Exam: Human Growth And Development! Quiz

100 Questions | Total Attempts: 115

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Exam: Human Growth And Development! Quiz

Do you know and understand the journey of growth and development? Could you pass this quiz? Human growth and development identify certain developmental concepts in psychology and provides you with knowledge of the fundamental dynamics, which underlie human behavior at various stages in the life span. You will have the opportunity to study human development from birth to childhood. Take this quiz and discover further about the study of human growth and development.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Freud's stages are psychosexual while Eriksson's stages are 
    • A. 

      Psychometric

    • B. 

      Psychodiagnostic

    • C. 

      Psychopharmacological

    • D. 

      Psychosocial

  • 2. 
    In Freudian theory, instincts are emphasized. Erik Erikson is an ego psychologist. Ego psychologists.
    • A. 

      Emphasize id process

    • B. 

      Refute the concept of the super ego

    • C. 

      Believe in man's power of reasoning to control behavior

    • D. 

      Are sometimes known as radical behaviors

  • 3. 
    The only psychoanalyst who created a development theory which encompasses the entire life span was 
    • A. 

      Erik Erikson

    • B. 

      Milton H Erikson

    • C. 

      A.A. Brill

    • D. 

      Jean Piaget

  • 4. 
    The statement "the ego is a dependent on the id," would most likely reflect the work of
    • A. 

      Erik Erikson

    • B. 

      Signund Freud

    • C. 

      Jay Haley

    • D. 

      Arnold Lazarus, William Perry and Robert Kegan

  • 5. 
    Jean Piaget's theory has four stages. The correct order from stage 1 to stage 4 is
    • A. 

      Formal operations, concrete operations, preoperations, sensorimotor

    • B. 

      Formal operatoins, preoperations, concrete operations, sensorimotor

    • C. 

      Sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations

    • D. 

      Concrete operations, sensorimotor, preoperations, formal operations

  • 6. 
    Some behavioral scientists have been critical of the swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget's developmental research inasmuch as 
    • A. 

      He utilized the t test too frequently

    • B. 

      He failed to check for type 1or alpha errors

    • C. 

      He worked primarily with minority children

    • D. 

      His findings were often derived from observing his own children

  • 7. 
    A tall skinny pitcher of water is emptied into a small squatty pitcher. A child indicates she feels the small pitcher has less water. The child has not yet mastered it.
    • A. 

      Symbolic schema

    • B. 

      Conservation

    • C. 

      Androgynous psychosocial issues

    • D. 

      Trust versus mistrust

  • 8. 
    In Piagetian literature, conservation would most likely refer to 
    • A. 

      Volume or mass.

    • B. 

      Defenses of the ego.

    • C. 

      The sensorimotor intelligence stage.

    • D. 

      A specific psychosexual stage of life.

  • 9. 
    A child masters conservation in the Piagetian stage known as 
    • A. 

      Formal operations - 12 years and older.

    • B. 

      Concrete operations - age 7 to 11.

    • C. 

      Preoperations - ages 2 to 7.

    • D. 

      Sensorimotor intelligence - birth to 2 years.

  • 10. 
    __________ expanded on Piaget's conceptualization of moral development.
    • A. 

      Erik Erikson

    • B. 

      The Russian psychologist Leo Vygotsky

    • C. 

      Lawrence Kohlberg

    • D. 

      John B. Watson

  • 11. 
    According to Piaget, a child masters the concept of reversibility in the third stage, known as concrete operational thought, this suggests
    • A. 

      That heavier objects are more difficult for a child to lift.

    • B. 

      The child is ambidextrous.

    • C. 

      The child is more cognizant of mass than weight.

    • D. 

      One can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape

  • 12. 
    During a thunderstorm, a 6-year-old child in Piaget's stage of pre-operational thought (stage 2) says, "The rain is following me." This is an example of 
    • A. 

      Egocentrism.

    • B. 

      Conservation.

    • C. 

      Centration.

    • D. 

      Abstract thought.

  • 13. 
    Lawrence Kohlberg suggested
    • A. 

      A single level of morality.

    • B. 

      Two levels of morality.

    • C. 

      Three levels of morality.

    • D. 

      Preoperational thought as the basis for all morality.

  • 14. 
    The Heinz story is to Kohlberg's theory as 
    • A. 

      A brick is to a house.

    • B. 

      Freud is to Jung.

    • C. 

      Menninger Clinic is to biofeedback.

    • D. 

      A typing test is to the level of typing skill mastered.

  • 15. 
    The term identity crisis comes from the work of 
    • A. 

      Counselors who stress RS involvement issues with clients.

    • B. 

      Erikson.

    • C. 

      Adler.

    • D. 

      Jung.

  • 16. 
    Kohlberg's three levels of morality are 
    • A. 

      Preconventional, conventional, postconventional.

    • B. 

      Formal, preformal, self-accepted.

    • C. 

      Self-accepted, other directed, authority directed.

    • D. 

      Preconventional, formal, authority directed.

  • 17. 
    Trust verus mistrust is
    • A. 

      An Adlerian notion of morality.

    • B. 

      Erik Erikson's first stage of psychosocial development.

    • C. 

      Essentially equivalent to Piaget's concept of egocentrism.

    • D. 

      The basis of morality according to Kohlberg.

  • 18. 
    A person who has successfully mastered Erikson's first seven stages would be ready to enter Erikson's final or eighth stage.
    • A. 

      Generativity versus stagnation.

    • B. 

      Initiative versus guilt.

    • C. 

      Identity crisis of the later years.

    • D. 

      Integrity versus despair.

  • 19. 
    In Kohlberg's first or preconventional level, the individual's moral behavior is guided by 
    • A. 

      Psychosexual urges.

    • B. 

      Consequences.

    • C. 

      Periodic fugue states.

    • D. 

      Counterconditioning.

  • 20. 
    Kohlberg's second level of morality is known as conventional morality. This level is characterized by
    • A. 

      Psychosexual urges.

    • B. 

      A desire to live up to society's expectations.

    • C. 

      A desire to conform.

    • D. 

      B and c.

  • 21. 
    Kohlberg's highest level of morality is termed postconventional morality. Here the individual
    • A. 

      must truly contend with psychosexual urges.

    • B. 

      Has the so-called "good boy/good girl" orientation.

    • C. 

      Has self-imposed morals and ethics.

    • D. 

      A and b.

  • 22. 
    According to Kohlberg, level 3, which is post conventional or self-accepted moral principles, 
    • A. 

      Refers to the Naive Hedonism stage.

    • B. 

      Operates on the premise that rewards guide morals.

    • C. 

      A and b.

    • D. 

      Is the highest level of morality. However, some people never reach this level.

  • 23. 
    The zone of proximal development
    • A. 

      Was pioneered by Lev Vygotsky.

    • B. 

      Was pioneered by Piaget and Kohlberg.

    • C. 

      Emphasized organ inferiority.

    • D. 

      A, b and c.

  • 24. 
    Freud and Erikson
    • A. 

      Could be classified as behaviorists.

    • B. 

      Could be classified as maturationists.

    • C. 

      Agreed that developmental stages are psychosexual.

    • D. 

      Were prime movers in the biofeedback movement.

  • 25. 
    John Bowlby's name is most closely associated with
    • A. 

      The work of psychologist and pediatrician, Arnold Gesell, a maturationist.

    • B. 

      Developmental stage theories.

    • C. 

      Bonding and attachment.

    • D. 

      The unconscious mind.

  • 26. 
    In which Eriksonian stage does the midlife crisis occur?
    • A. 

      Generativity versus stagnation.

    • B. 

      Integrity versus despair.

    • C. 

      A and b.

    • D. 

      Erikson's stages do not address midlife issues.

  • 27. 
    The researcher who is well known for his work with maternal deprivation and isolation in rhesus monkeys is
    • A. 

      Harry Harlow.

    • B. 

      John Bowlby.

    • C. 

      Lawrence Kohlberg

    • D. 

      All of the above.

  • 28. 
    The statement: "Males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations" is
    • A. 

      False.

    • B. 

      True due to a genetic flaw commonly found in women.

    • C. 

      True only in middle-aged men.

    • D. 

      True according to research by Maccoby and Jacklin.

  • 29. 
    The Eriksonian stage that focuses heavily on sharing your life with another person is 
    • A. 

      Actually the major theme in all of Erikson's eight stages.

    • B. 

      Generativity versus stagnation - ages 35 - 60.

    • C. 

      Intimacy versus isolation - ages 23 tp 34.

    • D. 

      A critical factor Erikson fails to mention.

  • 30. 
    We often refer to individuals as conformists. Which of these individuals would most likely conform to his or her peers?
    • A. 

      A 19-year-old male college student.

    • B. 

      23-year-old male drummer in a rock band.

    • C. 

      A 57-year-old female stockbroker.

    • D. 

      A 13-year-old male middle student.

  • 31. 
    In Harry Harlow's experiments with baby monkeys
    • A. 

      A wire mother was favored by most young monkeys over a terry cloth version.

    • B. 

      The baby monkey was more likely to cling to terry cloth mother surrogate than a wire surrogate mother.

    • C. 

      Female monkeys had a tendency to drink large quantities of alcohol.

    • D. 

      Male monkeys had a tendency to drink large quantities of alcohol.

  • 32. 
    Freud postulated psychosexual stages
    • A. 

      Id, ego, and superego.

    • B. 

      Oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital.

    • C. 

      Eros, thanatos, regression, and superego.

    • D. 

      Manifest, latent, oral, and phallic.

  • 33. 
    In adolescence
    • A. 

      Females commit suicide more than males.

    • B. 

      Suicide is a concern but statistically very rare.

    • C. 

      The teens who talk about suicide are not serious.

    • D. 

      Males commit suicide more often than females, but females attempt suicide more often.

  • 34. 
    In the general population
    • A. 

      The suicide rate is 2/100,000.

    • B. 

      Suicide occurs at beginning of a depressive episode, but rarely after the depression lifts.

    • C. 

      Suicide rates tend to increase with age.

    • D. 

      B and c.

  • 35. 
    The fear of death
    • A. 

      Is the greatest during middle age.

    • B. 

      Is an almost exclusively male phenomenon.

    • C. 

      Is the number one psychiatric problem in the geriatric years.

    • D. 

      Surprisingly enough occurs in the teen years.

  • 36. 
    In Freudian theory, attachment is a major factor
    • A. 

      In the preconscious mind.

    • B. 

      In the mind of the child in latency.

    • C. 

      Which evolves primarily during the oral age.

    • D. 

      A and b.

  • 37. 
    When comparing girls to boys, it could be noted that
    • A. 

      Girls grow up to smile more.

    • B. 

      Girls are using more feeling words by age 2.

    • C. 

      Girls are better able to read people without verbal cues at any age.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

  • 38. 
    The Freudian developmental stage which "least" emphasizes sexuality is 
    • A. 

      Oral.

    • B. 

      Anal.

    • C. 

      Phallic.

    • D. 

      Latency.

  • 39. 
    In terms of parenting young children
    • A. 

      Boys are punished more than girls.

    • B. 

      Girls are punished more than boys.

    • C. 

      Boys and girls are treated in a similar fashion.

    • D. 

      Boys show more caregiver behavior.

  • 40. 
    When developmental theorists speak of nature or nurture they really mean
    • A. 

      How much heredity or environmental interact to influence development.

    • B. 

      The focus is skewed in favor of biological attributes.

    • C. 

      A and b.

    • D. 

      A theory proposed by Skinner's colleagues.

  • 41. 
    Stage theorists assume
    • A. 

      Qualitative changes between stages occur.

    • B. 

      Differences surely exist but usually can't be measured.

    • C. 

      That humanistic psychology is the only model which truly supports the stage viewpoint.

    • D. 

      B and c.

  • 42. 
    Development
    • A. 

      Begins at birth.

    • B. 

      Begins during the first trimester of pregnancy.

    • C. 

      Is a continuous process which begins at conception.

    • D. 

      A and c.

  • 43. 
    Development is cephalocaudel, which means
    • A. 

      Foot to head.

    • B. 

      Head to foot.

    • C. 

      Limbs receive the highest level of nourishment.

    • D. 

      B and c.

  • 44. 
    Heredity
    • A. 

      Assumes the normal person has 23 pairs of chromosomes.

    • B. 

      Assumes that heredity characteristics are transmitted by chromosomes.

    • C. 

      Assumes genes composed of DNA hold a genetic code.

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 45. 
    Piaget's final stage is known as the formal operational stage. In this stage
    • A. 

      Abstract thinking emerges.

    • B. 

      Problems can be solved using deduction.

    • C. 

      Both a and b.

    • D. 

      The child has mastered abstract thinking but still feels helpless.

  • 46. 
    Kolhlberg lists ______ stages of moral development which fall into ______ levels.
    • A. 

      6,3

    • B. 

      6,6

    • C. 

      3,6

    • D. 

      3,3

  • 47. 
    A person who lives by his or her individual conscience and universal ethical principles
    • A. 

      Has, according to Kohlberg, reached the highest stage of moral development.

    • B. 

      Is in the pre conventional level.

    • C. 

      Is in the post conventional level of self-accepted moral principles.

    • D. 

      A and c.

  • 48. 
    Freud's Oedipus Complex
    • A. 

      Is the stage in which fantasies of sexual relations with the opposite-sex parent occurs.

    • B. 

      Occurs during phallic stage.

    • C. 

      A and b.

    • D. 

      Is a concept Freud ultimately eliminated from his theory.

  • 49. 
    In girls the Oedipus complex may be referred to as
    • A. 

      Systematic desensitization.

    • B. 

      Covert desensitization.

    • C. 

      In vivo desensitization.

    • D. 

      The Electra complex.

  • 50. 
    The correct order of the Freudian psychosexual stages is:
    • A. 

      Oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital.

    • B. 

      Oral, anal, genital, phallic and latency.

    • C. 

      Oral, phallic, latency, genital and anal.

    • D. 

      Phallic, genital, latency, oral and anal.

  • 51. 
    Gibson researched the matter of depth perception in children by utilizing 
    • A. 

      Piaget's concept of conservation.

    • B. 

      Erik Erikson's trust versus mistrust paradigm.

    • C. 

      Piaget's formal operations.

    • D. 

      A visual cliff.

  • 52. 
    Theorists who believe that development merely consists of quantitative changes are referred to as
    • A. 

      Organismic theorists.

    • B. 

      Statistical developmentalists.

    • C. 

      Empiricists.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

  • 53. 
    An empiricist view of development would be
    • A. 

      Psychometric.

    • B. 

      Behavioristic.

    • C. 

      Against the use of formal statistical testing.

    • D. 

      A and c.

  • 54. 
    In the famous experiment by Harlow, frightened monkeys raised via cloth and wire mothers
    • A. 

      Showed marked borderline personality traits.

    • B. 

      Surprisingly enough became quite friendly.

    • C. 

      Demonstrated a distinct lack of emotion.

    • D. 

      Ran over and clung to the cloth and wire surrogate mothers.

  • 55. 
    A theorist who views developmental changes as quantitative is said to be empiricist. The antithesis of this position holds that developmental strides are qualitative. What is the name given to the position?
    • A. 

      Behaviorism

    • B. 

      Organicism

    • C. 

      Statistical developmentalism

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 56. 
    In Piaget's developmental theory, reflexes play the greatest role in the 
    • A. 

      Sensorimotor stage.

    • B. 

      Formal operational stage.

    • C. 

      Per operational stage.

    • D. 

      Acquisition of conservation.

  • 57. 
    A mother hides a toy behind her back and a young child does not believe the toy exists anymore.The child has not mastered
    • A. 

      Object permanence.

    • B. 

      Reflexive response.

    • C. 

      Representational thought.

    • D. 

      A and c.

  • 58. 
    The schema of permanency and constancy of objects occurs in the 
    • A. 

      Sensorimotor stage - birth to 2 years.

    • B. 

      Per operational stage - 2 to 7 years.

    • C. 

      Concrete operational stage - 7 to 12 years.

    • D. 

      Formal operational stage - 12 years and beyond.

  • 59. 
    John Bowlby has asserted that
    • A. 

      Attachment is not instinctual.

    • B. 

      Attachment is best explained via Skinnerian principle.

    • C. 

      A and b.

    • D. 

      Conduct disorders and other forms of psychopathology can result from inadequate attachment and bonding in early childhood.

  • 60. 
    The Harlow experiments utilizing monkeys demonstrated that animals placed in isolation during the first few months of life 
    • A. 

      Still developed in a normal fashion.

    • B. 

      Still related very well with animals reared normally.

    • C. 

      Appeared to be abnormal and autistic.

    • D. 

      Were fixated in concrete operational thought patterns.

  • 61. 
    According to the Freudians, if a child is severely traumatized, he or she may _______ a given psychosexual stage.
    • A. 

      Skip

    • B. 

      Become fixated at

    • C. 

      Ignore

    • D. 

      A and c.

  • 62. 
    An expert who has reviewed the literature on TV and violence would conclude that 
    • A. 

      Watching violence tends to make children more aggressive.

    • B. 

      Watching violence tends to make children less aggressive.

    • C. 

      In reality has no impact on a child's behavior.

    • D. 

      What adults see as violent, children perceive as caring.

  • 63. 
    A counselor who utilizes the term instinctual technically means 
    • A. 

      Behavior results from unconscious aggression.

    • B. 

      Women will show the behavior to a higher degree than men.

    • C. 

      A and b.

    • D. 

      Behavior that manifests itself in all normal members of a given species.

  • 64. 
    The word ethology, which is often associated with the work of Konrad Lorenz, refers to
    • A. 

      Piaget's famous case study methodology.

    • B. 

      The study of animals' behavior in their natural environment.

    • C. 

      Studies on monkeys raised in Skinnerian air cribs.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

  • 65. 
    A child who focus exclusively on a clown's red nose but ignores his or her other features would be illustrating the Piagetian concept of
    • A. 

      Egocentrism.

    • B. 

      Centration.

    • C. 

      Formal abstract reasoning.

    • D. 

      Deductive processes.

  • 66. 
    Piaget felt
    • A. 

      Homework depresses the elementary child's IQ

    • B. 

      Strongly that the implementation of Glasser's concepts in Schools Without Failure should be made mandatory in all elementary settings.

    • C. 

      That teachers should lecture a minimum of four hours daily.

    • D. 

      Teacher should lecture less, as children in concrete operations learn best via their own actions and experimentation.

  • 67. 
    Piaget's peroperational stage
    • A. 

      Is the final stage, which includes abstract reasoning.

    • B. 

      Includes mastering conservation.

    • C. 

      Includes the acquisition of a symbolic schema.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

  • 68. 
    Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson agreed that
    • A. 

      Each developmental stage needed to be resolved before an individual could move on to the next stage.

    • B. 

      Developmental stages are primarily psychosexual.

    • C. 

      Developmental stages are primary psychosocial.

    • D. 

      A person can proceed to a higher stage even if a lower stage is unsolved.

  • 69. 
    The tendency for adult females in the United States to wear high heels is best expressed by 
    • A. 

      The principle of negative reinforcement.

    • B. 

      Sex role socialization.

    • C. 

      Konrad Lorenz's studies on imprinting.

    • D. 

      Ethological data.

  • 70. 
    The sequence of object loss, which goes from protest to despair to detachment, best describes the work of 
    • A. 

      Freud.

    • B. 

      Adler on birth order.

    • C. 

      Erikson.

    • D. 

      Bowlby.

  • 71. 
    A counselor who is seeing a 15-year-old boy who is not doing well in public speaking class would need to keep in mind that
    • A. 

      In general, boys have better verbal skills than girls.

    • B. 

      In general, girls possess better verbal skills that boys.

    • C. 

      In general, boys possess better visual-pereptual skills and are more active and aggressive than girls.

    • D. 

      B and c.

  • 72. 
    Two brothers begin screaming at each other during a family counseling session. The term that best describes the phenomenon is
    • A. 

      The primal scene.

    • B. 

      Preconscious psychic processes.

    • C. 

      Sibling rivalry

    • D. 

      BASIC-ID

  • 73. 
    A preschool child's concept of causality is said to animistic. This means the child attributes human characteristics to inanimate objects. Thus, the child may fantasize that an automobile or a rock is talking to him. This concept is best related to
    • A. 

      Carl Jung's concepts of anima, animus.

    • B. 

      Freud's wish fulfillment.

    • C. 

      Piaget's pre operational period age 2 to 7.

    • D. 

      Ego identity.

  • 74. 
    Elementary school counseling and guidance sevices
    • A. 

      Have been popular since the early 1900s.

    • B. 

      Became popular during World War II.

    • C. 

      Are a fairly new development which did not begin to gain momentum until the 1960s.

    • D. 

      None of the above.

  • 75. 
    Research related to elementary school counselors indicates that
    • A. 

      Counselors of this ilk work hard, but just don't seem to have an impact on youngsters' lives.

    • B. 

      These counselors are effective, do make a difference in children's lives, and more counselors should be employed.

    • C. 

      Counselors of this ilk could be helpful if they would engage in more consultation work.

    • D. 

      Should be used primarily as disciplinarians, but this is not happening in most districts.

  • 76. 
    According to the Yale research by Daniel J. Levinson
    • A. 

      Erikson's generativity versus stagnation stage simply doesn't exist.

    • B. 

      Eighty percent of the men in the study experienced moderate to severe midlife crises.

    • C. 

      An "age 30 crisis" occurs in men when they feel it will soon be too late to make later changes.

    • D. 

      B and c.

  • 77. 
    Erikson's middle age stage (ages 35-60) is known as generativitly versus stagnation. Generativity refers to 
    • A. 

      The ability to do creative work or raise a family.

    • B. 

      The opposite of stagnation.

    • C. 

      The productive ability to create a career, family and leisure time.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

  • 78. 
    A person who can look back on his or her life with few regrets feels
    • A. 

      The burden of senile psychosis.

    • B. 

      Ego-integrity in Erikson's integrity versus despair stage.

    • C. 

      Despair, which is the sense that he or she has wasted life's precious moments.

    • D. 

      The burden of generalized anxiety as described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association.

  • 79. 
    Sensorimotor is to Piaget as oral is to Freud, as _______ is to Erikson.
    • A. 

      Integrity versus despair

    • B. 

      Kohlberg

    • C. 

      Trust versus mistrust

    • D. 

      Play therapy

  • 80. 
    Which theorist was most concerned with maternal deprivation?
    • A. 

      A. Lazarus

    • B. 

      H. Harlow

    • C. 

      J. Wolpe

    • D. 

      A. Ellis

  • 81. 
    When development comes to a halt, counselors say that the client 
    • A. 

      Has "learned helplessness" syndrome.

    • B. 

      Suffers from phobia.

    • C. 

      Suffers from fixation.

    • D. 

      Is displaying the risky shift phenomenon.

  • 82. 
    Kohlberg proposed three levels of morality. Freud, on the other hand, felt morality developed from the 
    • A. 

      Superego.

    • B. 

      Ego.

    • C. 

      Id.

    • D. 

      Eros.

  • 83. 
    Which theorist would be most likely to say that aggression is an inborn tendency?
    • A. 

      Carl Rogers

    • B. 

      B.F. Skinner

    • C. 

      Frank Parsons, the Father of Guidance

    • D. 

      Konrad Lorenz

  • 84. 
    The statement "Bad behavior is punished, good behavior is not" is most closely associated with
    • A. 

      Kohlberg's pre moral stage at preconventional level.

    • B. 

      Kohlberg's conventional level.

    • C. 

      The work of Carl Jung.

    • D. 

      Piaget's autonomous stage, which began at about age 8.

  • 85. 
    A critical period 
    • A. 

      Makes imprinting possible

    • B. 

      Emphasizes manifest dream content

    • C. 

      Signifies a spherical time when a behavior must be learned or the behavior won't be learned at all

    • D. 

      A and c

  • 86. 
    Imprinting is an instinct in which a newborn will follow a moving object. The primary work in this area was done by 
    • A. 

      Erik Erickson

    • B. 

      Milton H. Erickson

    • C. 

      Knonrad Lorenz

    • D. 

      Harry Harlow

  • 87. 
    Marital satisfaction 
    • A. 

      Is usually highest when a child is old enough to leave home

    • B. 

      Often decrease with parenthood and is lowest prior to a child leaving home

    • C. 

      Correlates high with performance IQ

    • D. 

      Is highest among couples who have seven or more college educated children

  • 88. 
    Maslow, a humanistic psychologist, is famous for his "hierarchy of needs," which postulates
    • A. 

      Lower-order physiological and safety needs and higher order needs such as self-actualization.

    • B. 

      That psychopathology rests within the id

    • C. 

      That unconscious drives control self-actualization.

    • D. 

      That stimulus-response psychology dictates behavioral attributes.

  • 89. 
    To research the dilemma of self-actualization, Maslow
    • A. 

      Used goslings as did Konrad Lorenz

    • B. 

      Psychoanalyzed over 400 neurotics

    • C. 

      Worked exclusively with schizophrenics in residential settings.

    • D. 

      Interviewed the best people he could find who escaped "the psychology of the average"

  • 90. 
    Piaget is 
    • A. 

      A maturationist.

    • B. 

      A behaviorist.

    • C. 

      A structuralist who believes stage changes are qualitative.

    • D. 

      Cognitive-behavioral.

  • 91. 
    ____________ factors cause Down syndrome, which produces mental retardation.
    • A. 

      Environment

    • B. 

      Genetic

    • C. 

      Chemical Dependence

    • D. 

      Unconscious

  • 92. 
    Piaget referred to the act of taking in new information as assimilation.  This results in accommodation, which is a modification of the child's cognitive structures (schemes) to deal with the new information.  In Piagetian nomenclature, the balance between assimilation and accommodation is called 
    • A. 

      Counterbalancing

    • B. 

      Equilibration

    • C. 

      Balance theory

    • D. 

      ABA design

  • 93. 
    There are behavioral, structural, and maturational theories of development.  The maturational viewpoint utilizes the plan growth analogy, in which the mind is less as being driven by instincts while the environment provides nourishment, thus placing limits on development.  Counselors who are maturationists.
    • A. 

      Conduct therapy in the here-and-now

    • B. 

      Focus primarily on nonverbal behavior

    • C. 

      Believe group work is most effective

    • D. 

      Allow clients to work through early conflicts

  • 94. 
    Ritualistic behaviors, which are common to all members of a species, are known as
    • A. 

      Hysteria

    • B. 

      Pica

    • C. 

      Fixed-action patterns elicited by sign stimulus

    • D. 

      Dysfunctional repetition

  • 95. 
    Robert Kegan speaks of  a "holding environment" in counseling in which
    • A. 

      The client is used to relieve a traumatic experience in an encounter group

    • B. 

      Biofeedback training is highly recommended

    • C. 

      The client can make meaning in the face of a crisis and can find new direction

    • D. 

      The activity of meaning making is discouraged

  • 96. 
    Most experts in the field of counseling agree that 
    • A. 

      No one theory completely explains developmental processes; thus, counselors ought to be familiar with all the major theories

    • B. 

      Eriksonian theory should be used by counselors practicing virtually and modality

    • C. 

      A counselor who incorporates Piaget's stages into his or her thinking would not necessarily need knowledge of a rival therapeutic viewpoints

    • D. 

      A realistic counselor needs to pick on developmental theory in the same manner he or she picks a psychotherapuetic persuasion.

  • 97. 
    Equilibration is
    • A. 

      A term which emphasizes the equality between the sexes

    • B. 

      Performed via the id according to the Freudians

    • C. 

      A synonym for concrete operational thought

    • D. 

      The balance between what one takes in (assimilation) and that which changed (accommodation )

  • 98. 
    A counselor is working with a family who just lost everything in a fire.  The counselor will ideally focus on
    • A. 

      Maslow's higher-order needs, such as self-actualization

    • B. 

      Building a accurate empathy of family members

    • C. 

      Maslow's lower-order needs, such as physiological and safety needs

    • D. 

      The identified patient

  • 99. 
    The anal retentive personality is 
    • A. 

      Charitable

    • B. 

      Stingy

    • C. 

      Kind

    • D. 

      Thinks very littler about money matters

  • 100. 
    From a Freudian perspective, a client who has a problem with alcoholism and excessive smoking would be 
    • A. 

      Considered an oral character

    • B. 

      Considered an anal character

    • C. 

      Considered a genital character

    • D. 

      Considered at the latency stage