Psychology Final Year 3. Marc Lee

100 Questions

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Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The field of human development is considered to be an applied discipline because
    • A. 

      It is motivated largely by scientific curiosity.

    • B. 

      Findings are used for practical purposes to improve people’s lives.

    • C. 

      It deals with answering questions about development throughout the lifespan.

    • D. 

      Investigators from a variety of fields collaborate on research projects.

  • 2. 
    Theories
    • A. 

      Ensure proper use of research procedures.

    • B. 

      Illustrate the ultimate truth regarding human behavior.

    • C. 

      Are mere opinions or beliefs.

    • D. 

      Guide and give meaning to what we see.

  • 3. 
    Doctors can estimate __________ using X-rays of epiphyses.
    • A. 

      Height

    • B. 

      Loss of baby teeth

    • C. 

      Skeletal age

    • D. 

      Weight

  • 4. 
    Theorists who emphasize qualitative changes
    • A. 

      Stress the contexts that shape development.

    • B. 

      Regard development as largely due to nature

    • C. 

      Regard development as taking place in stages.

    • D. 

      Stress diversity in development.

  • 5. 
    The lifespan perspective on human development assumes that development is
    • A. 

      Static and stable.

    • B. 

      Multidimensional and multidirectional.

    • C. 

      Continuous, rather than discontinuous.

    • D. 

      Largely the result of heredity.

  • 6. 
    __________ explains why some children growing up in difficult circumstances thrive, while others are less successful.
    • A. 

      Assimilation

    • B. 

      Plasticity

    • C. 

      Resilience

    • D. 

      Stamina

  • 7. 
    Throughout childhood and adolescence, a nutritionally deficient diet is associated with
    • A. 

      Taller stature

    • B. 

      Attention difficulties.

    • C. 

      Obesity

    • D. 

      Higher achievement scores.

  • 8. 
    Children’s self-directed speech is now called __________ speech.
    • A. 

      Telegraphic

    • B. 

      ​​​​​​egocentric

    • C. 

      Inner

    • D. 

      Private

  • 9. 
    Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon addressed practical educational concerns by
    • A. 

      Launching the normative approach.

    • B. 

      Constructing the first successful intelligence test.

    • C. 

      Writing the first parenting books.

    • D. 

      Conducting child observations and parent interviews.

  • 10. 
    According to the psychoanalytic perspective, people move through a series of stages in which they
    • A. 

      Acquire increasingly complex information-processing skills.

    • B. 

      Confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations.

    • C. 

      Model the behavior of parents and other caregivers.

    • D. 

      Actively explore the environment.

  • 11. 
    Vygotsky saw __________ play as the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood.
    • A. 

      Outdoor

    • B. 

      Make-believe

    • C. 

      Parallel

    • D. 

      ​​​​​cooperative

  • 12. 
    According to B.F. Skinner, the frequency of a behavior can be decreased through
    • A. 

      Modeling.

    • B. 

      Punishment.

    • C. 

      Reinforcement

    • D. 

      Classical conditioning.

  • 13. 
    According to Bandura’s revised social-cognitive theory, as children watch others engage in self-praise and self-blame, they develop a sense of
    • A. 

      Shame.

    • B. 

      Self-doubt.

    • C. 

      Humor.

    • D. 

      Self-efficacy.

  • 14. 
    Which of the following statements about brain development in early childhood is true?
    • A. 

      Between ages 2 and 6, energy consumption of most cortical regions diminishes to near-adult levels.

    • B. 

      The left hemisphere is relatively inactive between 3 and 6 years.

    • C. 

      By age 4, most parts of the cerebral cortex have underproduced synapses.

    • D. 

      Activity in the right hemisphere increases steadily throughout early and middle childhood for most children.

  • 15. 
    Piaget’s view of development was greatly influenced by his early training in
    • A. 

      Physics

    • B. 

      Sociology.

    • C. 

      Biology.

    • D. 

      Kinesiology.

  • 16. 
    The __________ approach views the mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows.
    • A. 

      Social learning

    • B. 

      Information-processing

    • C. 

      Cognitive-developmental

    • D. 

      Ethological

  • 17. 
    Mary is helping her son, Dean, put together a difficult, but manageable, puzzle. When Dean tries to insert a piece in the wrong place a few times, Mary points to the bottom of the puzzle and says, “Does it go down here?” Mary is engaging in
    • A. 

      Scaffolding.

    • B. 

      Dual representation.

    • C. 

      Proximal teaching.

    • D. 

      Transitive inference.

  • 18. 
    Conservation refers to the
    • A. 

      Failure to distinguish others’ symbolic viewpoints from one’s own.

    • B. 

      Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions.

    • C. 

      Inability to mentally go through a series of steps and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.

    • D. 

      Idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.

  • 19. 
    Differences in development of the two cerebral hemispheres suggests that __________ in early childhood.
    • A. 

      The right hemisphere is more important than the left hemisphere

    • B. 

      The left hemisphere is more important than the right hemisphere

    • C. 

      They are continuing to lateralize

    • D. 

      Activity in both hemispheres is slow

  • 20. 
    A __________ is a complex blend of genetic information that determines the species and influences unique characteristics.
    • A. 

      Genotype

    • B. 

      Karyotype

    • C. 

      Phenotype

    • D. 

      Chromosome

  • 21. 
    Through a process called mitosis, DNA can
    • A. 

      Split itself in thirds

    • B. 

      Untwist itself.

    • C. 

      Duplicate itself.

    • D. 

      Divide itself in half.

  • 22. 
    Theory of mind involves
    • A. 

      Using scripts to tell stories.

    • B. 

      Using deliberate mental activities that improve recall.

    • C. 

      Using a repetitive communication style.

    • D. 

      Thinking about thought.

  • 23. 
    The sex of a new organism is determined by whether
    • A. 

      The ovum is carrying an X chromosome or a Y chromosome.

    • B. 

      The sperm fertilizes an X-bearing ovum or a Y-bearing ovum.

    • C. 

      The X and Y chromosomes separate into sperm cells or ovum.

    • D. 

      An X-bearing sperm or a Y-bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum.

  • 24. 
    In dominant-recessive inheritance, the one allele that does not affect the child’s characteristics is called
    • A. 

      Dominant–recessive

    • B. 

      Dominant.

    • C. 

      A carrier.

    • D. 

      Recessive.

  • 25. 
    Irreversibility is the
    • A. 

      Failure to distinguish others’ symbolic viewpoints from one’s own

    • B. 

      Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities.

    • C. 

      Most important illogical feature of preoperational thought

    • D. 

      Tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.

  • 26. 
    • A. 

      Friends

    • B. 

      Neighbors

    • C. 

      The School

    • D. 

      The family

  • 27. 
    In several studies, affluent teenagers were,________ likely than low-SES youths to _________
    • A. 

      Less; engage in alcohol and drug use

    • B. 

      More; report high levels of anxiety and depression

    • C. 

      Less; self-medicate

    • D. 

      More; have physically and emotionally available parents

  • 28. 
    According to the concept of __________, our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed.
    • A. 

      Canalization

    • B. 

      Gene-environment correlation

    • C. 

      Heritability estimation

    • D. 

      Natural selection

  • 29. 
    The hippocampus
    • A. 

      Aids in balance and control of body movement.

    • B. 

      Contributes to dramatic gains in motor coordination.

    • C. 

      Plays a vital role in memory and in images of space that help us find our way.

    • D. 

      Supports smooth coordination of movements on both sides of the body.

  • 30. 
    Ignacio lives in a remote Mayan village in Yucatan, Mexico. Ignacio does not rely on conversation and play to teach his children. Which of the following is the most likely reason for this?
    • A. 

      Ignacio is too busy working and maintaining his household to interact with his children.

    • B. 

      Ignacio instead focuses on preparing his children for academic success and civic engagement.

    • C. 

      Ignacio’s young children spend most of their time playing with and talking to their agemates.

    • D. 

      Ignacio’s children spend their day in contact with adult work and start to assume mature responsibilities in early childhood.

  • 31. 
    Vernon is an active, friendly baby. He receives more social stimulation from his parents than Vivian, who is a passive, quiet infant. This is an example of a(n) __________ gene-environment correlation.
    • A. 

      Active

    • B. 

      Evocative

    • C. 

      Dynamic

    • D. 

      Passive

  • 32. 
    The ability to engage in effective and appropriate communication is called
    • A. 

      Linguistics.

    • B. 

      Pragmatics.

    • C. 

      ​​​language arts.

    • D. 

      Conservation.

  • 33. 
    Active gene–environment correlation
    • A. 

      Becomes common at older ages.

    • B. 

      Is not within the child’s control.

    • C. 

      Is influenced by the parents’ own heredity.

    • D. 

      Involves adult responses to the child’s temperament.

  • 34. 
    Three-year-old Reagan says, “I losted my dolly!” Reagan is demonstrating
    • A. 

      Overregularization.

    • B. 

      Underextension.

    • C. 

      Overextension

    • D. 

      Underregularization

  • 35. 
    The cerebellum
    • A. 

      Maintains alertness and consciousness.

    • B. 

      Aids in balance and control of body movement.

    • C. 

      Plays a vital role in memory and in images of space that help us find our way.

    • D. 

      Is a large bundle of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres.

  • 36. 
    The period of the zygote
    • A. 

      Lasts about two weeks.

    • B. 

      Lasts from implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy.

    • C. 

      Is the longest prenatal period.

    • D. 

      Is the prenatal period during which the groundwork is laid for all body structures and organs.

  • 37. 
    The embryonic disk
    • A. 

      Becomes the new organism.

    • B. 

      Is the outer ring of cells on a blastocyst.

    • C. 

      Has a good chance of survival outside the womb.

    • D. 

      Is a protective membrane that surrounds the amnion.

  • 38. 
    Heidi is shown 16 flowers, 4 of which are blue and 12 of which are red. When asked, “Are there more red flowers or flowers?” Heidi, a preoperational child, responds, “More red flowers.” This problem demonstrates Heidi’s difficulty with
    • A. 

      Animistic thinking.

    • B. 

      Egocentrism.

    • C. 

      Hierarchical classification.

    • D. 

      ​​​​magical thinking.

  • 39. 
    Rh incompatibility problems are most likely to occur if an Rh-negative mother is carrying her __________ baby.
    • A. 

      Second Rh-positive

    • B. 

      First Rh-negative

    • C. 

      First Rh-positive

    • D. 

      Second Rh-negative

  • 40. 
    Although he sometimes forgets the number 8, 4-year-old Tucker can count to 10. When his teacher counts out a set of 9 cards, saying each number as she proceeds, Tucker knows that the last number that the teacher says indicates the quantity of cards in the set. Tucker grasps the concept of
    • A. 

      False belief.

    • B. 

      Computation.

    • C. 

      Ordinality

    • D. 

      Cardinality

  • 41. 
    The age of viability
    • A. 

      Is the point at which the baby can first survive if born early.

    • B. 

      Occurs sometime between 18 and 21 weeks.

    • C. 

      Is the point at which the baby can be born without being premature.

    • D. 

      Occurs sometime during the second trimester of pregnancy.

  • 42. 
    Which of the following brain structures connects the two cerebral hemispheres?
    • A. 

      Corpus callosum

    • B. 

      Glial cells

    • C. 

      Reticular formation

    • D. 

      Cerebellum

  • 43. 
    The cephalocaudal trend in physical growth is illustrated by
    • A. 

      Earlier growth of the arms and legs than of the chest and trunk.

    • B. 

      Later growth of the arms and legs than of the hands and feet.

    • C. 

      Earlier growth of the legs and feet than of the arms and hands.

    • D. 

      Later growth of the trunk and legs than of the head and chest.

  • 44. 
    Skeletal age is measured by determining
    • A. 

      Muscle and bone strength.

    • B. 

      The length of the long bones.

    • C. 

      The extent to which cartilage has hardened into bone.

    • D. 

      Joint flexibility.

  • 45. 
    When Remi says, “I buyed a new book,” his dad responds, “Yes, you bought a new book.” Remi’s dad is using
    • A. 

      Fast-mapping.

    • B. 

      A recast.

    • C. 

      Overregularization.

    • D. 

      Expansion.

  • 46. 
    According to Erikson, once children have a sense of autonomy, they
    • A. 

      Achieve the psychological conflict of the preschool years.

    • B. 

      Become less contrary than they were as toddlers.

    • C. 

      Become hesitant to try new things.

    • D. 

      Have a new sense of purposefulness.

  • 47. 
    The attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that we believe define ourselves comprise our __________, whereas the judgments we make about our worth and the feelings associated with those judgments are our __________.
    • A. 

      Self-concept; self-esteem

    • B. 

      Identity; self-concept

    • C. 

      Self-esteem; self-concept

    • D. 

      Self-concept; identity

  • 48. 
    Preschoolers tend to
    • A. 

      Overestimate task difficulty.

    • B. 

      Rate their own ability as extremely high.

    • C. 

      Form few self-judgments.

    • D. 

      Distinguish between their desired and their actual competence.

  • 49. 
    In the proximodistal trend, during infancy and childhood, the
    • A. 

      Head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body.

    • B. 

      Body grows from “head to tail.”

    • C. 

      Arms and legs grow somewhat ahead of the hands and feet.

    • D. 

      Hands and feet grow more rapidly than the arms and legs.

  • 50. 
    Neurons
    • A. 

      Are gaps between body cells.

    • B. 

      Are tightly packed together.

    • C. 

      Are responsible for myelination.

    • D. 

      Store and transmit information.

  • 51. 
    According to Erikson, one of the major functions of play is to
    • A. 

      Allow children to escape from the demands of their lives into a fantasy world.

    • B. 

      ​​​​​show caregivers the things that are important to children.

    • C. 

      Create a small social organization of children who try out culturally meaningful roles and skills.

    • D. 

      Allow children to represent their unconscious wishes and desires symbolically.

  • 52. 
    synapses are
    • A. 

      Tiny gaps where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch.

    • B. 

      Nerve cells that store and transmit information.

    • C. 

      Chemicals released by neurons.

    • D. 

      Responsible for myelination.

  • 53. 
    The more parents __________, the more “emotion words” children use and the better developed their emotional understanding.
    • A. 

      Label emotions, explain them, and express warmth and enthusiasm when conversing with preschoolers

    • B. 

      Encourage peer sociability and demand that their children share with peers

    • C. 

      Label their children’s successes and failures and point out when their children make errors

    • D. 

      Expect their children to behave like adults

  • 54. 
    Three-year-old Paul’s self-awareness is strengthening. He describes himself as “big” and “really fast,” and says he is happy when he plays with friends. Paul is beginning to develop a
    • A. 

      Subjective id.

    • B. 

      Restrained superego.

    • C. 

      Self-concept.

    • D. 

      Moral self.

  • 55. 
    According to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, linguistic intelligence includes
    • A. 

      The ability to detect and respond appropriately to the moods and motivations of others.

    • B. 

      Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meaning of words and the functions of language.

    • C. 

      The ability to handle long chains of logical reasoning.

    • D. 

      ​​​​​knowledge of one’s own strengths, weaknesses, and desires.

  • 56. 
    According to Mary Rothbart, variations in __________ are evident in how effectively a child can focus and shift attention, inhibit impulses, and manage negative emotion.
    • A. 

      Threshold of responsiveness

    • B. 

      Adaptability

    • C. 

      Irritable distress

    • D. 

      Effortful control

  • 57. 
    Neurotransmitters
    • A. 

      Cannot cross synapses.

    • B. 

      Are the tiny gaps between neurons.

    • C. 

      Are responsible for myelination.

    • D. 

      Are message-carrying chemicals released by neurons.

  • 58. 
    A(n) __________ parenting style is associated with children who are impulsive, disobedient, overly demanding, and dependent on adults.
    • A. 

      Uninvolved

    • B. 

      Permissive

    • C. 

      Authoritarian

    • D. 

      Authoritative

  • 59. 
    If you ask preschoolers to describe themselves, they usually
    • A. 

      Give personality traits and characteristics, such as being friendly, kind, helpful, and smart.

    • B. 

      Give concrete descriptions that include physical appearance, possessions, and everyday behaviors

    • C. 

      Compare themselves to people they know, such as parents, siblings, or peers.

    • D. 

      Describe themselves differently each time you ask the question.

  • 60. 
    Myelination involves
    • A. 

      Sending messages from one neuron to another.

    • B. 

      Making space for synapses.

    • C. 

      Coating the neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath.

    • D. 

      Returning neurons not needed to an uncommitted state.

  • 61. 
    Effortful control
    • A. 

      Involves judgments we make about our own worth.  

    • B. 

      Consists of our attributes, abilities, and personal values.  

    • C. 

      Continues to be vital in managing emotion during early childhood.

    • D. 

      ​​​​​does not emerge until the late elementary school years.

  • 62. 
    Brain development in infancy and toddlerhood is
    • A. 

      Often characterized by a series of discrete stages.

    • B. 

      Jointly influenced by genetically programmed events and the child’s experiences.

    • C. 

      Slow and steady, and mostly influenced by genetically programmed events.

    • D. 

      Primarily influenced by the child’s experiences with the environment.

  • 63. 
    The prefrontal cortex
    • A. 

      Controls body movement.

    • B. 

      Is responsible for thought.

    • C. 

      Functions most effectively during the prenatal period.

    • D. 

      Reaches an adult level of synaptic connections during the preschool years.

  • 64. 
    The capacity for voluntary, effortful management of emotions
    • A. 

      Improves as a result of the development of the prefrontal cortex.

    • B. 

      Is present at birth.

    • C. 

      Emerges suddenly around 8 to 10 months.

    • D. 

      Cannot be modified by learned strategies.

  • 65. 
    Many permissive parents
    • A. 

      Are emotionally detached and depressed, with little time and energy for children.

    • B. 

      Insist on mature behavior and give reasons for their expectations.

    • C. 

      Lack confidence in their ability to influence their child’s behavior.

    • D. 

      Exercise firm, reasonable control over their children.

  • 66. 
    According to Thomas and Chess, an easy child
    • A. 

      Is irregular in daily routines and tends to react negatively and intensely.

    • B. 

      Quickly establishes regular routines in infancy and adapts easily to new experiences.

    • C. 

      Is inactive and shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli.

    • D. 

      Is generally cheerful and is slow to accept new experiences.

  • 67. 
    Which of the following statements about peer sociability in collectivist versus individualistic societies is true?
    • A. 

      Children in collectivist cultures spend more time in parallel play than children in individualistic cultures.

    • B. 

      Children in collectivist cultures spend more time in make-believe play than children in individualistic cultures.

    • C. 

      Children in individualistic cultures tend to play in larger groups than children in collectivist cultures.

    • D. 

      Children in collectivist societies generally play in large groups, which require high levels of cooperation.

  • 68. 
    Empathy serves as an important motivator of __________ behavior.
    • A. 

      Assertive

    • B. 

      Dishonest

    • C. 

      Prosocial

    • D. 

      Self-interested

  • 69. 
    Maris is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, and adjusts slowly to new experiences. According to Thomas and Chess, Maris would be classified as a(n) __________ child.
    • A. 

      Uninhibited

    • B. 

      Difficult

    • C. 

      Slow-to-warm-up

    • D. 

      Inhibited

  • 70. 
    When parents use inductive discipline, they
    • A. 

      Threaten to withdraw their love to motivate good behavior.

    • B. 

      Model the behavior that they want their child to follow.

    • C. 

      Rely on rewards and punishment to shape their child’s behavior.

    • D. 

      Point out the effects of their child’s misbehavior on others.

  • 71. 
    Temperament refers to
    • A. 

      Quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity.

    • B. 

      The strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity.

    • C. 

      Early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation

    • D. 

      Emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of our sense of self.

  • 72. 
    As the ability to take another’s perspective improves,
    • A. 

      Children rely less on words to convey empathetic feelings.

    • B. 

      The tendency to focus on one’s own anxiety increases.

    • C. 

      Sympathetic feelings decrease.

    • D. 

      Empathic responding increases.

  • 73. 
    Authoritative parents
    • A. 

      Exert control, yell, command, criticize, and threaten their children.

    • B. 

      Simply lack confidence in their ability to influence their child’s behavior.

    • C. 

      ​​​​​​combine low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy.

    • D. 

      Insist on mature behavior and give reasons for their expectations.

  • 74. 
    All theories of moral development recognize that conscience begins to take shape
    • A. 

      Prenatally.

    • B. 

      At birth.

    • C. 

      In early childhood.

    • D. 

      In late childhood.

  • 75. 
    The __________ perspective regards children as active thinkers about social rules.
    • A. 

      Cognitive-developmental

    • B. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • C. 

      Behaviorist

    • D. 

      Social learning

  • 76. 
    Children of authoritarian parents
    • A. 

      Typically have an upbeat mood and are cooperative.

    • B. 

      Tend to be overly demanding and dependent on adults.

    • C. 

      Tend to react with hostility when frustrated.

    • D. 

      Are emotionally detached and depressed.

  • 77. 
    Physical growth during the school years
    • A. 

      Increases dramatically from the pace of early childhood.

    • B. 

      Continues at the slow, regular pace of early childhood.

    • C. 

      Speeds up more significantly for boys than for girls.  

    • D. 

      Slows dramatically

  • 78. 
    The rise in body fat during the first year of life
    • A. 

      Insulates infants’ brittle bones until proper cartilage is formed.

    • B. 

      Helps infants keep a constant body temperature.

    • C. 

      Cushions infants from bumps and falls.

    • D. 

      Slows the development of fine-motor skills.

  • 79. 
    Which of the following children is the most likely to be above the growth norms?
    • A. 

      Mai, an Asian girl

    • B. 

      Isaiah, an African-American boy

    • C. 

      Eleanor, a Caucasian girl

    • D. 

      Nygen, an Asian boy

  • 80. 
    According to Mildred Parten’s research on peer sociability, play develops in what sequence?
    • A. 

      Nonsocial, parallel, cooperative, associative

    • B. 

      Nonsocial, parallel, associative, cooperative

    • C. 

      Cooperative, parallel, nonsocial, associative

    • D. 

      Associative, cooperative, parallel, nonsocial

  • 81. 
    A child who is capable of reversibility can
    • A. 

      Center on just one aspect of a problem, rather than focus on several aspects at once.

    • B. 

      Focus on relations between a general category and two specific categories at the same time.

    • C. 

      Order items along a quantitative dimension.

    • D. 

      Think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction.

  • 82. 
    During middle childhood, Shannon became increasingly flexible and was able to perform cartwheels and handstands. This is probably because
    • A. 

      Her ligaments were not yet firmly attached to bones.

    • B. 

      The bones of her body had shortened and narrowed.

    • C. 

      ​​​​​she was losing “baby fat” at an increasing rate.

    • D. 

      Her bones were strengthening while her muscles were weakening.

  • 83. 
    Seven-year-old Paolo can efficiently arrange a series of sticks of different lengths from shortest to longest. Paolo has developed an ability called
    • A. 

      Classification.

    • B. 

      Decentration.

    • C. 

      Spatial reasoning.

    • D. 

      ​​​​​seriation.

  • 84. 
    Research on nutrition indicates that
    • A. 

      Malnutrition that persists into the school years rarely leads to permanent physical or mental damage.

    • B. 

      Eating an evening meal with parents leads to a diet lower in fast foods and soft drinks.

    • C. 

      The percentage of children who eat dinner with their families increases slightly between ages 9 and 14.

    • D. 

      School-age children often become picky eaters, but mild nutritional deficits rarely affect growth or cognitive functioning.

  • 85. 
    A lateralized brain
    • A. 

      Is more common in left-handed than right-handed individuals.

    • B. 

      Is more effective at regulating emotion than a nonlateralized brain.

    • C. 

      Means that many areas of the cerebral cortex are not yet committed to specific functions.

    • D. 

      Permits a wider array of functions to be carried out effectively.

  • 86. 
    Heritability evidence suggests __________ genetic influences on various aspects of executive function, including combining information in working memory, controlling attention, and inhibiting inappropriate responses.
    • A. 

      Little or no

    • B. 

      Only minor

    • C. 

      Moderate

    • D. 

      Substantial

  • 87. 
    Children who acquire effective self-regulatory skills develop a sense of
    • A. 

      Academic self-efficacy.

    • B. 

      Learned helplessness.

    • C. 

      Metacognition

    • D. 

      Practical intelligence.

  • 88. 
    In the study of Romanian orphans adopted into British homes, children adopted __________ attained the highest mental test scores in childhood and adolescence.
    • A. 

      Before 6 months

    • B. 

      Between 6 months and 2 years

    • C. 

      Between 2 and 6 years

    • D. 

      Between 6 and 11 years

  • 89. 
    According to Piaget, children are first able to __________ in middle childhood.
    • A. 

      ​​​​​think in an abstract way

    • B. 

      Understand object permanence

    • C. 

      Successfully complete conservation tasks

    • D. 

      Combine multiple schemes

  • 90. 
    Experience-expectant brain growth
    • A. 

      Occurs throughout our lives.

    • B. 

      Consists of additional growth and refinement of established brain structures.

    • C. 

      Depends on ordinary experiences.

    • D. 

      Varies widely across cultures.

  • 91. 
    Which of the following statements about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is true?
    • A. 

      All children with ADHD are hyperactive.

    • B. 

      ​​​​​​Fraternal twins are more likely than identical twins to have ADHD.

    • C. 

      ​​​​​Boys are diagnosed with ADHD about four times as often as girls.

    • D. 

      For a child to be diagnosed with ADHD, symptoms must appear before age 5.

  • 92. 
    The information-processing perspective
    • A. 

      Focuses on overall cognitive change.

    • B. 

      Examines separate aspects of thinking.

    • C. 

      Fails to consider biological influences on thinking.

    • D. 

      Argues that gains in operational thinking are abrupt and automatic.

  • 93. 
    Children best learn to read using
    • A. 

      A whole-language approach.

    • B. 

      A phonics approach.

    • C. 

      ​​​​​a combination of both whole-language and phonics instruction.

    • D. 

      Drill and repetition.

  • 94. 
    Habituation
    • A. 

      Occurs when a conditioned stimulus is presented alone enough times, without being paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

    • B. 

      Occurs when a change in the environment causes responsiveness to return to a high level.

    • C. 

      Occurs when a unpleasant stimulus is presented to decrease the occurrence of a response.

    • D. 

      Refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation.

  • 95. 
    Jensen had to memorize the state capitals. To do so, he repeated the information to himself over and over. Jensen used a memory strategy known as
    • A. 

      Elaboration.

    • B. 

      Organization

    • C. 

      Metacognition

    • D. 

      Rehearsal

  • 96. 
    Accommodation
    • A. 

      Involves the use of current schemes to interpret the world.

    • B. 

      Takes place internally.

    • C. 

      Involves creating new schemes or adjusting old ones.

    • D. 

      Involves the linking of schemes with other schemes.

  • 97. 
    Virtually all intelligence tests provide an overall score (the IQ), which represents __________ intelligence.
    • A. 

      Practical

    • B. 

      General

    • C. 

      Creative

    • D. 

      Spatial

  • 98. 
    Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of successful intelligence identifies which of the following three broad, interacting intelligences?
    • A. 

      Linguistic, emotional, and practical

    • B. 

      Creative, intrapersonal, and emotional

    • C. 

      Analytical, creative, and practical

    • D. 

      Spatial, kinesthetic, and interpersonal  

  • 99. 
    As children make the transition from emergent literacy to conventional reading, __________ continues to predict reading and spelling progress.
    • A. 

      Phonological awareness

    • B. 

      Metacognitive awareness

    • C. 

      Practical intelligence

    • D. 

      Transitive inference

  • 100. 
    According to Piaget, organization takes place
    • A. 

      Through direct contact with the environment.

    • B. 

      Internally.

    • C. 

      In the zone of proximal development.

    • D. 

      Externally.