Chapter 4 Adhering To Medical Advice

25 Questions | Total Attempts: 676

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Medical Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of these attitudes does NOT represent a health risk from failure to take prescription medicine according to directions?
    • A. 

      "if my medication makes me feel bad, I take it anyway"

    • B. 

      "when I feel ill, I frequently take medication left over from a previous illness"

    • C. 

      "I usually stop taking my medicine whenever I begin to feel better"

    • D. 

      "if I start to feel worse after taking my medicine, I quit taking it"

  • 2. 
    Negative reinforcement ___ behavior.
    • A. 

      Strengthens

    • B. 

      Blocks out

    • C. 

      Weakens

    • D. 

      Punishes behavior

  • 3. 
    Research conducted on the compliance of children with asthma revealed that
    • A. 

      Behavioral techniques were largely effective

    • B. 

      Beahvioral techniques were effective, but lack of an educational component was a drawback

    • C. 

      The children named rewards as the most effective approach

    • D. 

      Children responded to rewards but adolescents did not

  • 4. 
    Self-efficacy is an important element of the
    • A. 

      Reciprocal determinism model

    • B. 

      Transtheoretical model

    • C. 

      Theory of planned behavior

    • D. 

      Theory of reasoned action

  • 5. 
    Research on smoking relapse, adherence to an exercise regimen, and adherence to diabetic diet has shown that
    • A. 

      Those with high self-efficacy quikcly relapsed

    • B. 

      Those with high self-efficacy were more likely to be adherent

    • C. 

      Self-efficacy has a negative correlation with adherence

    • D. 

      Self-efficacy is an advantage for smoking relapse but is not important for exercise or diet.

  • 6. 
    The theory of reasoned action assumes that people's behavioral intentions are partially shaped by their subjective norms, that is, their
    • A. 

      Belief that they can exercise some degree of control over their actions

    • B. 

      View of the importance that other people place on their behavior

    • C. 

      Motivation to engage in a given action

    • D. 

      View of other people's willingness to perform a given action

  • 7. 
    Morton is 90 pounds overweight and has both high blood pressure and high serum cholesterol. However, it has never occurred to MOrton that he might be a candidate for cardiovascular disease if he does not change his lifestyle. According to Prochaska's transtheoretical theory, MOrton is in the ___ stage.
    • A. 

      Precontemplation

    • B. 

      Maintenance

    • C. 

      Contemplation

    • D. 

      Relapse

  • 8. 
    Central to the transtheoretical model is the assumption that both behavior change and relapse take the shape of a
    • A. 

      Triangle

    • B. 

      Rectangle

    • C. 

      Spiral

    • D. 

      Cone

  • 9. 
    Kayla is 30 pounds underweight, seldom eats more than two or three peas a day, but still believes she is too fat. According to Prochaska's transtheoretical model, the proper intervention in this case should be aimed towards
    • A. 

      Placing Kayla into a hospital

    • B. 

      Convincing Kayla that she has a problem behavior

    • C. 

      Educating Kayla about proper nutrition

    • D. 

      Helping Kayla maintain her current weight

  • 10. 
    According to the transtheoretical model, relapse
    • A. 

      Is most likely from the maintenance stage

    • B. 

      Is most likely from the action stage

    • C. 

      Is possible from any stage

    • D. 

      Is unlikely past the action stage but more likely in earlier stages

  • 11. 
    In recent years, many health psychologists have suggested alternative terms for compliance largely because the word suggests
    • A. 

      A servile yielding to outside pressure

    • B. 

      Conformity

    • C. 

      Cooperation

    • D. 

      A defiant yielding to outside pressure

  • 12. 
    The LEAST accurate method of assessing rate of compliance is to
    • A. 

      Ask the clinican

    • B. 

      Ask the patient

    • C. 

      Ask the patient's family

    • D. 

      Count pills

  • 13. 
    The pill cap microprocessor is an improved variation of which method of assessing adherence?
    • A. 

      Physician judgment

    • B. 

      Patient judgment

    • C. 

      Examination of biochemical evidence

    • D. 

      Pill count method

  • 14. 
    Older studies found a general rate of noncompliance around ___; more recent studies show a rate of ___.
    • A. 

      25%...50%

    • B. 

      50%...25%

    • C. 

      75%...over 90%

    • D. 

      Close to 0...50%

  • 15. 
    What sort of illness is MOST likely to elicit compliance with medical advice?
    • A. 

      A life-threatening illness

    • B. 

      A chronic illness

    • C. 

      A hereditary disorder

    • D. 

      An illness with painful symptoms

  • 16. 
    Noncompliance rises abruptly when the prescription requires the patient to take one pill
    • A. 

      Once a day

    • B. 

      Twice a day

    • C. 

      Three times a day

    • D. 

      Four times a day

  • 17. 
    The relationship between adherence and age is complex. For example, one study (Thomas et al., 1995) found that age had a(n) ___ relationahip with adherence to colorectal screening.
    • A. 

      Inverse

    • B. 

      Direct

    • C. 

      Curvilinear

    • D. 

      Dose response

  • 18. 
    The noncompliant personality
    • A. 

      Has not been found to exist

    • B. 

      Is more common amoung men than among women

    • C. 

      Is less common among well-educated people

    • D. 

      Is more common among the elderly

  • 19. 
    The effects of anxiety on failures to comply are ___, and the effects of depression are ___.
    • A. 

      Small...also small

    • B. 

      Small...large

    • C. 

      Large...also large

    • D. 

      Large...small

  • 20. 
    Which type of social support is beneficial for compliance?
    • A. 

      Living with family

    • B. 

      Belonging to a large family, even one that experiences a lot of conflict

    • C. 

      Being married

    • D. 

      Both a & c

  • 21. 
    Which of these patient-practitioner interaction variables is the best predictor of a patient's compliance?
    • A. 

      A physician who explains in detail the procedures that should be undertaken by the patient

    • B. 

      The patient's perception of the physicians as someone of equal status

    • C. 

      A patient who has spent at least one hour waiting in the physician's waiting room

    • D. 

      A patient who had to wait at least one month in order to see the physician

  • 22. 
    Compared with male physicians, female physicians
    • A. 

      Spend less time with each patient

    • B. 

      Ask more questions of patients

    • C. 

      Make more negative statements to their patients

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 23. 
    When defining adherence as maintaining a healthy lifestyle, making and keeping appointments with physicians and dentists, and obtaining all the recommended tests and screenings,
    • A. 

      Almost no one is fully adherent

    • B. 

      Adherence is about 25%

    • C. 

      Adherence is about 50%

    • D. 

      Adherence is low for younger adults but high for older adults

  • 24. 
    Which strategy is LEAST likely to improve rate of adherence?
    • A. 

      Clearly written instructions

    • B. 

      Verbal rewards

    • C. 

      Verbal punishments

    • D. 

      Prompts from the patient's spouse

  • 25. 
    Health psychologists have been LEAST involved in
    • A. 

      Determining which medical advice is valid and which is not

    • B. 

      Determining those factors that predict compliance to medical advice

    • C. 

      Developing programs to improve compliance

    • D. 

      Developing models to explain reasons for noncompliance

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