Information is gathered from its own configuration regarding directly connected networks.
Switches forward destination address information to each router.
Other routers forward information about known networks.
Routes are entered manually by a network administrator.
Routes are learned from information gathered from ARP tables
To tell the router how to reach those networks
To tell the router which attached networks participate in routing updates
To tell the router which set of metrics to use for the attached networks
To tell the router which routing protocol to use
The device connecting the S0 interface of the Tampa router to the serial link loses power.
A network administrator shuts down the Orlando router E0 interface.
A DCHP server connected to the Tampa E1 network loses power.
The IP address of a workstation on the Orlando E0 network is reassigned.
A host on the Orlando E1 network transmits data to a server on the Tampa E1 network.
Interior gateway protocols are used between autonomous systems.
Exterior gateway protocols are used between autonomous systems.
An autonomous system may be under the control of multiple organizations.
An autonomous system is identified by a 16 bit number assigned by ARIN.
The autonomous system is identified in the network portion of the IP address.
RouterB(config)# ip route 192.168.5.0 255.255.255.0 S1
RouterC(config)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 S1
RouterA(config)# ip route 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.2
RouterB(config)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.2
RouterC(config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.1
It is used to build and maintain ARP tables.
It provides a method for segmenting and reassembling data packets.
It allows an administrator to devise an addressing scheme for the network.
It allows a router to share information about known networks with other routers.
It provides a procedure for encoding and decoding data into bits for packet forwarding.
Each router develops its own map of the entire network.
Routers send triggered updates when changes in the network occur.
Link-state routing protocols place a higher load on router resources during the routing protocol initialization.
Link-state protocols are more prone to routing loops than distance vector routing protocols.
Networks using link-state routing protocols are slower to reach convergence after changes have occurred than those using distance vector protocols.
Source IP address
Source MAC address
Destination IP address
Destination MAC address
This command is used to set up a static route.
This command is used to set up a default route.
This command is entered from global configuration mode.
All packets intended for network 172.16.1.0 will be sent to gateway 172.16.2.1.
All packets intended for network 172.16.2.1 will be sent to gateway 172.16.1.0.
Link state advertisements are sent from other routers.
Updates are made to the routing table by the administrator.
Best path information is communicated by network hosts.
The routing table is updated by neighboring routers.
The routers in the network are operating with dynamic routing protocols.
The routers in the network are operating with compatible versions of IOS.
The routers in the network are operating with the same routing tables.
The routers in the network are operating with consistent routing knowledge.
A distance vector routing protocol was used.
A link state routing protocol was used.
Routing updates will broadcast every 30 seconds.
Routing updates will broadcast every 90 seconds.
Hop count is the only metric used for route selection.
Montana(config)# ip route 172.31.5.0 255.255.255.0 172.31.5.1
Montana(config)# ip route 172.31.3.0 255.255.255.0 172.31.4.1
Idaho(config)# ip route 172.31.5.0 255.255.255.0 172.31.4.1
Idaho(config)# ip route 172.31.5.0 255.255.255.0 172.31.4.2
Idaho(config)# ip route 172.31.5.1 255.255.255.0 172.31.4.1
The topology database eliminates the need for a routing table.
Frequent periodic updates are sent to minimize the number of incorrect routes in the topological database.
Routers have direct knowledge of all links in the network and how they are connected.
After the inital LSA flooding, they generally require less bandwidth to communicate changes in a topology.
Link-state protocols require less router processor power than distance vector protocols.
The source host
The next hop router
The outbound interface
The destination network
Internetwork Packet Exchange
Allows the router to make forwarding decisions based on Layer 2 addressing
Uses network addressing to select the best route and interface to forward data
Accepts a packet on one interface and forwards it to a second interface
Enables the router to select the most appropriate interface for forwarding a packet
Routers will not allow packets to be forwarded until the network has converged.
Host are unable to access their gateway until the network has converged.
Routers may make incorrect forwarding decisions until the network has converged.
Routers will not allow configuration changes to be made until the network has converged.