinking logically about real (concrete) events

    • D.

      Understanding that objects can be changed and then returned to their original form

    Correct Answer
    A. Knowing that, even if you change the appearance of something, it is still equal in size as long as nothing has been removed or added.
    Explanation
    The concept of conservation refers to knowing that, even if you change the appearance of something, it is still equal in size as long as nothing has been removed or added. This means that the quantity or amount of something remains the same, regardless of its appearance. Conservation is an important cognitive milestone in child development and is often tested using tasks that involve pouring liquid from one container to another or rearranging objects in a line. It demonstrates an understanding of the concept of conservation, which is an essential aspect of logical thinking and understanding the permanence of objects.

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  • 18. 

    In ________ thinking, decisions are made based on situations and circumstances, and logic is integrated with emotion as adults develop principles that depend on contexts.

    • A.

      Concrete operational 

    • B.

      Preformal operational

    • C.

      Postformal

    • D.

      Sensorimotor

    Correct Answer
    C. Postformal
    Explanation
    Postformal thinking refers to a stage of cognitive development in adulthood where individuals make decisions based on the integration of logic and emotion, taking into account the specific situations and circumstances. Unlike earlier stages such as concrete operational or preformal operational thinking, postformal thinking is characterized by the ability to consider multiple perspectives and develop principles that depend on the context. This stage is often associated with the ability to think critically and solve complex problems, as well as the recognition of the limitations of formal operational thinking.

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  • 19. 

    Who believed that moral development, like cognitive development, follows a series of stages?

    • A.

      Erik Erikson

    • B.

      Jean Piaget

    • C.

      Lawrence Kohlberg

    • D.

      Sigmund Freud 

    Correct Answer
    C. Lawrence Kohlberg
    Explanation
    Lawrence Kohlberg believed that moral development, like cognitive development, follows a series of stages. He proposed a theory of moral development that consists of six stages, grouped into three levels: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. According to Kohlberg, individuals progress through these stages as they mature and develop their understanding of right and wrong. Each stage represents a different level of moral reasoning, with higher stages being more advanced and complex than lower stages. Kohlberg's theory has been influential in the field of psychology and has helped to understand how individuals develop their moral values and reasoning abilities.

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  • 20. 

    Which term refers to the adjustment of a schema by adding information similar to what is already known?

    • A.

      Assimilation

    • B.

      Conservation

    • C.

      Egocentrism

    • D.

      Reversibility

    Correct Answer
    A. Assimilation
    Explanation
    Assimilation refers to the adjustment of a schema by adding information similar to what is already known. This means that when new information is encountered, it is incorporated into existing knowledge and understanding. Assimilation allows individuals to make sense of new experiences by relating them to their existing mental frameworks. It is a process by which individuals can expand their knowledge and understanding of the world around them.

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  • 21. 

    A ________ is any environmental agent—biological, chemical, or physical—that causes damage.

    • A.

      Contaminant

    • B.

      Mutagen

    • C.

      Teratogen

    • D.

      Zygote

    Correct Answer
    C. Teratogen
    Explanation
    A teratogen is any environmental agent, whether biological, chemical, or physical, that causes damage. Teratogens are substances or factors that can disrupt the development of an embryo or fetus, leading to birth defects or developmental abnormalities. They can include things like certain drugs, chemicals, infections, or radiation. These agents can interfere with the normal development of the embryo or fetus, causing structural or functional abnormalities in the developing organism.

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  • 22. 

    ______ parents expect mature behavior, use reasoning and set firm limits.

    • A.

      Authoritarian

    • B.

      Authoritative

    • C.

      Permissive

    • D.

      Laissez - Faire

    Correct Answer
    B. Authoritative
    Explanation
    Authoritative parents expect mature behavior from their children, but also use reasoning and set firm limits. They provide guidance and rules, but also allow for independence and individuality. This parenting style is characterized by open communication, mutual respect, and a balance between discipline and warmth. Authoritative parents encourage their children to express their opinions and make decisions, while still maintaining authority and structure in the household. This approach fosters a healthy and supportive environment for the child's development.

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  • 23. 

    _____ skills refer to our ability to move our bodies and manipulate objects.

    • A.

      Biological

    • B.

      Cognitive 

    • C.

      Manipulative

    • D.

      Motor

    Correct Answer
    D. Motor
    Explanation
    Motor skills refer to our ability to move our bodies and manipulate objects. These skills involve the coordination of muscles and nerves to perform physical tasks such as walking, running, and throwing. Motor skills are essential for everyday activities and are developed through practice and repetition. They play a crucial role in the development of children and are also important for adults in various occupations and sports.

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  • 24. 

    _____ is a long-standing connection or bond with others

    • A.

      Attachment

    • B.

      Nourishment

    • C.

      Regard

    • D.

      Security

    Correct Answer
    A. Attachment
    Explanation
    Attachment refers to a long-standing connection or bond with others. It is a deep emotional bond that forms between individuals, typically between a caregiver and a child. This bond is characterized by feelings of trust, security, and comfort, and it plays a crucial role in shaping an individual's social and emotional development. Attachment is formed through consistent and responsive caregiving, which helps to create a sense of safety and support in relationships. This connection with others is essential for healthy relationships and overall well-being.

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  • 25. 

    In a(an) ________, developmental psychologists collect a great deal of information from one individual in order to better understand physical and psychological changes over the lifespan.

    • A.

      Case study

    • B.

      Experiment

    • C.

      Naturalistic observation

    • D.

      Secondary analysis

    Correct Answer
    A. Case study
    Explanation
    A case study is a research method used by developmental psychologists to gather extensive information from a single individual. By studying one person in depth, researchers can gain insights into the physical and psychological changes that occur over a lifespan. This method allows for a detailed examination of an individual's unique experiences and can provide valuable data for understanding developmental processes.

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  • 26. 

    Crawling, walking, writing, dressing, naming colors, speaking in sentences, and starting puberty are all examples of ________.

    • A.

      Cognitive developments

    • B.

      Developmental milestones

    • C.

      Naturalistic observations

    • D.

      Psychosexual stages 

    Correct Answer
    B. Developmental milestones
    Explanation
    Developmental milestones refer to the significant achievements or abilities that individuals reach at specific ages or stages of development. Crawling, walking, writing, dressing, naming colors, speaking in sentences, and starting puberty are all examples of these milestones. They represent important markers of physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, and they help professionals and parents track a child's progress and identify any potential delays or concerns. Therefore, the answer "developmental milestones" accurately describes the examples given.

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  • 27. 

    A developmental psychologist might use ________ in order to observe how children behave on a playground, at a daycare center, or in the child’s own home

    • A.

      Case studies

    • B.

      Experiments

    • C.

      Naturalistic observation

    • D.

      Surverys

    Correct Answer
    C. Naturalistic observation
    Explanation
    A developmental psychologist might use naturalistic observation in order to observe how children behave on a playground, at a daycare center, or in the child's own home. This method involves observing individuals in their natural environment without any manipulation or interference from the researcher. By observing children in their everyday settings, the psychologist can gain a better understanding of their behavior, interactions, and development. This method allows for a more accurate and realistic representation of how children behave in their natural environment compared to other methods such as experiments or surveys.

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  • 28. 

    Stage theories hold that the sequence of development is _____

    • A.

      Cultural specific

    • B.

      Dramatic 

    • C.

      Related to language acquisition

    • D.

      Universal 

    Correct Answer
    D. Universal 
    Explanation
    Stage theories propose that the sequence of development is universal, meaning that it occurs in the same order for all individuals regardless of their cultural background or language acquisition. This suggests that there are common patterns and milestones in human development that are shared across different cultures and languages. Universal stage theories provide a framework for understanding and studying human development across diverse populations and settings.

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  • 29. 

    Emily is a doctoral student in psychology. She plans to use ________ to complete her doctoral paper, asking individuals to self-report important information about how their thoughts, experiences, and beliefs differ over a 10-year period.

    • A.

      Assessments

    • B.

      Case studies

    • C.

      Naturalistic observations

    • D.

      Surveys

    Correct Answer
    D. Surveys
    Explanation
    Emily plans to use surveys to complete her doctoral paper. Surveys involve asking individuals to self-report important information about how their thoughts, experiences, and beliefs differ over a 10-year period. This method allows Emily to collect data directly from participants and gain insights into their subjective experiences. Surveys are a common research tool in psychology as they provide a structured way to gather large amounts of data efficiently.

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  • 30. 

    What does nature refer to in the nature vs. nurture debate?

    • A.

      Cognitive capacity

    • B.

      Environment and culture

    • C.

      Genes and biology

    • D.

      Language acquisition

    Correct Answer
    C. Genes and biology
    Explanation
    In the nature vs. nurture debate, the term "nature" refers to genes and biology. This means that the debate is focused on whether an individual's behavior, traits, and abilities are primarily influenced by their genetic makeup or by their environment and upbringing. The "nature" side argues that genetic factors play a significant role in shaping a person's characteristics, while the "nurture" side emphasizes the impact of environmental factors such as upbringing, culture, and socialization.

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  • 31. 

    Sigmund Freud believed that personality develops _____

    • A.

      During early childhood

    • B.

      During puberty

    • C.

      In late adolescence

    • D.

      In utero

    Correct Answer
    A. During early childhood
    Explanation
    Sigmund Freud believed that personality develops during early childhood. This is because Freud proposed that the early years of a person's life, specifically the first five years, are crucial in shaping their personality. He argued that experiences and conflicts during this stage, such as the resolution of the Oedipus and Electra complexes, greatly impact the development of the individual's personality. Freud's psychoanalytic theory suggests that early childhood experiences, including interactions with parents and caregivers, play a significant role in shaping an individual's personality traits and behaviors later in life.

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  • 32. 

    What does nurture refer to in the nature vs. nurture debate?

    • A.

      Biology

    • B.

      Environment and culture

    • C.

      Genetics

    • D.

      Sexual preference

    Correct Answer
    B. Environment and culture
    Explanation
    Nurture refers to the environmental and cultural factors that influence an individual's development and behavior. It encompasses the experiences, upbringing, education, and social interactions that shape a person's personality, beliefs, and values. The nature vs. nurture debate explores the relative contributions of genetics (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) in determining human traits and characteristics.

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  • 33. 

    In which of the following stages of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development do children compare their abilities to those of their friends and classmates?

    • A.

      Trust vs. Mistrust

    • B.

      Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

    • C.

      Initiative vs. Guilt

    • D.

      Industry vs. Inferiority

    Correct Answer
    D. Industry vs. Inferiority
    Explanation
    In the stage of Industry vs. Inferiority, children compare their abilities to those of their friends and classmates. This stage occurs during the elementary school years, when children start to develop a sense of competence and industry. They become interested in mastering new skills and tasks, and they often compare themselves to others to see how they measure up. This comparison can lead to feelings of either industry, where they feel competent and capable, or inferiority, where they feel inadequate and less skilled than their peers.

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  • 34. 

    Heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, cigarettes, and alcohol are all examples of _____.

    • A.

      Experiments

    • B.

      FASD

    • C.

      Schemata

    • D.

      Teratogens

    Correct Answer
    D. Teratogens
    Explanation
    Teratogens are substances or agents that can cause birth defects or abnormalities in a developing fetus. Heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, cigarettes, and alcohol are all known teratogens, meaning that exposure to these substances during pregnancy can have harmful effects on the developing baby. These substances can cross the placenta and interfere with the normal development of the fetus, potentially leading to a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Therefore, the given answer, teratogens, accurately describes these substances and their potential impact on fetal development.

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  • 35. 

    Grasping a toy, writing with a pencil, and using a spoon are all examples of ________ motor skills

    • A.

      Fine

    • B.

      Gross

    • C.

      Hand

    • D.

      Manipulative

    Correct Answer
    A. Fine
    Explanation
    Grasping a toy, writing with a pencil, and using a spoon require precise and coordinated movements of the small muscles in our hands and fingers. These activities involve fine motor skills, which involve the dexterity and control of small muscle groups. Fine motor skills are necessary for tasks that require precision and accuracy, such as writing, drawing, and manipulating small objects.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following is the correct order of prenatal development?

    • A.

      Zygote, fetus, embryo

    • B.

      Fetus, embryo, zygote

    • C.

      Fetus, zygote, embryo

    • D.

      Zygote, embryo, fetus

    Correct Answer
    D. Zygote, embryo, fetus
    Explanation
    The correct order of prenatal development is zygote, embryo, fetus. During fertilization, the sperm and egg combine to form a zygote. The zygote then undergoes cell division and becomes an embryo. As the embryo continues to develop, it eventually becomes a fetus.

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  • 37. 

    In psychology, the work "nature" refers to _____ and the word "nurture" refers to _____

    • A.

      Genes; environment

    • B.

      Environment; genes

    • C.

      Continuous; discontinuous

    • D.

      Discontinuous; continuous

    Correct Answer
    A. Genes; environment
    Explanation
    In psychology, the term "nature" refers to genes, while the term "nurture" refers to the environment. This means that "nature" represents the inherent genetic factors that influence an individual's traits and characteristics, while "nurture" represents the external factors such as upbringing, experiences, and social interactions that shape an individual's development and behavior.

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  • 38. 

    Between birth and one year, infants are dependent on their caregivers; therefore, caregivers who are responsive and sensitive to their infant’s needs help their baby to develop a sense of the world as a safe, predictable place. What is the primary developmental task of this stage?

    • A.

      Autonomy vs. shame / doubt

    • B.

      Identity vs. confusion

    • C.

      Industry vs. inferiority

    • D.

      Trust vs. mistrust

    Correct Answer
    D. Trust vs. mistrust
    Explanation
    During the first year of life, infants are completely dependent on their caregivers for their basic needs. The primary developmental task of this stage is to develop a sense of trust in the world and in their caregivers. When caregivers are responsive and sensitive to the infant's needs, the baby learns to trust that their needs will be met and that the world is a safe and predictable place. This trust forms the foundation for healthy social and emotional development later in life.

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  • 39. 

    One-year-old Ainsley learned the schema for trucks because his family has a truck. When Ainsley sees trucks on television, she says, “Look mommy, truck!” This best exemplifies ________.

    • A.

      Accommodation

    • B.

      Acquisition

    • C.

      Assimilation

    • D.

      Attainment

    Correct Answer
    C. Assimilation
    Explanation
    This scenario demonstrates assimilation, which is the process of incorporating new information or experiences into existing mental schemas. Ainsley has already learned the schema for trucks based on her family's truck, and she is now applying this schema to trucks she sees on television. This shows that she is assimilating new instances of the concept of a truck into her existing understanding of what a truck is.

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  • 40. 

    After age 65, most people are attempting to assess their lives and make sense of life and the meaning of their contributions. What is the primary developmental task of this stage?

    • A.

      Generativity vs. stagnation

    • B.

      Identity vs. guilt

    • C.

      Initiative vs. guilt

    • D.

      Integrity vs. despair

    Correct Answer
    D. Integrity vs. despair
    Explanation
    After age 65, individuals enter the stage of integrity vs. despair. During this stage, people reflect on their lives and evaluate whether they have lived a meaningful and fulfilling life. They may experience a sense of satisfaction and wisdom if they believe they have made positive contributions to society and have lived according to their values. On the other hand, if they feel a sense of regret and despair, they may struggle to find meaning and purpose in their lives. This stage is characterized by the need to achieve a sense of integrity and acceptance of one's life, rather than succumbing to feelings of despair and disappointment.

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  • 41. 

    18-month-old Gordon learned the schema for apples. When Gordon sees tomatoes at the grocery store, he says, “Look mommy, apples!” His mother tells him that the food he sees at the store is a tomato, not an apple. He now has separate schemata for tomatoes and apples. This best exemplifies ________.

    • A.

      Accommodation

    • B.

      Assimilation

    • C.

      Exclusion

    • D.

      Inclusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Accommodation
    Explanation
    This scenario demonstrates accommodation, which is the process of adjusting existing schemas or creating new ones to incorporate new information or experiences. In this case, Gordon initially assimilated tomatoes into his existing schema for apples, but after his mother corrected him, he created a separate schema for tomatoes. This shows that he has accommodated the new information about tomatoes and adjusted his understanding accordingly.

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  • 42. 

    Balancing, running, and jumping are all examples of _____ motor skills

    • A.

      Fine

    • B.

      Gross

    • C.

      Moving

    • D.

      Physical

    Correct Answer
    B. Gross
    Explanation
    Balancing, running, and jumping are all examples of gross motor skills. Gross motor skills involve the movement and coordination of large muscle groups, such as those in the arms, legs, and core. These skills require the use of multiple body parts and the ability to control and coordinate movements. Balancing, running, and jumping all require the use of large muscle groups and coordination of movements, making them examples of gross motor skills. Fine motor skills, on the other hand, involve the coordination and control of smaller muscle groups, such as those in the hands and fingers.

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  • 43. 

    As toddlers (ages 1–3 years) begin to explore their world, they learn that they can control their actions and act on the environment to get results. What is the primary developmental task of this stage?

    • A.

      Autonomy vs. shame / doubt

    • B.

      Industry vs. inferiority

    • C.

      Initiative vs. guilt

    • D.

      Trust vs. mistrust

    Correct Answer
    A. Autonomy vs. shame / doubt
    Explanation
    The primary developmental task of the toddler stage (ages 1-3 years) is autonomy vs. shame/doubt. During this stage, toddlers start to assert their independence and develop a sense of self-control. They want to do things on their own and explore their environment. However, they may also experience shame or doubt if they are not allowed to make choices or if their attempts at independence are met with criticism or failure. This stage is crucial for the development of self-confidence and a sense of personal autonomy.

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  • 44. 

    During Jean Piaget's _____ stage, the world is experienced through senses and actions

    • A.

      Concrete operational

    • B.

      Formal operational

    • C.

      Preoperational

    • D.

      Sensorimotor

    Correct Answer
    D. Sensorimotor
    Explanation
    In the sensorimotor stage of Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development, infants and young children experience the world through their senses and actions. This stage is characterized by the development of object permanence, the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not directly perceived. During this stage, children also learn to coordinate their sensory experiences with their motor actions, leading to the development of basic problem-solving skills and the ability to imitate actions. Overall, the sensorimotor stage is a crucial period for the development of physical and cognitive abilities in infants and young children.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following cognitive skills is least likely to show a substantial decline as people age?

    • A.

      Slower reaction time

    • B.

      Muscle strength diminishes

    • C.

      Skin changes

    • D.

      Ability to apply acquired information

    Correct Answer
    D. Ability to apply acquired information
    Explanation
    As people age, they may experience a decline in various cognitive skills. However, the ability to apply acquired information is least likely to show a substantial decline. This is because the brain has the capacity to retain and utilize knowledge and skills gained over time. While other cognitive skills such as reaction time may slow down, muscle strength may diminish, and skin may undergo changes, the ability to apply acquired information can remain relatively stable or even improve with age, as individuals accumulate more life experiences and knowledge.

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  • 46. 

    When people reach their 40s, they enter the time known as middle adulthood, which extends to the mid-60s. This involves finding their life’s work and contributing to the development of others through activities such as volunteering, mentoring, and raising children. What is the primary developmental task of this stage?

    • A.

      Generativity vs. stagnation

    • B.

      Integrity vs. despair

    • C.

      Intimacy vs. isolation

    • D.

      Trust vs. mistrust

    Correct Answer
    A. Generativity vs. stagnation
    Explanation
    The primary developmental task of middle adulthood is generativity vs. stagnation. This stage involves individuals finding their life's work and making meaningful contributions to society. Generativity refers to the desire to leave a lasting impact on future generations, such as through mentoring, volunteering, and raising children. Stagnation, on the other hand, refers to a lack of personal growth and feeling unproductive. In middle adulthood, individuals often reflect on their accomplishments and assess whether they have made a positive difference in the world, which is the central conflict of generativity vs. stagnation.

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  • 47. 

    In the ________ stage, children use words and images to represent things, but they lack logical reasoning.

    • A.

      Concrete operational

    • B.

      Formal operational

    • C.

      Preoperational

    • D.

      Sensorimotor

    Correct Answer
    C. Preoperational
    Explanation
    In the preoperational stage, children use words and images to represent things, but they lack logical reasoning. This stage typically occurs between the ages of 2 and 7. During this stage, children develop language skills and begin to use symbols to represent objects and events. However, they are still unable to think logically or understand abstract concepts. They often engage in egocentric thinking, where they struggle to see things from another person's perspective. Overall, the preoperational stage is characterized by symbolic thinking and the inability to reason logically.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following is the correct order of stages in Kübler-Ross’s five-stage model of grief?

    • A.

      Denial, bargaining, anger, depression, acceptance

    • B.

      Anger, depression, bargaining, acceptance, denial

    • C.

      Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

    • D.

      Anger, acceptance, denial, depression, bargaining

    Correct Answer
    C. Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
    Explanation
    Kübler-Ross's five-stage model of grief suggests that individuals go through a series of emotional stages when faced with grief or loss. The correct order of these stages is denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. In the denial stage, individuals may refuse to believe or accept the reality of the loss. This is followed by anger, where individuals may express frustration and resentment. Bargaining involves attempting to negotiate or make deals to change the outcome. Depression is characterized by feelings of sadness and hopelessness. Finally, acceptance involves coming to terms with the loss and finding a way to move forward.

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  • 49. 

    Once children reach the preschool stage (ages 3–6 years), they are capable of originating activities and asserting control over their world through social interactions and play. What is the primary developmental task of this stage?

    • A.

      Autonomy vs. shame / doubt

    • B.

      Generativity vs. stagnation

    • C.

      Initiative vs. guilt

    • D.

      Intimacy vs. isolation

    Correct Answer
    C. Initiative vs. guilt
    Explanation
    During the preschool stage, children develop a sense of initiative, where they take the initiative to plan and carry out activities. This stage is characterized by children's curiosity, imagination, and desire to explore their environment. However, they may also experience guilt if they believe their actions have caused harm or gone against societal rules. The primary developmental task of this stage is to balance their initiative with a sense of responsibility and avoid excessive guilt.

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  • 50. 

    During the ________ stage, children understand events and analogies logically, and they can perform simple mathematical operations

    • A.

      Concrete operational

    • B.

      Formal operational

    • C.

      Preoperational

    • D.

      Sensorimotor

    Correct Answer
    A. Concrete operational
    Explanation
    During the concrete operational stage, children develop the ability to think logically and understand cause and effect relationships. They can use logic to solve problems, perform simple mathematical operations, and understand analogies. This stage typically occurs between the ages of 7 and 11, and marks a significant milestone in a child's cognitive development.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 30, 2019
    Quiz Created by
    Sdumanovsky
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