Pathophysiology Of Inflammation Quiz! Trivia

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Pathophysiology Of Inflammation Quiz! Trivia - Quiz


Pathophysiology of Inflammation is what we are going to focus on in this quiz. Inflammation can occur either as acute, sub-acute, and chronic. Swelling occurs typically due to increased blood flow and capillary permeability, the influx of phagocytic cells, and tissue damage. Do you know some of the remedies for different inflammation and causes as well? This quiz will help to refresh your understanding. Do give it a try and see what more you may learn!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What are the 5 cardinal signs of Inflammation?

    • A. 

      Caliente, rubarbo, tamar, dola, functioner

    • B. 

      Caliente, rubor, tumor, dola, functioner

    • C. 

      Calor, rubor, tumor, dolor, functio laesa

    • D. 

      Calor, rubarbo, tamar, dolor, functio laesa

    Correct Answer
    C. Calor, rubor, tumor, dolor, functio laesa
    Explanation
    The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are calor (heat), rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), Dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function)

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  • 2. 

    Inflammation can occur in dead tissue?

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Only the living will mount an inflammation. Dead tissue cannot mount an inflammatory response.

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  • 3. 

    Changes in blood flow represent the body's first response to injury.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When the body is injured, one of the first responses is a change in blood flow. This change in blood flow is necessary to deliver oxygen, nutrients, and immune cells to the injured area to promote healing. Additionally, increased blood flow can also help remove waste products and toxins from the site of injury. Therefore, the statement that changes in blood flow represent the body's first response to injury is true.

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  • 4. 

    What is the first response of arterioles to injury?

    • A. 

      Vasoconstriction

    • B. 

      Vasodilation

    • C. 

      Redness

    • D. 

      Edema

    • E. 

      Hyperemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Vasoconstriction
    Explanation
    Arterioles are small blood vessels that regulate blood flow to various tissues. When an injury occurs, the arterioles initially respond by constricting or narrowing their diameter, which is known as vasoconstriction. This response helps to reduce blood flow to the injured area, limiting bleeding and preventing further damage. Vasoconstriction also helps to minimize the swelling and inflammation that can occur after an injury. Therefore, vasoconstriction is the first response of arterioles to injury.

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  • 5. 

    Stacking of erythrocytes (RBCs) are known as what?

    • A. 

      Margination

    • B. 

      Pavementing

    • C. 

      Forming Rolexes

    • D. 

      Rouleaux Formation

    Correct Answer
    D. Rouleaux Formation
    Explanation
    Rouleaux formation are sludged erythrocytes that form stacks which impedes and slows down the circulation.

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  • 6. 

    What is the name of the phenomenon where WBC's marginate and become attached to the edge of the endothelium?

    • A. 

      Cementing

    • B. 

      Pavementing

    • C. 

      Margination

    • D. 

      Adhesion

    Correct Answer
    B. Pavementing
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "margination." Margination refers to the phenomenon where white blood cells (WBCs) marginate and become attached to the edge of the endothelium. It is an important step in the inflammatory response, where WBCs move from the center of blood vessels to the vessel walls in order to reach the site of infection or injury. "Pavementing" and "adhesion" are not the correct terms for this specific phenomenon. "Cementing" is not a recognized term in this context.

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  • 7. 

    On microscopic examination, the finding of Rouleaux Formation of RBC's means that there is inflammation.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Rouleaux formation of RBCs refers to the stacking of red blood cells in a linear formation, resembling a stack of coins. This phenomenon is commonly seen in conditions associated with inflammation, such as infections or autoimmune diseases. The interaction between certain proteins on the surface of red blood cells and inflammatory molecules leads to this aggregation. Therefore, the statement "On microscopic examination, the finding of Rouleaux Formation of RBC's means that there is inflammation" is true.

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  • 8. 

    Margination of neutrophils is the first cellular change of inflammation.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because margination of neutrophils is indeed the first cellular change that occurs during inflammation. Margination refers to the process in which neutrophils adhere to the walls of blood vessels near the site of inflammation. This is followed by their migration through the vessel walls and into the inflamed tissue, where they play a crucial role in the immune response by engulfing and destroying pathogens. Therefore, margination of neutrophils is an essential initial step in the inflammatory process.

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  • 9. 

    Active movement of PMN's along a concentration gradient is known as what?

    • A. 

      Passive diffusion

    • B. 

      Chemotaxis

    • C. 

      Facilitated diffusion

    • D. 

      Chemotactic diffusion

    Correct Answer
    B. Chemotaxis
    Explanation
    Chemotactic substances stimulate PMN's to move along a concentration gradient (chemotaxis) until they reach their source or site of inflammation.

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  • 10. 

    What does the term opsonization mean?

    • A. 

      To make tasty

    • B. 

      To make optimal

    • C. 

      To make foreign

    • D. 

      To make attractive

    Correct Answer
    A. To make tasty
    Explanation
    Antibody opsonization is the process by which a pathogen is marked for ingestion and destruction by a phagocyte. Opsonization involves the binding of an opsonin, i.e., antibody, to a receptor on the pathogen's cell membrane. After opsonin binds to the membrane, phagocytes are attracted to the pathogen. The Fa and Fb portion of the antibody binds to the antigen, whereas the Fc portion of the antibody binds to an Fc receptor on the phagocyte, facilitating phagocytosis. The receptor-opsin complex can also create byproducts like C3b and C4b which are important components of the complement system. These components are deposited on the cell surface of the pathogen and aid in its destruction.

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  • 11. 

    A PMN encounters and recognizes a bacterium as foreign by the pseudopods extending from the surface of the PMN.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pseudopods are temporary extensions of the cell membrane that allow cells, such as PMNs (polymorphonuclear leukocytes), to move and engulf foreign particles, including bacteria. These extensions help the PMN to encounter and recognize the bacterium as foreign, triggering an immune response. Therefore, the statement that a PMN encounters and recognizes a bacterium as foreign by the pseudopods extending from its surface is true.

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  • 12. 

    How does the PMN recognize and attach to the foreign bacteria?

    • A. 

      Hcg or complement (C3)

    • B. 

      Immunoglobulins (IgG-A4) or complement (C4)

    • C. 

      Immunoglobulins (IgG-Fc) or complement (C3)

    • D. 

      Hcg or complement (C4)

    Correct Answer
    C. Immunoglobulins (IgG-Fc) or complement (C3)
    Explanation
    Many leukocytes have receptors for C3 portion of complement and the Fc portion of IgG antibody which mediates contact with bacteria.

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  • 13. 

    Immunoglobulins (IgG-Fc) and complement (C3) both act as opsonins.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Both immunoglobulins (specifically IgG-Fc) and complement (specifically C3) are known to act as opsonins. Opsonins are molecules that enhance the process of phagocytosis, which is the engulfing and destruction of pathogens by immune cells. By binding to the surface of pathogens, opsonins facilitate the recognition and uptake of these pathogens by immune cells. Immunoglobulins, such as IgG-Fc, can bind to pathogens and mark them for phagocytosis. Complement proteins, particularly C3, can also bind to pathogens and enhance their recognition and uptake by immune cells. Therefore, both immunoglobulins and complement can function as opsonins.

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  • 14. 

    The process by which the cytoplasm of the PMN surrounds the bacteria and encloses it into an invagination of the cell membrane is known as what?

    • A. 

      Phagolysosome

    • B. 

      Phagolysis

    • C. 

      Phagolum

    • D. 

      Phagocytosis

    • E. 

      Phagophobia

    Correct Answer
    D. Phagocytosis
    Explanation
    Phagocytosis is the correct answer because it refers to the process by which the cytoplasm of the PMN (polymorphonuclear leukocyte) surrounds and engulfs bacteria or other particles, enclosing them in a membrane-bound vesicle called a phagosome. This process allows for the internalization and subsequent destruction of the engulfed material.

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  • 15. 

    Inside the phagocytic vacuole, the bacteria is killed by bacteriocidal substances released from the nucleus of the PMN.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Inside the phagocytic vacuole, the bacterium is killed by bacteriocidal substances released from the cytoplasm of the PMN.

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  • 16. 

    Dead and dying PMN's admixed with tissue debris form a viscous yellow fluid called what?

    • A. 

      Xanthochromia

    • B. 

      Pus

    • C. 

      Xanthelasma

    Correct Answer
    B. Pus
    Explanation
    Dead and dying PMN’s, admixed with tissue debris, form a viscous yellow fluid called pus.
    Inflammations dominated by pus formation are called purulent or suppurative inflammations.

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  • 17. 

    What are the different types of inflammation?

    • A. 

      Serious, fiber, purulent, ulcerative, chronic and granulomatous

    • B. 

      Serous, fibrinous, purulent, ulcerative, pseudomembranous, chronic and granulomatous

    • C. 

      Serous, purulent, ulcerative, pseudomembranous and chronic

    • D. 

      Serious, fibrionous, pseudomembranous, chronic, and granulomatous

    Correct Answer
    B. Serous, fibrinous, purulent, ulcerative, pseudomembranous, chronic and granulomatous
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes the different types of inflammation, which are serous, fibrinous, purulent, ulcerative, pseudomembranous, chronic, and granulomatous. These types of inflammation represent different presentations and characteristics of the inflammatory process in the body. Serous inflammation involves the production of a watery fluid, fibrinous inflammation involves the formation of fibrin strands, purulent inflammation involves the presence of pus, ulcerative inflammation involves the formation of ulcers, pseudomembranous inflammation involves the formation of a pseudomembrane, chronic inflammation is a prolonged and persistent form of inflammation, and granulomatous inflammation involves the formation of granulomas.

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  • 18. 

    Select 2 examples of serous inflammation?

    • A. 

      The skin vesicles caused by Herpes virus

    • B. 

      Acute bacterial meningitis

    • C. 

      Bread and butter pericarditis

    • D. 

      Blisters from second degree skin burns

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The skin vesicles caused by Herpes virus
    D. Blisters from second degree skin burns
    Explanation
    The examples provided, "the skin vesicles caused by Herpes virus" and "blisters from second degree skin burns," are both examples of serous inflammation. Serous inflammation is characterized by the production of a fluid called serous exudate, which is thin, watery, and contains few cells. In the case of the skin vesicles caused by Herpes virus, the fluid-filled vesicles are a result of the inflammatory response to the viral infection. Similarly, blisters from second degree skin burns are also a result of the body's inflammatory response to the burn injury, leading to the accumulation of serous fluid in the blister.

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  • 19. 

    Serous inflammation is considered to be the most severe form of inflammation.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Serous inflammation is considered to be the mildest form.

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  • 20. 

    The serous fluid is readily resorbed without consequences if the cause is eliminated.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Serous fluid is a clear, watery fluid that is produced by serous membranes in the body. It helps to lubricate and reduce friction between organs and tissues. When there is an excess of serous fluid, it can cause swelling or effusion in the affected area. However, if the underlying cause of the excess fluid is eliminated, such as by treating an infection or resolving inflammation, the serous fluid can be readily resorbed by the body without any negative consequences. Therefore, the statement that the serous fluid is readily resorbed without consequences if the cause is eliminated is true.

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  • 21. 

    What is an example of fibrinous inflammation?

    • A. 

      Serous pleural effusion

    • B. 

      Bread and butter pericarditis

    • C. 

      Acute bacterial meningitis

    • D. 

      Tuberculoma

    Correct Answer
    B. Bread and butter pericarditis
    Explanation
    Bread and butter pericarditis is an example of fibrinous inflammation. Fibrinous inflammation is characterized by the accumulation of fibrin, a protein involved in blood clotting, in the affected tissues. In bread and butter pericarditis, there is an accumulation of fibrin on the pericardium, the outer lining of the heart. This condition is typically seen in cases of acute pericarditis, where there is inflammation of the pericardium, leading to chest pain and other symptoms. The accumulation of fibrin can be visualized as a "bread and butter" appearance on imaging studies.

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  • 22. 

    Fibrinous inflammation is seen in many bacterial infections, such as Strep throat or pneumonia.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Fibrinous inflammation is indeed seen in many bacterial infections, such as Strep throat or pneumonia. When the body detects a bacterial infection, it initiates an inflammatory response to fight off the pathogens. Fibrinous inflammation occurs when there is an excess of fibrin, a protein involved in blood clotting, in the affected area. This excess fibrin forms a mesh-like structure that helps to contain the infection and prevent its spread. Therefore, the statement that fibrinous inflammation is seen in bacterial infections is true.

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  • 23. 

    Inflammation is typically caused by pus-forming bacteria such as ________ and __________.

    • A. 

      Psuedomonas Aeruginosa and Staph

    • B. 

      E. Coli and Streptococcus

    • C. 

      Staph and Stenotrophomonas

    • D. 

      Staph and Streptococcus

    Correct Answer
    D. Staph and Streptococcus
    Explanation
    Inflammation is typically caused by pus-forming bacteria such as Staph and Streptococcus. These two bacteria are commonly found in infections and can trigger an immune response in the body, leading to inflammation. Staphylococcus aureus is a type of Staph bacteria that can cause skin infections, while Streptococcus pyogenes is a type of Streptococcus bacteria that can cause strep throat and skin infections. Both bacteria have the ability to produce pus, which is a sign of inflammation.

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  • 24. 

    A localized collection of pus within an organ or tissue is called an Abscess.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    An abscess is indeed a localized collection of pus within an organ or tissue. It is typically caused by a bacterial infection and is characterized by swelling, inflammation, and the formation of a pocket of pus. Abscesses can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, teeth, and internal organs. They often require medical treatment, such as drainage and antibiotics, to promote healing and prevent complications.

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  • 25. 

    Tuberculoma (TB Abscess) is a type of purulent inflammation.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Tuberculoma, also known as TB Abscess, is indeed a type of purulent inflammation. Purulent inflammation refers to the formation of pus, which is a thick, yellowish fluid composed of dead white blood cells, bacteria, and tissue debris. In the case of tuberculoma, it is a localized collection of pus caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, which leads to the characteristic granulomatous inflammation seen in tuberculosis. Therefore, the statement "Tuberculoma (TB Abscess) is a type of purulent inflammation" is true.

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  • 26. 

    Abscesses heal on their own and do not need to be taken out.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Abcesses do not heal spontaneously and must be evacuated.

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  • 27. 

    Inflammation of body surfaces or the mucosa of hollow organs may result in a loss of epithelial linings is known as what type of inflammation?

    • A. 

      Ulcerative inflammation

    • B. 

      Purulent inflammation

    • C. 

      Fibrinous inflammation

    • D. 

      Pseudomembranous inflammation

    Correct Answer
    A. Ulcerative inflammation
    Explanation
    Ulcerative inflammation refers to the inflammation of body surfaces or the mucosa of hollow organs that leads to a loss of epithelial linings. This type of inflammation is characterized by the formation of ulcers, which are open sores on the affected tissues. Ulcers occur when the inflamed tissue breaks down and erodes, resulting in the loss of the protective epithelial layer. Ulcerative inflammation can occur in various conditions such as peptic ulcers, ulcerative colitis, or oral ulcers.

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  • 28. 

    An ulcer is defined as a defect involving the epithelium but may extend into the deeper connective tissues as well (ie peptic ulcer).

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because an ulcer is indeed defined as a defect involving the epithelium, which is the outermost layer of tissue, but it can also extend into the deeper connective tissues. This is particularly seen in peptic ulcers, which are ulcers that occur in the stomach or upper part of the small intestine. So, the statement accurately describes the nature of an ulcer.

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  • 29. 

    A form of ulcerative inflammation that is combined with fibrinopurulent exudation is known as what?

    • A. 

      Fibrinous inflammation

    • B. 

      Purulent inflammation

    • C. 

      Ulcerative inflammation

    • D. 

      Pseudomembranous inflammation

    Correct Answer
    D. Pseudomembranous inflammation
    Explanation
    Pseudomembranous inflammation is a form of ulcerative inflammation that is combined with fibrinopurulent exudation. This type of inflammation is characterized by the formation of a pseudomembrane, which is a yellowish-white membrane composed of fibrin, necrotic tissue, and inflammatory cells. It is commonly associated with infections, particularly Clostridium difficile infection, and can occur in various organs such as the gastrointestinal tract or respiratory system.

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  • 30. 

    Inflammation that lasts a long time and produces extensive tissue destruction and has a tendency to heal less readily is known as what?

    • A. 

      Acute inflammtion

    • B. 

      Ulcerative inflammation

    • C. 

      Chronic inflammation

    • D. 

      Long lasting inflammation

    Correct Answer
    C. Chronic inflammation
    Explanation
    Chronic inflammation refers to inflammation that persists over a long period of time and results in extensive tissue damage. Unlike acute inflammation, which is a short-term response to injury or infection, chronic inflammation is characterized by a prolonged immune response that can lead to tissue destruction and impaired healing. This type of inflammation is often associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic infections.

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  • 31. 

    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is an example of chronic inflammation.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs that can lead to chronic inflammation. It occurs when bacteria from the vagina or cervix spread to the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries. If left untreated, PID can cause long-term complications such as infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy. Therefore, PID is indeed an example of chronic inflammation due to the ongoing infection and resulting inflammatory response in the pelvic region.

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  • 32. 

    PMNs are present in __________ infections whereas mononuclear cells are present in____________ infections. 2 answers are correct.

    • A. 

      Chronic, acute

    • B. 

      Bacterial, viral

    • C. 

      Acute, chronic

    • D. 

      Viral, bacterial

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Bacterial, viral
    C. Acute, chronic
    Explanation
    PMNs, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes, are a type of white blood cell that are primarily involved in the body's response to bacterial infections. Therefore, they are present in bacterial infections. On the other hand, mononuclear cells, which include lymphocytes and monocytes, are more commonly associated with viral infections. Additionally, the terms "acute" and "chronic" refer to the duration and severity of an infection. Acute infections are typically short-term and severe, while chronic infections are long-term and less severe. Therefore, acute infections can be caused by both bacterial and viral pathogens, while chronic infections can also be caused by both types of pathogens.

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  • 33. 

    What is a special form of chronic inflammation that typically is not preceded by an acute, PMN-mediated inflammation?

    • A. 

      Purulent inflammation

    • B. 

      Ulcerative inflammation

    • C. 

      Psuedomembranous inflammation

    • D. 

      Granulomatous inflammation

    Correct Answer
    D. Granulomatous inflammation
    Explanation
    Granulomatous inflammation is a special form of chronic inflammation that is not typically preceded by an acute, PMN-mediated inflammation. In this type of inflammation, immune cells form granulomas, which are small collections of immune cells that surround and isolate foreign substances or pathogens in the body. Granulomatous inflammation is often associated with conditions such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and Crohn's disease.

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  • 34. 

    Tuberculosis is the prototype granulomatous disease, as are certain fungal diseases.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because tuberculosis is indeed considered the prototype granulomatous disease. Granulomatous diseases are characterized by the formation of granulomas, which are small nodules of immune cells that surround and isolate infectious agents. Tuberculosis is a prime example of a granulomatous disease, as it is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and leads to the formation of granulomas in the lungs. Additionally, certain fungal diseases, such as histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis, also exhibit granulomatous inflammation. Hence, the statement is accurate.

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  • 35. 

    Granulomatous reactions are mediated by macrophages and T-lymphocytes that accumulate at the site of injury, forming nodules.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Granulomatous reactions are characterized by the accumulation of macrophages and T-lymphocytes at the site of injury, leading to the formation of nodules. These immune cells work together to form granulomas, which are organized structures that help contain and eliminate foreign substances or persistent antigens. Macrophages play a crucial role in engulfing and presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, which in turn release cytokines to activate and recruit more immune cells to the site. Therefore, the statement is true as granulomatous reactions indeed involve the participation of macrophages and T-lymphocytes.

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  • 36. 

    Epithelioid cells are motile and phagocytic.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Macrophages are motile and phagocytic, epithelioid cells are immobile and produce secretory products that act as mediators of inflammation.

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  • 37. 

    In what type of inflammation of epithelioid cells fuse to form multi-nucleated giant cells found on the rim of the granulomas?

    • A. 

      Purulent inflammation

    • B. 

      Ulcerative inflammation

    • C. 

      Caseating inflammation

    • D. 

      Granulomatous inflammation

    • E. 

      Casserole inflammation

    Correct Answer
    D. Granulomatous inflammation
    Explanation
    In granulomatous inflammation, epithelioid cells fuse together to form multi-nucleated giant cells on the rim of the granulomas. This type of inflammation is characterized by the formation of granulomas, which are collections of immune cells that surround and isolate foreign substances, such as bacteria or fungi, that cannot be eliminated by the immune system. The fusion of epithelioid cells into giant cells helps to enhance the immune response and contain the foreign substance within the granuloma.

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  • 38. 

    Granulomas destroy tissue and tend to persist for a long time.

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Granulomas are small areas of inflammation that form in response to an infection, foreign substance, or autoimmune disease. They are characterized by the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes. Granulomas can cause tissue destruction due to the release of enzymes and toxic substances by these immune cells. They can persist for a long time because the underlying cause of the inflammation may not be completely resolved or because the immune response is ongoing. Therefore, the statement that granulomas destroy tissue and tend to persist for a long time is true.

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  • 39. 

    Give examples of granulomatous inflammation.

    • A. 

      TB, chonic cervicitis, and colitis

    • B. 

      Duodenal ulcer and histoplasma

    • C. 

      Pericarditis, TB, and peritonitis

    • D. 

      TB, histoplasma, and coccidiodes

    • E. 

      Tuna noodle casserole and tuberculosis

    Correct Answer
    D. TB, histoplasma, and coccidiodes
    Explanation
    Granulomatous inflammation is characterized by the formation of granulomas, which are clusters of immune cells that surround and isolate foreign substances or pathogens. Tuberculosis (TB), histoplasma, and coccidiodes are all examples of infectious diseases that can cause granulomatous inflammation. In these conditions, the immune system attempts to contain the invading pathogens by forming granulomas around them. This response can lead to the formation of nodules or granulomas in affected tissues, such as the lungs in TB or the liver in histoplasmosis.

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