Developmental Psychology Midterm Quiz Chapters 1-5

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Developmental Psychology Midterm Quiz Chapters 1-5 - Quiz

Review of ch 1 and 2 then more extensive questions on chapters 3-5. Questions are from the book human development, eleventh edition by Diane papalia, Sally wendkos-olds, Ruth duskin-feldman.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The concept of a lifelong process of development that can be studied scientifically is known as what?

    • A.

      Longtime development

    • B.

      Life-span development

    • C.

      Childhood development

    • D.

      Social development

    Correct Answer
    B. Life-span development
    Explanation
    Life-span development refers to the study of human development across the entire lifespan, from conception to death. It recognizes that development is a lifelong process and involves changes and continuity in physical, cognitive, and socioemotional domains. This concept acknowledges that development occurs in multiple contexts and is influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and culture. By studying life-span development, researchers gain insights into how individuals grow, change, and adapt throughout their lives, leading to a better understanding of human behavior and well-being.

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  • 2. 

    Life-span studies are based on which of the following ideas?

    • A.

      There is little continuity over the life span

    • B.

      Development occurs early in life, not during adulthood

    • C.

      Every portion of the life span is influenced by earlier events and will affect later events

    • D.

      There is no development that takes place in the late adulthood stage

    Correct Answer
    C. Every portion of the life span is influenced by earlier events and will affect later events
    Explanation
    Life-span studies are based on the idea that every portion of the life span is influenced by earlier events and will affect later events. This means that development is a continuous process that is shaped by previous experiences and will have an impact on future experiences. It recognizes the importance of early life experiences but also emphasizes that development continues throughout the entire life span, including adulthood and late adulthood. This perspective highlights the interconnectedness and cumulative nature of development.

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  • 3. 

    Name the 3 major domains of development that developmental scientists study: (separate them by commas =] )

    Correct Answer
    physical, cognitive, psychosocial
    Explanation
    Developmental scientists study three major domains of development: physical, cognitive, and psychosocial. The physical domain refers to changes in the body and its biological processes, such as growth, motor skills, and puberty. The cognitive domain involves changes in thinking, problem-solving, memory, and language abilities. Lastly, the psychosocial domain encompasses changes in emotions, social interactions, personality, and identity development. By studying these three domains, developmental scientists gain a comprehensive understanding of human development from infancy to adulthood.

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  • 4. 

    Division of the lifespan into periods is a

    • A.

      Social construction

    • B.

      Intellectual construction

    • C.

      Physical construction

    • D.

      Cognitive construction

    Correct Answer
    A. Social construction
    Explanation
    The division of the lifespan into periods refers to the categorization of different stages or phases of life, such as childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. This categorization is not based on any physical or biological factors, but rather on social and cultural norms and expectations. It is a social construction because it is created and defined by society, and varies across different cultures and historical periods.

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  • 5. 

    Tentative explanations or predictions that can be scientifically tested are called

    • A.

      Research findings

    • B.

      Theories

    • C.

      Conclusions

    • D.

      Hypotheses

    Correct Answer
    D. Hypotheses
    Explanation
    Hypotheses are tentative explanations or predictions that can be scientifically tested. They are educated guesses or proposed explanations for a phenomenon or observation. Hypotheses are formulated based on existing knowledge and are used to guide scientific research and experimentation. They are essential in the scientific method as they provide a framework for testing and gathering evidence to support or refute the proposed explanation.

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  • 6. 

    Organismic theorists emphasize ____________ change, while mechanistic theorists emphasize ____________ change

    Correct Answer
    qualitative, quantitative
    Explanation
    Organismic theorists emphasize qualitative change, focusing on the development and transformation of an organism as a whole. They believe that development occurs through stages and that individuals undergo fundamental qualitative shifts in their thinking, behavior, and understanding of the world. On the other hand, mechanistic theorists emphasize quantitative change, focusing on incremental and measurable changes in specific aspects of development. They believe that development occurs through gradual accumulation of knowledge, skills, and behaviors, without significant qualitative shifts.

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  • 7. 

    There are 5 theoretical perspectives to the study of the developmental processes. Name 2 of the 5 and give a brief explanation of each.

  • 8. 

    ___________ __________ also called fraternal twins are conceived by te union of two different ova with two different sperm cells. ___________ _________ also called identical twins result from the dvision of a single zygote after fertilization.

    • A.

      Monozygotic twins; dizygotic twins

    • B.

      Fertilization; zygote

    • C.

      Dizygotic twins; monozygotic twins

    • D.

      Triplets; quadruplets

    Correct Answer
    C. Dizygotic twins; monozygotic twins
    Explanation
    Dizygotic twins, also called fraternal twins, are conceived by the union of two different ova with two different sperm cells. Monozygotic twins, also called identical twins, result from the division of a single zygote after fertilization.

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  • 9. 

    The unique cell divion of the sex cells is called

    • A.

      Meiosis

    • B.

      Mitosis

    • C.

      Autosome

    • D.

      Human genome

    Correct Answer
    A. Meiosis
    Explanation
    Meiosis is the correct answer because it refers to the unique cell division process that occurs in sex cells, such as sperm and egg cells. During meiosis, the number of chromosomes in the parent cell is halved, resulting in the formation of genetically diverse haploid cells. This process is essential for sexual reproduction, as it ensures that the offspring receive a combination of genetic material from both parents. Mitosis, on the other hand, is the cell division process that occurs in somatic cells, leading to the production of genetically identical diploid cells. Autosomes are non-sex chromosomes, and the human genome refers to the complete set of genetic material in humans.

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  • 10. 

    How many pairs of chromosomes does the normal human being have?

    • A.

      22

    • B.

      23

    • C.

      44

    • D.

      46

    Correct Answer
    B. 23
    Explanation
    The normal human being has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each pair consists of two chromosomes, one inherited from the mother and one from the father, making a total of 46 chromosomes in a human cell. These chromosomes contain genetic information that determines various traits and characteristics of an individual.

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  • 11. 

    The increased use of fertility drugs, along with delayed childbearing, has resulted in:

    • A.

      An increase in fetal deaths

    • B.

      A decrease in fetal deaths

    • C.

      A decrease in multiple births

    • D.

      An increase in multiple births

    • E.

      No change

    Correct Answer
    D. An increase in multiple births
    Explanation
    The increased use of fertility drugs, along with delayed childbearing, has resulted in an increase in multiple births. Fertility drugs can stimulate the ovaries to release multiple eggs, increasing the chances of multiple pregnancies. Additionally, delayed childbearing means that women are more likely to undergo fertility treatments, which further increases the likelihood of multiple births. Therefore, the combination of these factors has led to an increase in the number of pregnancies with twins, triplets, or even higher-order multiples.

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  • 12. 

    A person's observable characteristics are his/her:

    • A.

      Genotype

    • B.

      Phenotype

    • C.

      Genetic imprint

    • D.

      Alleles

    Correct Answer
    B. Phenotype
    Explanation
    Phenotype refers to the observable characteristics of an individual, including physical traits, behavior, and any other observable features. It is determined by a combination of genetic factors (genotype) and environmental influences. The phenotype is the result of the interaction between an individual's genes and their environment, which can cause variations in the expression of certain traits. Therefore, the correct answer is phenotype.

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  • 13. 

    The most common chromosomal abnormality is _________ _________ where there is an extra chromosome # __. (separate answers by a comma)

    Correct Answer
    Down's syndrome, 21
    Explanation
    Down's syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality characterized by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21. This condition occurs due to a random error during cell division, resulting in an individual having three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the usual two. This extra chromosome leads to various physical and intellectual disabilities associated with Down's syndrome.

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  • 14. 

    Tendancy of a person, especially after early childhood, to seek out environments compatible with his or her genotype.

    • A.

      Genotype-environment correlation

    • B.

      Active correlation

    • C.

      Passive correlation

    • D.

      Niche-picking

    Correct Answer
    D. Niche-picking
    Explanation
    Niche-picking refers to the tendency of individuals, particularly after early childhood, to actively seek out environments that align with their genotype. This means that individuals choose environments that are compatible with their genetic predispositions or traits. This can include selecting hobbies, careers, or social groups that align with their genetic tendencies. Niche-picking is a form of genotype-environment correlation, where individuals actively shape their own environment based on their genetic makeup.

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  • 15. 

    A psychological disorder marked by loss of contact with reality and demonstrating such symptoms as hallucinations and delusions, which also seem to have a strong genetic component, is:

    • A.

      Neuroticism

    • B.

      Depression

    • C.

      Schizophrenia

    • D.

      Mental retardation

    Correct Answer
    C. Schizophrenia
    Explanation
    Schizophrenia is a psychological disorder characterized by a loss of contact with reality, including symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. It is believed to have a strong genetic component, meaning that individuals with a family history of schizophrenia are more likely to develop the disorder. Neuroticism refers to a personality trait characterized by emotional instability and anxiety, while depression is a mood disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness and hopelessness. Mental retardation refers to a developmental disorder characterized by intellectual disabilities.

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  • 16. 

    What are the names of the stages of prenatal development and give the time/duration of each and  a brief description of what happens during that period:

  • 17. 

    The name for a leading cause of mental retardation caused by mothers who drink alcohol heavily during their pregnancies is:

    • A.

      Drinker's syndrome

    • B.

      Fetal alcohol syndrome

    • C.

      Drunk woman's syndrome

    • D.

      Mental retardation syndrome

    Correct Answer
    B. Fetal alcohol syndrome
    Explanation
    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the correct answer because it accurately describes the condition where heavy alcohol consumption by mothers during pregnancy leads to mental retardation in their babies. This syndrome is caused by the toxic effects of alcohol on the developing fetus, leading to various physical and cognitive impairments. The other options, drinker's syndrome, drunk woman's syndrome, and mental retardation syndrome, do not specifically refer to the relationship between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and mental retardation.

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  • 18. 

    The genetic-environment correlation where children with different genetic makeups evoke responses from adults that strengthen the child's genetic inclinations is called:

    • A.

      Passive correlations

    • B.

      Active correlations

    • C.

      Reactive correlations

    • D.

      Niche-picking

    Correct Answer
    C. Reactive correlations
    Explanation
    Reactive correlations refer to the genetic-environment correlation where children with different genetic makeups evoke responses from adults that strengthen the child's genetic inclinations. This means that the child's behavior or characteristics elicit certain reactions or responses from the adults in their environment, which in turn reinforce and support the child's genetic predispositions. Unlike passive correlations where the child's genetic makeup is simply matched with a corresponding environment or niche-picking where the child actively selects environments that align with their genetic inclinations, reactive correlations involve the child's behavior shaping the responses they receive from others.

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  • 19. 

    THE PROCESS OF GIVING BIRTH IS CALLED ________

    Correct Answer
    labor
    Explanation
    The process of giving birth is called labor. This term refers to the series of contractions that a woman experiences during childbirth, which help to push the baby out of the uterus and into the world. Labor can be a long and intense process, often accompanied by pain and discomfort. It is a natural and necessary part of the reproductive cycle for most mammalian species, including humans.

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  • 20. 

    What are the stages in the childbirth process

  • 21. 

    How many stages are in the birthing process

    • A.

      6

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      4

    • D.

      3

    Correct Answer
    D. 3
    Explanation
    The birthing process typically consists of three stages. The first stage is the longest and involves the dilation and thinning of the cervix. The second stage is the pushing stage, where the baby is delivered. The third stage is the delivery of the placenta.

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  • 22. 

    An apparently normal infant who dies in his or her sleep probably suffered from

    • A.

      Respiratory distress syndrome

    • B.

      Hyaline membrane syndrome

    • C.

      Suddent infant death syndrome

    • D.

      Down's syndrome

    Correct Answer
    C. Suddent infant death syndrome
    Explanation
    An apparently normal infant who dies in his or her sleep probably suffered from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). SIDS is the sudden and unexplained death of an otherwise healthy infant, usually during sleep. It is a devastating and tragic event that typically occurs in the first year of life. The exact cause of SIDS is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of factors such as an underlying vulnerability in the infant, an immature central nervous system, and external stressors like sleeping on the stomach or exposure to tobacco smoke.

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  • 23. 

    Cesarean deliveries have ________ since 1996. It is commmonly performed when labor progresses too ___________.

    • A.

      Increased; rapidly

    • B.

      Decreased; rapidly

    • C.

      Increased; slowly

    • D.

      Decreased; slowly

    Correct Answer
    C. Increased; slowly
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "increased; slowly". This means that the number of cesarean deliveries has been gradually rising since 1996. Cesarean deliveries are typically performed when labor is not progressing as expected, and this method of delivery has become more common over time.

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  • 24. 

    A baby can: typically hold its head at ____ monthspick up a moderate sized object at about _____ monthstypcially develop a pinsor grasp at ______ months.

    • A.

      3; 3 1/2; 7-11

    • B.

      3 1/2; 7-11; 3

    • C.

      2 1/2; 4; 6-12

    • D.

      2 1/2; 3 1/2; 9 1/2

    Correct Answer
    A. 3; 3 1/2; 7-11
  • 25. 

    According to the class notes, at what age can a child:build a tower of 2 cubes sit (unassisted)roll overcrawlwalk (unassisted)

  • 26. 

    What are gross motor skills?what are fine motor skills?

  • 27. 

    Looking to cargivers for clues as to whether a situation is secure or frightening is

    • A.

      Self locomotion

    • B.

      Habituation

    • C.

      Dishabituation

    • D.

      Social referencing

    Correct Answer
    D. Social referencing
    Explanation
    Social referencing refers to the behavior of looking to others, particularly caregivers, for cues or clues about how to react in a certain situation. This behavior is seen in infants and young children who are unsure about the safety or security of a particular situation. By observing the reactions of their caregivers, they are able to gauge whether the situation is secure or frightening. This helps them regulate their own emotions and behavior accordingly.

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  • 28. 

    Name 3 of the 5 characteristics of early speech.

  • 29. 

    What are the three memory systems?

    • A.

      Behaviorist, psychometric, information-processing

    • B.

      Implicit, explicit, working

    • C.

      Causality, categorization,object permenance

    Correct Answer
    B. Implicit, explicit, working
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "implicit, explicit, working." These three memory systems are commonly recognized in cognitive psychology. Implicit memory refers to unconscious memories that affect behavior or performance without conscious awareness. Explicit memory involves conscious recollection of facts and events. Working memory is a temporary storage system that holds and manipulates information for cognitive tasks. These three memory systems play different roles in encoding, storing, and retrieving information, and understanding them helps in studying and understanding human memory processes.

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  • 30. 

    Unconscious recall, generally of habits and skills is:

    • A.

      Implicit memory

    • B.

      Explicit memory

    • C.

      Working memory

    Correct Answer
    A. Implicit memory
    Explanation
    Implicit memory refers to the unconscious recall of habits and skills. It is a type of long-term memory that is not consciously accessible but influences our behavior and actions. Implicit memory is responsible for automatic processes and behaviors that we perform without conscious effort or awareness. This type of memory is different from explicit memory, which involves conscious recollection of facts and events. Working memory, on the other hand, refers to the temporary storage and manipulation of information needed for cognitive tasks.

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  • 31. 

    Intentional and conscious memory, generally of facts names and events is :

    • A.

      Implicit memory

    • B.

      Explicit memory

    • C.

      Working memory

    Correct Answer
    B. Explicit memory
    Explanation
    Explicit memory refers to the intentional and conscious recollection of facts, names, and events. It involves the conscious effort to retrieve information from long-term memory. This type of memory is characterized by the ability to consciously recall and verbalize specific details. It is the opposite of implicit memory, which involves unconscious retrieval of information without conscious awareness. Working memory, on the other hand, refers to the temporary storage and manipulation of information needed for cognitive tasks. Therefore, explicit memory is the correct answer in this case.

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  • 32. 

    Short-term storage of information beign processed is

    • A.

      Implicit memory

    • B.

      Explicit memory

    • C.

      Working memory

    Correct Answer
    C. Working memory
    Explanation
    Working memory refers to the temporary storage and manipulation of information that is currently being processed. It is responsible for holding and manipulating information in the mind for a short period of time, typically a few seconds. Unlike explicit memory, which involves conscious and intentional retrieval of information, working memory is more automatic and unconscious. Implicit memory, on the other hand, refers to the long-term storage and retrieval of information without conscious awareness. Therefore, the correct answer is working memory as it accurately describes the short-term storage of information being processed.

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  • 33. 

    Which one of these is not a type of reading style?

    • A.

      Describer

    • B.

      Comprehender

    • C.

      Code swithcing

    • D.

      Performance-oriented

    Correct Answer
    C. Code swithcing
    Explanation
    The given options describe different types of reading styles. "Describer" refers to someone who describes or explains the content they read. "Comprehender" refers to someone who focuses on understanding and interpreting the meaning of the text. "Performance-oriented" refers to someone who reads with the intention of performing or presenting the information. "Code switching" is not a type of reading style, but rather a linguistic term that describes the practice of alternating between different languages or dialects in a conversation or text.

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  • 34. 

    Piaget's term for the understanding that when a person or object still exists when out of sight:

    • A.

      Object concept

    • B.

      Object permenance

    • C.

      Dual representation hypothesis

    • D.

      Syntax

    Correct Answer
    B. Object permenance
    Explanation
    Object permanence is Piaget's term for the understanding that objects or people continue to exist even when they are out of sight. It is the ability to mentally represent and remember objects that are no longer visible. This concept is considered a major milestone in cognitive development, as infants initially lack this understanding and believe that objects cease to exist when they are not in their immediate field of vision. The development of object permanence allows individuals to engage in more complex forms of play, problem-solving, and social interactions.

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  • 35. 

    Increase in responsiveness after presentation of a new stimulus is:

    • A.

      Dishabituation

    • B.

      Habituation

    • C.

      Visual preference

    • D.

      Novelty preference

    Correct Answer
    A. Dishabituation
    Explanation
    Dishabituation refers to an increase in responsiveness after the presentation of a new stimulus. It occurs when a previously habituated response is renewed due to the introduction of a novel or unexpected stimulus. This can be seen in various contexts, such as when a person becomes habituated to a repeated sound and then becomes responsive again when a different sound is introduced. Therefore, dishabituation is the correct answer in this case.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
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