Exam: Human Growth And Development Quiz

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Exam: Human Growth And Development Quiz - Quiz


Do you know and understand the journey of growth and development? Could you pass this quiz? Human growth and development identify certain developmental concepts in psychology and provides you with knowledge of the fundamental dynamics, which underlie human behavior at various stages in the life span. You will have the opportunity to study human development from birth to childhood. Take this quiz and discover further about the study of human growth and development.


Human Growth and Development Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    Freud's stages are psychosexual while Eriksson's stages are 

    • A.

      Psychometric

    • B.

      Psychodiagnostic

    • C.

      Psychopharmacological

    • D.

      Psychosocial

    Correct Answer
    D. Psychosocial
    Explanation
    Freud's stages of development are psychosexual, meaning they focus on the development of sexual instincts and desires. On the other hand, Erikson's stages of development are psychosocial, which means they emphasize the interaction between an individual's psychological development and the social environment. Erikson's stages encompass a broader range of experiences and challenges, including the development of identity, relationships, and a sense of purpose. Therefore, the correct answer is psychosocial.

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  • 2. 

    In Freudian theory, instincts are emphasized. Erik Erikson is an ego psychologist. Ego psychologists.

    • A.

      Emphasize id process

    • B.

      Refute the concept of the super ego

    • C.

      Believe in man's power of reasoning to control behavior

    • D.

      Are sometimes known as radical behaviors

    Correct Answer
    C. Believe in man's power of reasoning to control behavior
    Explanation
    Ego psychologists believe in man's power of reasoning to control behavior. They emphasize the role of the ego, which is responsible for mediating between the instincts of the id and the demands of society. They believe that individuals have the ability to use their rational thinking and decision-making skills to control their behavior and make choices that are in line with societal norms. This perspective highlights the importance of the individual's ability to exercise self-control and make conscious decisions about their actions.

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  • 3. 

    The only psychoanalyst who created a development theory which encompasses the entire life span was 

    • A.

      Erik Erikson

    • B.

      Milton H Erikson

    • C.

      A.A. Brill

    • D.

      Jean Piaget

    Correct Answer
    A. Erik Erikson
    Explanation
    Erik Erikson is the correct answer because he is the only psychoanalyst who developed a theory that covers the entire lifespan. His theory of psychosocial development consists of eight stages, each representing a different age range and a specific psychosocial conflict that individuals must resolve in order to develop successfully. This theory emphasizes the importance of social and cultural factors in shaping human development and has had a significant impact on the field of psychology.

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  • 4. 

    The statement "the ego is a dependent on the id," would most likely reflect the work of

    • A.

      Erik Erikson

    • B.

      Signund Freud

    • C.

      Jay Haley

    • D.

      Arnold Lazarus, William Perry and Robert Kegan

    Correct Answer
    B. Signund Freud
    Explanation
    The statement "the ego is dependent on the id" reflects the work of Sigmund Freud. Freud's psychoanalytic theory suggests that the ego, which represents the conscious mind, develops as a result of the id's instincts and desires being regulated by the reality principle. The id, on the other hand, represents the unconscious mind and is driven by basic instincts and desires. Freud believed that the ego develops in order to mediate between the id's demands and the constraints of reality.

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  • 5. 

    Jean Piaget's theory has four stages. The correct order from stage 1 to stage 4 is

    • A.

      Formal operations, concrete operations, preoperations, sensorimotor

    • B.

      Formal operatoins, preoperations, concrete operations, sensorimotor

    • C.

      Sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations

    • D.

      Concrete operations, sensorimotor, preoperations, formal operations

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations
    Explanation
    Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that children progress through four stages of cognitive development in a fixed order. The correct order of these stages is sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, and formal operations. In the sensorimotor stage, which occurs from birth to around 2 years old, infants learn about the world through their senses and motor actions. The preoperations stage, from around 2 to 7 years old, is characterized by egocentric thinking and the development of symbolic representation. Concrete operations, from around 7 to 11 years old, involve the ability to think logically about concrete objects and events. Finally, formal operations, from around 11 years old and beyond, is marked by the ability to think abstractly and hypothetically.

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  • 6. 

    Some behavioral scientists have been critical of the swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget's developmental research inasmuch as 

    • A.

      He utilized the t test too frequently

    • B.

      He failed to check for type 1or alpha errors

    • C.

      He worked primarily with minority children

    • D.

      His findings were often derived from observing his own children

    Correct Answer
    D. His findings were often derived from observing his own children
    Explanation
    Jean Piaget's findings were often derived from observing his own children. This can be seen as a limitation because it introduces bias into the research. Observing his own children may not be representative of the general population, and therefore his findings may not be applicable to all children. Additionally, there may be a lack of objectivity in his observations, as he may have been influenced by his personal relationship with his children. This raises concerns about the validity and generalizability of his research findings.

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  • 7. 

    A tall skinny pitcher of water is emptied into a small squatty pitcher. A child indicates she feels the small pitcher has less water. The child has not yet mastered it.

    • A.

      Symbolic schema

    • B.

      Conservation

    • C.

      Androgynous psychosocial issues

    • D.

      Trust versus mistrust

    Correct Answer
    B. Conservation
    Explanation
    The child's belief that the small pitcher has less water despite it being the same amount as the tall pitcher demonstrates a lack of understanding of conservation. Conservation refers to the ability to understand that the quantity of a substance remains the same even if its appearance or arrangement changes. In this case, the child is not able to conserve because she is focused on the height and shape of the pitchers rather than the amount of water they hold.

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  • 8. 

    In Piagetian literature, conservation would most likely refer to 

    • A.

      Volume or mass.

    • B.

      Defenses of the ego.

    • C.

      The sensorimotor intelligence stage.

    • D.

      A specific psychosexual stage of life.

    Correct Answer
    A. Volume or mass.
    Explanation
    Conservation in Piagetian literature refers to the understanding that certain properties of an object, such as volume or mass, can remain the same even when its appearance or arrangement changes. This concept is typically developed during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development. It involves the ability to understand that changes in the physical appearance of an object do not necessarily mean changes in its fundamental properties. Therefore, the correct answer is volume or mass.

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  • 9. 

    A child masters conservation in the Piagetian stage known as 

    • A.

      Formal operations - 12 years and older.

    • B.

      Concrete operations - age 7 to 11.

    • C.

      Preoperations - ages 2 to 7.

    • D.

      Sensorimotor intelligence - birth to 2 years.

    Correct Answer
    B. Concrete operations - age 7 to 11.
    Explanation
    In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, conservation refers to the understanding that certain properties of an object (such as its quantity, length, or volume) remain the same even when its appearance or arrangement changes. Concrete operations is the stage in Piaget's theory that occurs between the ages of 7 and 11. During this stage, children become capable of conservation tasks and can understand that the quantity or amount of something remains the same even if its appearance changes. Therefore, the child masters conservation in the concrete operations stage.

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  • 10. 

    __________ expanded on Piaget's conceptualization of moral development.

    • A.

      Erik Erikson

    • B.

      The Russian psychologist Leo Vygotsky

    • C.

      Lawrence Kohlberg

    • D.

      John B. Watson

    Correct Answer
    C. Lawrence Kohlberg
    Explanation
    Lawrence Kohlberg expanded on Piaget's conceptualization of moral development. Kohlberg proposed a theory of moral development that consisted of six stages, each representing a different level of moral reasoning. He believed that individuals progress through these stages as they mature and gain a better understanding of moral concepts. Kohlberg's theory built upon Piaget's ideas by providing a more detailed framework for understanding how moral reasoning develops over time.

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  • 11. 

    According to Piaget, a child masters the concept of reversibility in the third stage, known as concrete operational thought, this suggests

    • A.

      That heavier objects are more difficult for a child to lift.

    • B.

      The child is ambidextrous.

    • C.

      The child is more cognizant of mass than weight.

    • D.

      One can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape

    Correct Answer
    D. One can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape
    Explanation
    Piaget's concept of reversibility refers to a child's understanding that actions can be reversed and objects can return to their original state. This means that the correct answer, "one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape," aligns with Piaget's theory. It suggests that a child in the concrete operational stage understands the concept of reversibility and can comprehend that actions can be undone and objects can be restored to their original shape. This understanding is crucial for a child's cognitive development and their ability to solve problems and think logically.

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  • 12. 

    During a thunderstorm, a 6-year-old child in Piaget's stage of pre-operational thought (stage 2) says, "The rain is following me." This is an example of 

    • A.

      Egocentrism.

    • B.

      Conservation.

    • C.

      Centration.

    • D.

      Abstract thought.

    Correct Answer
    A. Egocentrism.
    Explanation
    During Piaget's stage of pre-operational thought (stage 2), children are egocentric, meaning they struggle to understand that others have different perspectives and beliefs than their own. The statement "The rain is following me" reflects the child's belief that they are the center of the world and everything revolves around them. This demonstrates egocentrism because the child is unable to consider that the rain is a natural phenomenon that affects everyone, not just themselves.

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  • 13. 

    Lawrence Kohlberg suggested

    • A.

      A single level of morality.

    • B.

      Two levels of morality.

    • C.

      Three levels of morality.

    • D.

      Preoperational thought as the basis for all morality.

    Correct Answer
    C. Three levels of morality.
    Explanation
    Lawrence Kohlberg suggested that there are three levels of morality. These levels are based on the development of moral reasoning in individuals. The first level is the pre-conventional level, where moral judgments are based on self-interest and avoiding punishment. The second level is the conventional level, where moral judgments are based on societal norms and expectations. The third level is the post-conventional level, where moral judgments are based on personal principles and a sense of justice. Kohlberg's theory suggests that individuals progress through these levels as they mature and develop their moral reasoning abilities.

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  • 14. 

    The Heinz story is to Kohlberg's theory as 

    • A.

      A brick is to a house.

    • B.

      Freud is to Jung.

    • C.

      Menninger Clinic is to biofeedback.

    • D.

      A typing test is to the level of typing skill mastered.

    Correct Answer
    D. A typing test is to the level of typing skill mastered.
    Explanation
    The Heinz story is an example that illustrates Kohlberg's theory of moral development, where individuals go through different stages of moral reasoning. Similarly, a typing test is a tool that assesses the level of typing skill that someone has mastered. Both the Heinz story and the typing test serve as practical examples or measures of certain concepts or abilities.

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  • 15. 

    The term identity crisis comes from the work of 

    • A.

      Counselors who stress RS involvement issues with clients.

    • B.

      Erikson.

    • C.

      Adler.

    • D.

      Jung.

    Correct Answer
    B. Erikson.
    Explanation
    The term "identity crisis" is associated with Erik Erikson, a prominent psychologist known for his work on psychosocial development. Erikson proposed that during adolescence, individuals experience a period of identity exploration and confusion, where they struggle to establish a sense of self and personal identity. This term has become widely used in psychology and popular culture to describe this developmental stage. Therefore, the correct answer is Erikson.

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  • 16. 

    Kohlberg's three levels of morality are 

    • A.

      Preconventional, conventional, postconventional.

    • B.

      Formal, preformal, self-accepted.

    • C.

      Self-accepted, other directed, authority directed.

    • D.

      Preconventional, formal, authority directed.

    Correct Answer
    A. Preconventional, conventional, postconventional.
    Explanation
    Kohlberg's three levels of morality are preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. In the preconventional level, individuals make moral decisions based on self-interest and avoiding punishment. In the conventional level, individuals conform to societal norms and seek approval from others. In the postconventional level, individuals develop their own moral principles and make decisions based on ethical principles and values, even if they conflict with societal norms. This progression reflects the development of moral reasoning and the ability to consider different perspectives and make more complex moral judgments.

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  • 17. 

    Trust verus mistrust is

    • A.

      An Adlerian notion of morality.

    • B.

      Erik Erikson's first stage of psychosocial development.

    • C.

      Essentially equivalent to Piaget's concept of egocentrism.

    • D.

      The basis of morality according to Kohlberg.

    Correct Answer
    B. Erik Erikson's first stage of psychosocial development.
    Explanation
    Erik Erikson's first stage of psychosocial development is trust versus mistrust. During this stage, which occurs from birth to approximately 18 months of age, infants learn to trust or mistrust their caregivers based on the consistency and reliability of their care. This stage is crucial in the development of a sense of basic trust in the world and in others. If infants receive consistent and nurturing care, they develop a sense of trust, which lays the foundation for healthy relationships and a positive outlook on life. However, if their needs are not consistently met, they may develop mistrust, leading to difficulties in forming relationships and a more negative view of the world.

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  • 18. 

    A person who has successfully mastered Erikson's first seven stages would be ready to enter Erikson's final or eighth stage.

    • A.

      Generativity versus stagnation.

    • B.

      Initiative versus guilt.

    • C.

      Identity crisis of the later years.

    • D.

      Integrity versus despair.

    Correct Answer
    D. Integrity versus despair.
    Explanation
    The person who has successfully mastered Erikson's first seven stages would be ready to enter Erikson's final or eighth stage, which is integrity versus despair. This stage occurs during late adulthood, where individuals reflect on their lives and feel a sense of satisfaction and fulfillment if they have achieved their goals and have a positive outlook on their accomplishments. On the other hand, if they feel regret and a sense of failure, they may experience despair and a negative view of their life. This stage involves finding meaning and acceptance of one's life and coming to terms with mortality.

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  • 19. 

    In Kohlberg's first or preconventional level, the individual's moral behavior is guided by 

    • A.

      Psychosexual urges.

    • B.

      Consequences.

    • C.

      Periodic fugue states.

    • D.

      Counterconditioning.

    Correct Answer
    B. Consequences.
    Explanation
    In Kohlberg's first or preconventional level, the individual's moral behavior is guided by consequences. This means that individuals at this level are primarily concerned with avoiding punishment and seeking rewards. They make moral decisions based on the potential outcomes or consequences of their actions, rather than considering ethical principles or the needs of others. This level is characterized by a focus on self-interest and a limited understanding of moral reasoning.

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  • 20. 

    Kohlberg's second level of morality is known as conventional morality. This level is characterized by

    • A.

      Psychosexual urges.

    • B.

      A desire to live up to society's expectations.

    • C.

      A desire to conform.

    • D.

      B and c.

    Correct Answer
    D. B and c.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "b and c" because Kohlberg's second level of morality, known as conventional morality, is marked by a desire to live up to society's expectations and a desire to conform. This means that individuals at this level are motivated to follow societal norms and rules, seeking approval and avoiding disapproval from others. This level is focused on maintaining social order and upholding the norms and values of their community.

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  • 21. 

    Kohlberg's highest level of morality is termed postconventional morality. Here the individual

    • A.

      must truly contend with psychosexual urges.

    • B.

      Has the so-called "good boy/good girl" orientation.

    • C.

      Has self-imposed morals and ethics.

    • D.

      A and b.

    Correct Answer
    C. Has self-imposed morals and ethics.
    Explanation
    In Kohlberg's highest level of morality, individuals have self-imposed morals and ethics. This means that their moral decisions are not solely based on external rules or societal expectations, but rather on their own personal principles and values. They are able to think beyond the "good boy/good girl" orientation, where they seek approval from others, and instead make moral choices based on their own internal standards. This level of morality reflects a higher level of moral reasoning and autonomy.

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  • 22. 

    According to Kohlberg, level 3, which is post conventional or self-accepted moral principles, 

    • A.

      Refers to the Naive Hedonism stage.

    • B.

      Operates on the premise that rewards guide morals.

    • C.

      A and b.

    • D.

      Is the highest level of morality. However, some people never reach this level.

    Correct Answer
    D. Is the highest level of morality. However, some people never reach this level.
  • 23. 

    The zone of proximal development

    • A.

      Was pioneered by Lev Vygotsky.

    • B.

      Was pioneered by Piaget and Kohlberg.

    • C.

      Emphasized organ inferiority.

    • D.

      A, b and c.

    Correct Answer
    A. Was pioneered by Lev Vygotsky.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "was pioneered by Lev Vygotsky." Lev Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist who introduced the concept of the zone of proximal development. This theory suggests that children have a range of abilities, with tasks that they can perform independently and tasks that they cannot yet perform even with assistance. The zone of proximal development refers to the range of tasks that a child can perform with the guidance and support of a more knowledgeable individual, such as a teacher or parent. Vygotsky's work has had a significant impact on educational psychology and the understanding of how children learn and develop.

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  • 24. 

    Freud and Erikson

    • A.

      Could be classified as behaviorists.

    • B.

      Could be classified as maturationists.

    • C.

      Agreed that developmental stages are psychosexual.

    • D.

      Were prime movers in the biofeedback movement.

    Correct Answer
    B. Could be classified as maturationists.
    Explanation
    Freud and Erikson could be classified as maturationists because they both believed that development occurs through a predetermined sequence of stages that unfold naturally over time. They emphasized the role of biological factors and innate processes in shaping human development, rather than focusing solely on external influences or environmental factors. Both theorists believed that individuals go through specific stages of development and that certain milestones must be reached before progressing to the next stage. This perspective highlights the importance of biological maturation in driving human development.

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  • 25. 

    John Bowlby's name is most closely associated with

    • A.

      The work of psychologist and pediatrician, Arnold Gesell, a maturationist.

    • B.

      Developmental stage theories.

    • C.

      Bonding and attachment.

    • D.

      The unconscious mind.

    Correct Answer
    C. Bonding and attachment.
    Explanation
    John Bowlby is most closely associated with bonding and attachment. Bowlby was a British psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who developed the theory of attachment. He believed that the early relationships between infants and their primary caregivers have a profound impact on their emotional and social development. Bowlby's work emphasized the importance of a secure and loving attachment between infants and their caregivers for healthy psychological development. He also introduced the concept of the "attachment figure" as a source of comfort and security for children. Bowlby's research and theories have had a significant influence on our understanding of the importance of early relationships and attachment in human development.

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  • 26. 

    In which Eriksonian stage does the midlife crisis occur?

    • A.

      Generativity versus stagnation.

    • B.

      Integrity versus despair.

    • C.

      A and b.

    • D.

      Erikson's stages do not address midlife issues.

    Correct Answer
    A. Generativity versus stagnation.
    Explanation
    The midlife crisis occurs in the Eriksonian stage of generativity versus stagnation. This stage typically occurs in middle adulthood, around the ages of 40 to 65. During this stage, individuals may experience a sense of stagnation or dissatisfaction with their lives, leading to a period of reflection and reevaluation. They may question their accomplishments, goals, and overall purpose in life. This can often manifest as a midlife crisis, where individuals may make significant changes or seek new experiences in an attempt to find meaning and fulfillment.

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  • 27. 

    The researcher who is well known for his work with maternal deprivation and isolation in rhesus monkeys is

    • A.

      Harry Harlow.

    • B.

      John Bowlby.

    • C.

      Lawrence Kohlberg

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    A. Harry Harlow.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Harry Harlow. Harry Harlow was a researcher who conducted experiments on maternal deprivation and isolation in rhesus monkeys. His work focused on the importance of social and emotional bonds in early development, and he demonstrated the negative effects of maternal deprivation on the monkeys' psychological well-being. His experiments involved separating infant monkeys from their mothers and providing them with surrogate mothers made of wire or cloth. This research had significant implications for understanding the importance of attachment and social relationships in human development.

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  • 28. 

    The statement: "Males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations" is

    • A.

      False.

    • B.

      True due to a genetic flaw commonly found in women.

    • C.

      True only in middle-aged men.

    • D.

      True according to research by Maccoby and Jacklin.

    Correct Answer
    D. True according to research by Maccoby and Jacklin.
    Explanation
    According to research conducted by Maccoby and Jacklin, the statement "Males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations" is true. Their study found that on average, males tend to perform better in mathematical tasks compared to females. This conclusion was based on their analysis of various studies and data on gender differences in mathematical abilities.

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  • 29. 

    The Eriksonian stage that focuses heavily on sharing your life with another person is 

    • A.

      Actually the major theme in all of Erikson's eight stages.

    • B.

      Generativity versus stagnation - ages 35 - 60.

    • C.

      Intimacy versus isolation - ages 23 tp 34.

    • D.

      A critical factor Erikson fails to mention.

    Correct Answer
    C. Intimacy versus isolation - ages 23 tp 34.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is intimacy versus isolation - ages 23 to 34. This stage in Erikson's theory emphasizes the importance of forming close and intimate relationships with others. During this period, individuals strive to establish deep connections and share their lives with a romantic partner or close friends. It is a time when people explore their identities and seek meaningful relationships, laying the foundation for future social interactions and emotional development.

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  • 30. 

    We often refer to individuals as conformists. Which of these individuals would most likely conform to his or her peers?

    • A.

      A 19-year-old male college student.

    • B.

      23-year-old male drummer in a rock band.

    • C.

      A 57-year-old female stockbroker.

    • D.

      A 13-year-old male middle student.

    Correct Answer
    D. A 13-year-old male middle student.
    Explanation
    A 13-year-old male middle student would most likely conform to his peers because at this age, individuals are more susceptible to peer pressure and are eager to fit in with their social group. Middle school is a time when adolescents are trying to establish their identity and seek acceptance from their peers. They often conform to societal norms and the behaviors of their friends in order to avoid being ostracized or labeled as different.

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  • 31. 

    In Harry Harlow's experiments with baby monkeys

    • A.

      A wire mother was favored by most young monkeys over a terry cloth version.

    • B.

      The baby monkey was more likely to cling to terry cloth mother surrogate than a wire surrogate mother.

    • C.

      Female monkeys had a tendency to drink large quantities of alcohol.

    • D.

      Male monkeys had a tendency to drink large quantities of alcohol.

    Correct Answer
    B. The baby monkey was more likely to cling to terry cloth mother surrogate than a wire surrogate mother.
    Explanation
    In Harry Harlow's experiments with baby monkeys, it was found that the baby monkeys were more likely to cling to a terry cloth mother surrogate than a wire surrogate mother. This suggests that the baby monkeys preferred the comfort and warmth provided by the terry cloth mother over the cold and rigid wire mother. This experiment demonstrated the importance of contact comfort and the emotional bond between infants and their caregivers.

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  • 32. 

    Freud postulated psychosexual stages

    • A.

      Id, ego, and superego.

    • B.

      Oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital.

    • C.

      Eros, thanatos, regression, and superego.

    • D.

      Manifest, latent, oral, and phallic.

    Correct Answer
    B. Oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital.
    Explanation
    Freud postulated psychosexual stages, which include the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages. These stages represent different periods of a person's development and are characterized by the focus of pleasure and conflicts in specific erogenous zones. The oral stage occurs during infancy, where pleasure is derived from activities such as sucking and chewing. The anal stage occurs during early childhood, where pleasure is associated with bowel movements and control. The phallic stage occurs during the preschool years, where children become aware of their own gender and develop attraction towards the opposite-sex parent. The latency stage occurs during middle childhood, where sexual feelings are repressed and focus is on social and intellectual activities. Finally, the genital stage occurs during adolescence and adulthood, where sexual feelings reemerge and mature relationships are formed.

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  • 33. 

    In adolescence

    • A.

      Females commit suicide more than males.

    • B.

      Suicide is a concern but statistically very rare.

    • C.

      The teens who talk about suicide are not serious.

    • D.

      Males commit suicide more often than females, but females attempt suicide more often.

    Correct Answer
    D. Males commit suicide more often than females, but females attempt suicide more often.
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that while males may have a higher rate of completed suicides, females have a higher rate of attempted suicides. This could be due to various factors such as differences in the methods used, societal expectations and pressures, and differences in seeking help or expressing emotions. It is important to note that both male and female suicides are significant concerns and should be taken seriously.

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  • 34. 

    In the general population

    • A.

      The suicide rate is 2/100,000.

    • B.

      Suicide occurs at beginning of a depressive episode, but rarely after the depression lifts.

    • C.

      Suicide rates tend to increase with age.

    • D.

      B and c.

    Correct Answer
    D. B and c.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "b and c." This is because the statement "suicide rates tend to increase with age" is supported by the information given in the question, which states that in the general population, the suicide rate is 2/100,000. Additionally, it is mentioned that suicide occurs at the beginning of a depressive episode, but rarely after the depression lifts. This implies that suicide rates may be higher in older age groups, as depression is more common among older individuals.

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  • 35. 

    The fear of death

    • A.

      Is the greatest during middle age.

    • B.

      Is an almost exclusively male phenomenon.

    • C.

      Is the number one psychiatric problem in the geriatric years.

    • D.

      Surprisingly enough occurs in the teen years.

    Correct Answer
    A. Is the greatest during middle age.
    Explanation
    During middle age, individuals may become more aware of their mortality and the limited time they have left in life. This realization can lead to a heightened fear of death. Middle age is a time when people may experience significant life changes, such as the death of parents or the onset of age-related health issues, which can further intensify this fear. Additionally, middle age is often associated with increased responsibilities and pressures, such as career and family, which can contribute to anxiety about death. Therefore, it is not surprising that the fear of death is greatest during this stage of life.

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  • 36. 

    In Freudian theory, attachment is a major factor

    • A.

      In the preconscious mind.

    • B.

      In the mind of the child in latency.

    • C.

      Which evolves primarily during the oral age.

    • D.

      A and b.

    Correct Answer
    C. Which evolves primarily during the oral age.
    Explanation
    According to Freudian theory, attachment is a major factor that evolves primarily during the oral age. This means that during the oral stage of development, which occurs from birth to around 18 months, a child forms a strong bond with their primary caregiver. This attachment is crucial for the child's emotional and psychological development, as it lays the foundation for future relationships and influences their overall personality.

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  • 37. 

    When comparing girls to boys, it could be noted that

    • A.

      Girls grow up to smile more.

    • B.

      Girls are using more feeling words by age 2.

    • C.

      Girls are better able to read people without verbal cues at any age.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above." This means that all the statements mentioned in the question are true when comparing girls to boys. Girls tend to grow up to smile more, they start using more feeling words by age 2, and they are better able to read people without verbal cues at any age.

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  • 38. 

    The Freudian developmental stage which "least" emphasizes sexuality is 

    • A.

      Oral.

    • B.

      Anal.

    • C.

      Phallic.

    • D.

      Latency.

    Correct Answer
    D. Latency.
    Explanation
    The Freudian developmental stage of latency occurs between the age of 6 and puberty, during which sexual feelings are repressed and children focus on developing social and intellectual skills. Unlike the other stages mentioned, such as the oral, anal, and phallic stages, the latency stage does not heavily emphasize sexuality. Instead, it is characterized by a temporary decrease in sexual interest and a redirection of energy towards other areas of development.

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  • 39. 

    In terms of parenting young children

    • A.

      Boys are punished more than girls.

    • B.

      Girls are punished more than boys.

    • C.

      Boys and girls are treated in a similar fashion.

    • D.

      Boys show more caregiver behavior.

    Correct Answer
    A. Boys are punished more than girls.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "boys are punished more than girls." This suggests that in terms of parenting young children, boys tend to receive more punishment compared to girls. This could be due to various factors such as societal expectations, gender stereotypes, or differences in behavior and temperament between boys and girls. It is important to note that this answer does not imply that all boys are punished more than girls in every situation, but rather that there is a general trend observed in parenting practices.

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  • 40. 

    When developmental theorists speak of nature or nurture they really mean

    • A.

      How much heredity or environmental interact to influence development.

    • B.

      The focus is skewed in favor of biological attributes.

    • C.

      A and b.

    • D.

      A theory proposed by Skinner's colleagues.

    Correct Answer
    A. How much heredity or environmental interact to influence development.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is how much heredity or environmental interact to influence development. This answer accurately captures the essence of the nature versus nurture debate in developmental psychology. It acknowledges that both genetic factors (heredity) and environmental factors play a role in shaping an individual's development, and emphasizes the interactive nature of these influences. The other options do not fully capture the complexity of the nature versus nurture debate and are therefore incorrect.

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  • 41. 

    Stage theorists assume

    • A.

      Qualitative changes between stages occur.

    • B.

      Differences surely exist but usually can't be measured.

    • C.

      That humanistic psychology is the only model which truly supports the stage viewpoint.

    • D.

      B and c.

    Correct Answer
    A. Qualitative changes between stages occur.
    Explanation
    Stage theorists assume that qualitative changes occur between stages. This means that as individuals progress from one stage to another, there are fundamental shifts in the way they think, perceive, and understand the world. These changes are not simply quantitative or incremental, but rather involve a reorganization of cognitive structures and abilities. Stage theorists argue that these qualitative changes are important for understanding human development and cannot be fully captured by measuring differences between individuals or stages.

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  • 42. 

    Development

    • A.

      Begins at birth.

    • B.

      Begins during the first trimester of pregnancy.

    • C.

      Is a continuous process which begins at conception.

    • D.

      A and c.

    Correct Answer
    C. Is a continuous process which begins at conception.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "is a continuous process which begins at conception." This answer is supported by the fact that development starts at conception, which is the moment when a sperm fertilizes an egg. From that point on, the embryo begins to grow and develop into a fetus, and this process continues throughout the pregnancy and even after birth. Therefore, development is a continuous process that starts at conception.

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  • 43. 

    Development is cephalocaudel, which means

    • A.

      Foot to head.

    • B.

      Head to foot.

    • C.

      Limbs receive the highest level of nourishment.

    • D.

      B and c.

    Correct Answer
    B. Head to foot.
    Explanation
    Development is cephalocaudal, which means that it occurs in a head-to-foot direction. This means that during development, the head and upper body parts develop before the lower body parts. This pattern can be observed in various aspects of development, such as the growth of the brain and sensory organs before the limbs and lower body structures.

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  • 44. 

    Heredity

    • A.

      Assumes the normal person has 23 pairs of chromosomes.

    • B.

      Assumes that heredity characteristics are transmitted by chromosomes.

    • C.

      Assumes genes composed of DNA hold a genetic code.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above." This means that all of the statements mentioned in the options are true. Heredity assumes that a normal person has 23 pairs of chromosomes, which is a well-known fact. It also assumes that heredity characteristics are transmitted by chromosomes, which is supported by scientific evidence. Additionally, it assumes that genes composed of DNA hold a genetic code, which is a fundamental concept in genetics. Therefore, all of these statements are valid and contribute to our understanding of heredity.

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  • 45. 

    Piaget's final stage is known as the formal operational stage. In this stage

    • A.

      Abstract thinking emerges.

    • B.

      Problems can be solved using deduction.

    • C.

      Both a and b.

    • D.

      The child has mastered abstract thinking but still feels helpless.

    Correct Answer
    C. Both a and b.
    Explanation
    In Piaget's final stage, known as the formal operational stage, abstract thinking emerges and problems can be solved using deduction. This means that the child has developed the ability to think hypothetically and reason logically, allowing them to solve complex problems and think about concepts that are not concrete or immediately present. So, the correct answer is both a and b, as both abstract thinking and problem-solving through deduction are characteristics of the formal operational stage.

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  • 46. 

    Kolhlberg lists ______ stages of moral development which fall into ______ levels.

    • A.

      6,3

    • B.

      6,6

    • C.

      3,6

    • D.

      3,3

    Correct Answer
    A. 6,3
    Explanation
    Kohlberg lists 6 stages of moral development which fall into 3 levels. This suggests that there are six distinct stages of moral reasoning that individuals progress through as they develop morally, and these stages can be grouped into three overarching levels. Each level represents a different level of moral understanding and complexity, with the stages within each level building upon the previous ones. This framework allows for a comprehensive understanding of moral development and how individuals' moral reasoning evolves over time.

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  • 47. 

    A person who lives by his or her individual conscience and universal ethical principles

    • A.

      Has, according to Kohlberg, reached the highest stage of moral development.

    • B.

      Is in the pre conventional level.

    • C.

      Is in the post conventional level of self-accepted moral principles.

    • D.

      A and c.

    Correct Answer
    D. A and c.
    Explanation
    According to Kohlberg, a person who lives by their individual conscience and universal ethical principles has reached the highest stage of moral development. This is because they have moved beyond the pre-conventional level (where moral decisions are based on self-interest and avoiding punishment) and the conventional level (where moral decisions are based on societal norms and expectations) to the post-conventional level. In the post-conventional level, individuals develop their own moral principles based on universal ethical principles and self-accepted moral standards. Therefore, the correct answer is a and c.

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  • 48. 

    Freud's Oedipus Complex

    • A.

      Is the stage in which fantasies of sexual relations with the opposite-sex parent occurs.

    • B.

      Occurs during phallic stage.

    • C.

      A and b.

    • D.

      Is a concept Freud ultimately eliminated from his theory.

    Correct Answer
    C. A and b.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a and b." The Oedipus Complex is a stage during the phallic stage of psychosexual development where a child develops fantasies of sexual relations with the opposite-sex parent. Freud did ultimately eliminate this concept from his theory.

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  • 49. 

    In girls the Oedipus complex may be referred to as

    • A.

      Systematic desensitization.

    • B.

      Covert desensitization.

    • C.

      In vivo desensitization.

    • D.

      The Electra complex.

    Correct Answer
    D. The Electra complex.
    Explanation
    The Oedipus complex is a psychoanalytic theory proposed by Sigmund Freud, which suggests that during the phallic stage of development, young boys experience unconscious sexual desires for their mothers and have hostile feelings towards their fathers. In girls, a similar concept called the Electra complex is proposed, where girls develop unconscious sexual desires for their fathers and have hostile feelings towards their mothers. Therefore, the correct answer is the Electra complex.

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  • 50. 

    The correct order of the Freudian psychosexual stages is:

    • A.

      Oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital.

    • B.

      Oral, anal, genital, phallic and latency.

    • C.

      Oral, phallic, latency, genital and anal.

    • D.

      Phallic, genital, latency, oral and anal.

    Correct Answer
    A. Oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital.
    Explanation
    The correct order of the Freudian psychosexual stages is oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. According to Freud, the oral stage occurs during the first year of life, where pleasure is focused on the mouth. The anal stage follows, typically occurring between the ages of 1 and 3, where pleasure is focused on bowel and bladder control. The phallic stage occurs between the ages of 3 and 6, where pleasure is focused on the genitals. The latency stage occurs between the ages of 6 and puberty, where sexual feelings are repressed. Finally, the genital stage occurs during adolescence and adulthood, where sexual pleasure is sought through relationships with others.

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Stephen Reinbold |PhD, Biological Sciences |
Biology Expert
Stephen Reinbold has a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences with a particular interest in teaching. He taught General Biology, Environmental Science, Zoology, Genetics, and Anatomy & Physiology for almost thirty years at Metropolitan Community College in Kansas City, Missouri. He particularly enjoyed emphasizing scientific methodology and student research projects. Now, enjoying retirement, he works part-time as an editor while also engaging in online activities.

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