# Binocular Vision - Midterm 1

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Questions: 19 | Attempts: 3,256

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• 1.

### A change in the relative magnification at the fixation point of the two eyes will result in which of the following changes?

• A.

No change on the y-intercept

• B.

Tilting of the horopter

• C.

A negative slope value

• D.

A increase in the abathic distance

B. Tilting of the horopter
Explanation
A change in the relative magnification at the fixation point of the two eyes can result in the tilting of the horopter. The horopter is the imaginary surface in space where objects appear single when fixated upon. When there is a change in the relative magnification, it can cause a misalignment in the images seen by each eye, leading to a tilt in the horopter. This means that the perceived location of objects in space may be distorted, causing a shift in the alignment of the horopter.

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• 2.

### Which of the following statements is false regarding corresponding points

• A.

When corresponding points fall outside of Panum's fusional area you see diplopia

• B.

Corresponding points are typically perceived as the same distance from the subject

• C.

Corresponding points give rise to the same visual direction

• D.

The geometric representation of corresponding points is referred to as the Vieth Muller circle

• E.

The Hering Hillebrand horopter deviation is calculated when the corresponding points on the horopter are evenly spaced.

E. The Hering Hillebrand horopter deviation is calculated when the corresponding points on the horopter are evenly spaced.
Explanation
pg. 17

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• 3.

### When the horopter changes shape at different fixation distances, what happens to the value of the Hering-Hillebrand deviation?

• A.

It increases

• B.

It decreases

• C.

It does not change

• D.

It will increase by multiples of 2 depending on the fixation distance

• E.

The horopter does not change shapes and the value of the Hering-Hillebrand deviation becomes more negative at further fixation distances.

C. It does not change
Explanation
pg. 22 and diagrams on pg. 20

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• 4.

### What are the TWO assumptions that the theoretical horopter is based on?

• A.

Eyes are non-strabismic

• B.

Eyes are spherical

• C.

The corresponding retinal points are symmetrically distributed across the retina in each eye

• D.

A fixed distance is assumed to establish the horopter

B. Eyes are spHerical
C. The corresponding retinal points are symmetrically distributed across the retina in each eye
Explanation
The theoretical horopter is based on the assumptions that eyes are spherical and that the corresponding retinal points are symmetrically distributed across the retina in each eye. These assumptions are important because they help in determining the point of fixation and the binocular disparity, which is necessary for depth perception. The spherical shape of the eyes ensures that the light rays converge at the fovea, while the symmetric distribution of retinal points allows for the fusion of the two retinal images. These assumptions also help in establishing a fixed distance for the horopter, as they provide a consistent reference point for the visual system.

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• 5.

### Which of the following conditions describe objective visual space?

• A.

Boundaries are finite; when objects move around they can change shape and size

• B.

The area from object to the retina

• C.

Boundaries infinite and measurable space; when objects move around they stay the same size and shape

• D.

It is composed of 3 parts the body space and the peripersonal space and extrapersonal space

C. Boundaries infinite and measurable space; when objects move around they stay the same size and shape
Explanation
Option 4 and Option 1 - refer to subjective visual space; the perceived, phenomenal or experiential spaces

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• 6.

### You are performing test with a patient and measuring their horopter. You move the LEFT horopter rod closer to the left side of the subject. Which of the following statements is then TRUE?

• A.

It will not change either the right or left external longitudinal angle (alpha 1 or alpha 2)

• B.

The angular distance b/t the fixation point and the horopter point (P prime) is decreased as compared to the angle b/t the fixation point and the original horopter point P

• C.

Moving the horopter rod closer to the subject in the left visual field (from P to P prime) does NOT change the external longitudinal angle alpha 1.

• D.

The shape of the Vieth-muller circle changed shape

C. Moving the horopter rod closer to the subject in the left visual field (from P to P prime) does NOT change the external longitudinal angle alpHa 1.
Explanation
Option 4 is false b/c the VM circle changes shape at each fixation distance. In this case we only changed the position of the rod not the fixation distance.

DRAW the diagram!
View test file pg. 263, problem 6.

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• 7.

### The grid nonius and the tangent plane horopter setups are both for determining the IVD horopter. Which of the following is the advantage of the tangent plane setup?

• A.

The targets are in real space

• B.

The test has a monocular element

• C.

It utilizes a binocular fixation target

• D.

It can determine corresponding retinal point in patients with anomalous binocular vision

D. It can determine corresponding retinal point in patients with anomalous binocular vision
Explanation
Options 1 - 3 are similarities b/t the two methods

View test file page 265 problem 2 and manual pg. 11

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• 8.

### Which of the following describes the Hering-Hildebrand  Horopter constant H (deviation)?

• A.

On the analytical plot it is represented as the Y - intercept

• B.

On the analytical plot it is represented as the slope

• C.

On the spatial plot it is represented as the curvature of the horopter with respect to the Vieth - Muller circle

• D.

On the spatial plot it is represented as the skew of the horopter around the fixation point.

• E.

It is perceived as non-uniform relative magnification

• F.

It is perceived as uniform relative magnifcation (b/t eyes)across the visual field

B. On the analytical plot it is represented as the slope
C. On the spatial plot it is represented as the curvature of the horopter with respect to the Vieth - Muller circle
E. It is perceived as non-uniform relative magnification
Explanation
Pg. 26 in the manual

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• 9.

### Which of the following describes the Hering-Hildebrand Horopter constant Ro?

• A.

On the analytical plot it is represented as the Y - intercept

• B.

On the analytical plot it is represented as the slope

• C.

On the spatial plot it is represented as the curvature of the horopter with respect to the Vieth - Muller circle

• D.

On the spatial plot it is represented as the skew of the horopter around the fixation point.

• E.

It is perceived as non-uniform relative magnification

• F.

It is perceived as uniform relative magnifcation (b/t eyes)across the visual field

A. On the analytical plot it is represented as the Y - intercept
D. On the spatial plot it is represented as the skew of the horopter around the fixation point.
E. It is perceived as non-uniform relative magnification
F. It is perceived as uniform relative magnifcation (b/t eyes)across the visual field
Explanation
Pg. 26 in the manual

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• 10.

### If your patient tells you that " it looks like the top of the object is closer to me and the bottom is further", what kind of retina disparity is occuring?

• A.

The inferior retina has temporal disparity and the superior retina has nasal disparity

• B.

The inferior retina has nasal disparity and the superior retina has temporal disparity

• C.

The patient is developing aniseikonia

• D.

The patient is exhibiting Kundt asymmetry

• E.

The patient is exhibiting Munsterberg asymmetry

A. The inferior retina has temporal disparity and the superior retina has nasal disparity
Explanation
Question was developed based on our assigned problem set, problem # 6

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• 11.

### Your patient is really cute, so just to spend more time with them you decide to have them do a horopter experiement. What does the spatial plot and perceieved space for the subject look like when you put a 3% axis 90 magnifier over the left eye BEFORE the horopter experiment is started.

• A.

The horopter rods appear to tilt away from them

• B.

The horopter rods appear to tilt toward them

• C.

The horopter rods appear the same

• D.

The horopter rods uniformally appear smaller in size

• E.

The horopter rods uniformally appear larger in size

A. The horopter rods appear to tilt away from them
Explanation
Based off the test file quizzes, e.g pg. 267.

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• 12.

### Select the statement that is false with regard to the 5 different horopter criteria

• A.

The identical visual direction horopter is the the purest measure but difficult to perform

• B.

Singleness takes advantage of Panum's area. The horopter points will lie in the middle of the region of single vision. This a more theoretical method and not done often according to Dr. Borsting

• C.

The appatent frontoparallel plane horopter is the most difficult to measure and often requires expensive equipment

• D.

Zero vergence consists of points in space seen as equidistant wil not stimulate motor fusion. This is a strictly objective measure.

• E.

Minimum Steroacuity Threshold test the region where you have maximum stereoacuity. You would look at the patient's ability to detect changes in depth as they fixate on a rod and the rod moves.

C. The appatent frontoparallel plane horopter is the most difficult to measure and often requires expensive equipment
Explanation
Option 3 - is false. Method can be done with pencils. The locations perceived as lying in the same distance from the subject as the fixation point. This is the EASIEST to measure

View manual pg. 11

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• 13.

### A 6% overall magnifier is placed before the subject's left eye. Which of the following statements is considered false based on that information?

• A.

A 6% overall magnifier is composed of a 6% x 090 and a 6% x 180 magnifier

• B.

The 6% x 180 magnifier over the left eye is like having a 4% x 090 magnifier over the right eye. This induced effect is 2/3 of the geometric effect.

• C.

The horopter is skewed toward the left eye

• D.

The net result of the 6% overall magnifier is 2% x 090 effective magnification OS.

• E.

The horopter does not change shape

E. The horopter does not change shape
Explanation
Based off test file question - pg. 271 problem 6. Person got full credit and this concept was discussed in lab.

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• 14.

### Select the false statement

• A.

Induced aniseikonia is a retinal image size difference caused by a special lens such as an afocal magnifier or size lens.

• B.

Neural or essential aniseikonia is a small non-optical aniseikonia that occurs with the images should be optically equal but are perceived as different.

• C.

In the geometric effect the patient would perceive the plane rotated toward the eye with the magnifying lens

C. In the geometric effect the patient would perceive the plane rotated toward the eye with the magnifying lens
Explanation
The false statement is that in the geometric effect, the patient would perceive the plane rotated toward the eye with the magnifying lens.

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• 15.

### Which of the following statements is false regarding the tolerance of Aniseikonia?

• A.

It may be an indicator of eccentricity

• B.

Greater than 5% will affect stereopsis

• C.

1-2% usually tolerated

• D.

Greater than 20% eliminate binocular vision.

A. It may be an indicator of eccentricity
Explanation
Option 1 is in regards to induced effect

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• 16.

### If you have oblique magnification occuring in the 45 degree in the OS and magnification in the 135 degree in the OD, what will the upper part of the image look like?

• A.

The upper part of the image looks closer and smaller

• B.

The upper part of the image looks farther away and larger

• C.

The upper part of the image looks farther away and smaller

• D.

The upper part of the image looks closer and larger

B. The upper part of the image looks farther away and larger
Explanation
When oblique magnification occurs at a 45-degree angle in the OS (left eye) and magnification occurs at a 135-degree angle in the OD (right eye), the upper part of the image will appear farther away and larger. This means that objects in the upper part of the image will appear to be at a greater distance from the viewer and will also appear larger in size.

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• 17.

### Experiments were performed on college students to study the adaptation to size lenses. Which of the statements is false with regards to those experiments?

• A.

Students perceptual adaptation occurred around 4 days

• B.

Corresponding points recalibrate

• C.

Monocular cues to depth start to predominate over stereo cues

• D.

Very little adaptation seen on the horopter or Eikonometer

B. Corresponding points recalibrate
Explanation
In the experiments conducted on college students to study adaptation to size lenses, one false statement is that "corresponding points recalibrate." This means that the corresponding points, which are specific points in the left and right eyes that receive similar visual information, do not recalibrate or adjust during the adaptation process. This suggests that the adaptation to size lenses does not affect the alignment or coordination of these corresponding points in the students' eyes.

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• 18.

### Regarding testing for Anisekonia, which is statement is false?

• A.

According to Dr. Borsting the Space Eikonometer was the best method, however it is no longer made. It measures axis 90, 180 and declination errors

• B.

The Maddox Rod Test does not require special instruments, and requires size lenses to neutralize differences

• C.

The New Anisekonia Test (NAT) is an indirect comparison test and typically underestimates the amount of anisekonia

• D.

The Aniseikonia inspector is a direct comparison test and underestimates anisekonia particularly in the horizontal meridian. It also has poor reliability

C. The New Anisekonia Test (NAT) is an indirect comparison test and typically underestimates the amount of anisekonia
Explanation
Option 3 - it is a direct comparison test, Possible factors influencing test results: 1) methodology, 2) angle of gaze, 3) sensory fusional response that rescales the image (red-green target).

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• 19.

### Which of the following is not a legitimate way to treat aniseikonia?

• A.

Change the Front surface power

• B.

Change the center thickness

• C.

Change the refractive index

• D.

Place the patient in contact lenses

• E.

Change the vertex distance

• F.

All are valid ways

F. All are valid ways
Explanation
All of the options listed are legitimate ways to treat aniseikonia. Aniseikonia is a condition where there is a difference in the perceived sizes of images between the two eyes, and it can be treated by adjusting the front surface power, center thickness, refractive index, vertex distance, or by placing the patient in contact lenses. Therefore, all of the options are valid ways to treat aniseikonia.

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• Current Version
• Mar 22, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Dec 26, 2011
Quiz Created by
Mchllmijares

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