# Binocular Vision - Midterm 2

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Fixation disparity and AC

• 1.

### Which of the following statements is false regarding fixation disparity curves?

• A.

SpHerical lenses will move the curves up and down

• B.

They tell us the measure of vergence adaptation, if it is a fast or disparity vergence system. It also tells us slow or vergence adaptation system

• C.

To calculate the AC/A ratio you can plot each lens/prism pair of points, For each lens power find the corresponding prism power that produces the same fixation disparity value.

• D.

Type 1 is the most common curve in the general population. Type 4 is the rare curve, it implies that a person is adaptable

• E.

Amount of fixation disparity and curve slope were best predictors of symptoms

E. Amount of fixation disparity and curve slope were best predictors of symptoms
Explanation
The amount of fixation disparity and curve slope were found to be the most accurate indicators of symptoms. This means that individuals with a higher amount of fixation disparity and a steeper curve slope are more likely to experience symptoms related to fixation disparity. The other statements provided information about the characteristics and uses of fixation disparity curves, but they did not specifically address their predictive value for symptoms.

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• 2.

### We are inducing aniseikonia with the Space Eikonometer and want to create a tilt away from the right eye. What would be the best way to accomplish this?

• A.

Violently shake the patient's head to their right

• B.

Use an axis 90 size lens over the left eye

• C.

Use an axis 180 size lens over the right eye

• D.

Use an axis 90 size lens over the right eye

D. Use an axis 90 size lens over the right eye
Explanation
Using an axis 90 size lens over the right eye would be the best way to create a tilt away from the right eye when inducing aniseikonia with the Space Eikonometer. An axis 90 size lens would cause a shift in the visual axis, effectively tilting the image away from the right eye. This would help create the desired aniseikonia effect.

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• 3.

### Closer objects will move in an opposite direction as the eye movement and farther objects will move in the same direction as the eye. Which monocular cue to depth does this statement describe?

• A.

Linear perspective

• B.

Motion parallax

• C.

Parallelism

• D.

Aerial perspective

B. Motion parallax
Explanation
Motion parallax is the monocular cue to depth that is described in the given statement. Motion parallax refers to the perception of depth and movement that occurs when an observer moves their head or eyes. Closer objects appear to move in the opposite direction of the eye movement, while farther objects appear to move in the same direction. This phenomenon allows the brain to interpret the relative distance and depth of objects in the visual field.

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• 4.

### Which of the following statements regarding the monocular system is false?

• A.

The monocular system to depth is not as hardwired as the binocular system

• B.

Texture gradients and linear perspective are things that enhance relative size and relative height and are also examples of monocular cues to depth used by the monocular system

• C.

The monocular system is often called a learned inference or an assumption based system. This is how you create visual illusions.

• D.

Monocular cues to depth work in the real world but also work in 2 Dimensions

• E.

It is pre-attentive and automatic system. It is hard to override this system.

E. It is pre-attentive and automatic system. It is hard to override this system.
Explanation
The statement that is false is "It is pre-attentive and automatic system. It is hard to override this system." The monocular system is not pre-attentive and automatic, but rather a learned inference or assumption-based system. It is not hardwired like the binocular system and relies on cues such as texture gradients and linear perspective to perceive depth. Visual illusions can be created by manipulating these cues. Additionally, monocular cues to depth work in both the real world and in 2 dimensions.

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• 5.

### The stereoscopic system is a ______ (relative or absolute) depth pereception system whereas monocular system is more of a ______ (relative or absolute) depth perception system.

relative, absolute
Explanation
The stereoscopic system is a relative depth perception system because it relies on the comparison of the slightly different images captured by each eye to perceive depth. This system calculates depth based on the relative disparities between the images. On the other hand, the monocular system is more of an absolute depth perception system because it relies on other cues like size, motion, and perspective to judge depth without the need for a comparison between two images.

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• 6.

### Select the false statement

• A.

If two objects are on the horopter, everything is in the same depth plane or gives rise to the same visual direction.

• B.

When you move off the horopter you perceive depth. Your visual system looks for disparity relative to the horopter

• C.

The tests you have clinically often don’t truly measure stereoacuity because true stereoacuity is a hyperacuity that goes down to seconds of arc and can go down to four or five seconds of arc in a well trained good observer

• D.

Depth discrimination is inversely proportional to the pd and it is parabolic

D. Depth discrimination is inversely proportional to the pd and it is parabolic
Explanation
Stereoacuty is directly proportional to the pd, inversely proportional to the square of the viewing distance.

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• 7.

### Which statement refers to Relative depth perception?

• A.

It is more dependent on monocular cues

• B.

Stereopsis is ideal for detecting this

• C.

It aids in large shifts of vergence

• D.

It is the distance from egocentric position

B. Stereopsis is ideal for detecting this
Explanation
Stereopsis refers to the perception of depth and 3D structure obtained from the visual input of both eyes. It relies on the slight differences in the images received by each eye to create a sense of depth. Therefore, the statement "Stereopsis is ideal for detecting this" suggests that stereopsis is the most suitable mechanism for perceiving relative depth.

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• 8.

### Which of the following statements does not refer to Quantitative stereopsis?

• A.

The appreciation of depth is proportional to the disparity

• B.

An increase in disparity will allow someone to perceive more depth

• C.

This can achieve patent stereopsis with diplopic images

• D.

It is also referred to as patent/fine stereopsis which occurs primarily within Panum's area

• E.

It allows for processing of depth information for objects falling outside of the horopter, since most objects in space are outside of the horopter.

E. It allows for processing of depth information for objects falling outside of the horopter, since most objects in space are outside of the horopter.
Explanation
pg. 71

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• 9.

### Local stereopsis:

• A.

Are tested with strictly vectograpHic methods

• B.

Takes longer to perceive and is most commonly used in pediatrics

• C.

Provides monocular cues and is best for threshold or stereoacuity measures

• D.

Plays a role in detecting camouflaged object and requires that targets have to be fused for form perception to occur

C. Provides monocular cues and is best for threshold or stereoacuity measures
Explanation
Local stereopsis provides monocular cues and is best for threshold or stereoacuity measures. This means that it relies on the perception of depth using only one eye and is most effective in determining the smallest level of detail that can be perceived in a stereoscopic image. It is not as effective in perceiving depth quickly and is commonly used in pediatrics. It also plays a role in detecting camouflaged objects, but requires the targets to be fused for form perception to occur.

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• 10.

### Which of the following statements is not true about the Verheoff test?

• A.

It is a local test of stereopsis and functions through linear displacement

• B.

It can be used at a variety of distances and contains 8 different settings

• C.

It is influenced by skews in the horopter

• D.

It sets monocular and stereo cues in conflict.

C. It is influenced by skews in the horopter
Explanation
Option 3 refers to the Howard Dolman ( local) - far point measurement, rods appear equidistant, no head movement

Goal of the Verheoff : figure out what cues the patient is using - Were they using the depth to make the judgment, or were they using the monocular cues where size would tell you about the judgment. The monocular cues: the wider the thing is, the closer it should be, so they would always tend to say the wider one is closer if they were using monocular clues. Whereas if they pay attention to the stereoscopic cues, they would say which one is in stereoscopic depth. If you have a normal stereoscopic system, you’ll be able to detect the depth and override the monocular cues in the task.

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• 11.

### Which one of the following is a global test of stereopsis and is similar to the TNO test?

• A.

Verheoff

• B.

Stereofly/Titmus

• C.

Lang

• D.

Frisby Davis 2

C. Lang
Explanation
Global stereo target, so even if they get a fairly high disparity, if they get this one we know they have pretty good stereopsis.

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• 12.

### You are playing with a Magic eye. In order to achieve this you look beyond the target and diverge your eyes. What type of fusion is this?

• A.

Relaxed Fusion

• B.

Othoptic fusion

• C.

Chiascopic fusion

• D.

Fechner's Fusion

B. Othoptic fusion
Explanation
Cross fusing, or it’s called chiascopic fusion - trying to cross your eyes so at some point the visual axis would intersect and then you will get the fusion of those and then you will see the other ones to the side.

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• 13.

### Saladin in ’95  studied 2000 military subjects. He measured their distance stereo with the Howard-Dolman and he measured their phoria at distance.  Which of the following statements is most correct concerning his findings?

• A.

He found is that esopHoria up to 7 prism diopters didn’t seem to have much an effect on stereo acuity, but exopHoria did

• B.

Stereoacuity starts to decrease with decreasing amounts of fixation disparity

• C.

ExopHoria has less impact on fixation disparity than esopHoria

• D.

ExopHoria beyond 1 diopter associated with and increase in stereoacuity with each diopter increase in pHoria

C. ExopHoria has less impact on fixation disparity than esopHoria
Explanation
Effect on stereo acuity, but esophoria did. The more esophoric they did, the more reduced their stereo was.

The more exophoria you don’t necessarily have more exo fixation disparity. So esophorias seemed to affect fixation disparity more than exophorias

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• 14.

### You have a 75% change of seeing an object monocularly. What would be the probability of seeing the object with two eyes according to a probability summation?

• A.

75%

• B.

86%

• C.

94%

• D.

99%

C. 94%
Explanation
(.75 + .75) - (.75 x .75)

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• 15.

### Which of the following is not an amblyogenic factor?

• A.

Anisometropia

• B.

Meridional amblyopia

• C.

Stimulus deprivation amblyopia

• D.

Strabismus

• E.

All of the above are amblyogenic factors

E. All of the above are amblyogenic factors
Explanation
The correct answer is "All of the above are amblyogenic factors." This means that all of the factors listed in the question (Anisometropia, Meridional amblyopia, Stimulus deprivation amblyopia, and Strabismus) can potentially cause amblyopia, which is a condition where the vision in one eye does not develop properly.

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• 16.

### Select the false statement regarding developmental aspects of binocular vision

• A.

Monocular deficits in vision lead to greater amblyopia

• B.

The non-deprived eye predominates during development and tends to suppress the deprived eye

• C.

Amblyopia is defines as the decrease in VAs that is present in the absence of any pathologic abnormalities. Amblyopia is usually caused by a disruption in binocularity during the critical period

• D.

Stereopsis typically develops around 1 year. The rise in stereopsis coincides w/ control over the vergence system

• E.

If I had bilateral reduction in vision in each eye ( a high hyperopia in each eye) I wouldn’t have as much of reduction in vision or amblyopia from that- it’s the asymmetry that causes the deeper amblyopia

D. Stereopsis typically develops around 1 year. The rise in stereopsis coincides w/ control over the vergence system
Explanation
Stereopsis 3-5 months

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• 17.

### There are 4 types of cells used in the detection of disparity. Which binocular cell is used in the detection of coarse stereo

• A.

Tuned excitatory cell

• B.

Tuned inhibitory cell

• C.

Far cell

• D.

Giant cell

• E.

Small cell

C. Far cell
Explanation
Tuned because they are exacting. With the excitatory/inhibitory combination you can tell when something is on the horopter or off the horopter. They also have sensitivity to whether it is in front of, or behind these are the fine stereoscopic ones we have.

The near/far cells fire when the targets are closer or further from the horopter, but they don’t have as fine of tuning, or not as precise. Tell whether something is in front or behind and that would correspond to coarse stereopsis.

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• 18.

### The Visual cliff experiment was considered a landmark study in the field of stereopsis. However the study initially received alot of criticism. What was the reason for all the hatin'?

• A.

The infants used in the experiment had eye pathology

• B.

Monocular cues to depth were present

• C.

The babies were too fat so they couldn't crawl

• D.

The sample size was too small to make any conclusions and there was a question of external validity

• E.

They did not use a protocol and there was selection bias

B. Monocular cues to depth were present
Explanation
The reason for the initial criticism of the Visual cliff experiment was that monocular cues to depth were present. Monocular cues refer to visual cues that can be perceived with only one eye, such as relative size, texture gradient, and motion parallax. These cues can provide depth perception even without the need for binocular vision. Critics argued that the presence of monocular cues in the experiment could have influenced the infants' perception of depth, potentially confounding the results.

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• 19.

### Which statement is not true?

• A.

Confusion can be eliminated by regional suppression.

• B.

Suppression which is an interocular inhibitory process that reduces visual information from the suppressed eye below the threshold for conscious perception

• C.

When dissimilar images are presented to corresponding retinal points confusion results.

• D.

Suppression is typically uniform across the suppression zone

• E.

Confusion in strabismus can be thought of as rivalry

D. Suppression is typically uniform across the suppression zone
Explanation
Suppression is not uniform across the suppression zone
Most intense at fovea and zero measure point

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• 20.

### After-effects ( like the Buddha illusion) can be used to test for binocularity.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
So if you did a motion after-effect or a tilt after-effect and it’s strong if you do one eye, but if you switch between the two eyes there is a transfer from one eye to the other, and that would indicate that you have binocular cells. Binocularity that can go from one to another.
As we move to normal to strabismic patients we get a diminishing effects of the interocular after-effect.

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• 21.

### A patient who had a lesion at the optic chiasm would have a bitemporal defect. If I have a lesion at the optic chiasm, then I lose all my crossing over fibers. The nasal fibers would be lost. Therefore the only way I would get stereo would be with bitemporal stimulation

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Again if I do the chiasm I only have stereopsis in one place, the midline, with temporal stimulation, I would lose the things in the field.
In the corpus colosseum I would lose it in the midline, and would only have it in the periphery.

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• 22.

### Things that are close together will tend to group together, which Gestalt principle is that?

• A.

Good continuation

• B.

Law of proximity

• C.

Common region

• D.

Common fate

B. Law of proximity
Explanation
The Gestalt principle of proximity states that things that are close together will tend to group together. This means that when elements are placed close to each other, our brain perceives them as belonging to the same group or object. In other words, objects or elements that are physically near each other are perceived as related or forming a unified whole. This principle helps us organize and make sense of visual information by grouping similar elements based on their proximity to each other.

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• 23.

### Elements that change at the same time group together, which Gestalt principle is that?

• A.

Parallelism

• B.

Symmetry

• C.

Synchrony

• D.

Connectedness

C. Synchrony
Explanation
Synchrony has to do with change in time, but not position

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• 24.

### Occlusion relates to the concept of relatability.  It’s that whatever is being covered, two ends of it have to make sense to your visual system. Your visual system is more likely to interpret things as occluded when the thing that it is occluding makes sense or has good continuation to it

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Occlusion refers to the concept of relatability, meaning that when something is covered, both ends of it should make sense to our visual system. In other words, our visual system is more likely to perceive occlusion when the object being occluded has a logical continuation or connection to it. Therefore, the statement that occlusion relates to the concept of relatability and that our visual system is more likely to interpret occlusion when it makes sense is true.

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• 25.

### What is the global superiority effect?

• A.

The visual system interprets the bigger picture before processing the smaller details

• B.

When placing a neutral density filter over one eye. When you close the eye with the filter the object looks brighter. The visual system does not add the brightness from the 2 eyes.

• C.

One of the factors that influences Panum's area

• D.

Disruptions to the binocular system that cause greater reduction in acuity.

A. The visual system interprets the bigger picture before processing the smaller details
Explanation
Option 2 - is Fechner's Paradox
Option 3 - Factors that influence Panum's area are vergence eye movements, spatial frequency, temporal frequency

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• 26.

### There are several models for how object recognition works.The template model is one of them. What is the main problem with the Template model?

• A.

It requires numerous and highly specific templates.

• B.

Our brain has too many neurons this theory, there would be a lot of repetition

• C.

It assumes that common structures give rise to the perception of the object.

• D.

It proposes that recognition occurs by committee

A. It requires numerous and highly specific templates.
Explanation
In template modeling, you have to have some kind of a general model, and you have to be able to compare that model with distortions. So viewpoints become very important. In theory, it would take longer to recognize things in different viewpoints if you have more of a template type model. Because if you have a template for every possible orientation of an object, your brain would have to be so big. It wouldn’t work. You’d run out of neurons very quickly.

Option 3 - refers to the structural model; less dependence on viewpoints. Now if we look at viewpoints and how they affect your perception, it does affect your perception in some cases and not others

Option 4 - refers to the pandomonium Model

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• 27.

### Which statement is false regarding facial recognition?

• A.

Facial recognition seems to be a special case within object recognition. The temporal lobe (the fusiform gyrus) is a specific part of the brain that’s tuned to faces.

• B.

Alexia is a disorder in which the patient has difficulty identifying faces

• C.

You can test facial recognition with the facial inversion effect

B. Alexia is a disorder in which the patient has difficulty identifying faces
Explanation
Prosopagnosia: patient has difficulty identifying faces - they may know it is a face but they don't know who it is

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• 28.

### What can you do to reverse the Pulfrich phenomenon?

• A.

Prescribe patching therapy

• B.

Place a neutral density filter over the good eye to abate the symptoms. Then prescribe a tint for their glasses

• C.

Prescribe Base-In prism on the effected eye

• D.

Place a neutral density filter over the defective eye to abate the symptoms. Then prescribe a tint on their glasses

B. Place a neutral density filter over the good eye to abate the symptoms. Then prescribe a tint for their glasses
Explanation
The Pulfrich phenomenon is a visual illusion that occurs when there is a delay in the processing of visual information between the two eyes. This delay can cause objects to appear to move in a direction that they are not actually moving. To reverse this phenomenon, a neutral density filter is placed over the good eye to reduce the amount of light entering that eye. This helps to equalize the processing time between the two eyes and reduce the illusion. Additionally, prescribing a tint for their glasses can further help to alleviate the symptoms.

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• 29.

### Which statement is false regarding the vergence and motor system

• A.

As you induce BO demand/disparity, the target will appear to get smaller and it should move closer to you

• B.

During testing with the rope vectogram we are hoping the patient see the small in circle, large out circle because that means the patient is paying attention to the distance cues

• C.

When testing the patient with the rope vectogram if the patients pay attention to the size cues they would report a small circle out, large circle in. so even though this one is closer to them to the geometry of it, they will perceive it as further because it shrunk in size

• D.

As things get closer, they tend to get smaller. As things get further, they tend to get larger. This is what people commonly observe

D. As things get closer, they tend to get smaller. As things get further, they tend to get larger. This is what people commonly observe
Explanation
Option 4 - is a cue conflict, in the real world when things get closer, they get bigger.

Depending on which cue I pay more attention to, that influence whether I get a SILO perception versus a SOLI perception. If size cue predominates, and I use size to tell me distance, I’ll perceive smaller as getting further and larger as closer. Now if I use distance cues primarily and don’t pay attention to the size cues, will see smaller as closer and larger as further.

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• 30.

### A neutral density filter is placed over the left eye, what motion is perceived by the wearer?

• A.

Elliptical Counterclockwise motion

• B.

Elliptical Clockwise motion

• C.

No motion

• D.

Pendulum swinging back and forth in a straight line

B. Elliptical Clockwise motion
Explanation
Pulfrich Phenomenon - Increases the time gap between stimulus onset and perception. There has to be motion in effect for a person to experience these types of problem. If they are in static position, you won’t see it. It’s the depth effect created from temporal disparity
Etiologies include: optic nerve disease, unilateral GLC, retinal pathology, trauma, amblyopia, systemic pathology

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• 31.

### Fusion theory says we actually put the 2 targets together. If the target were similar, fusion theory would work. If the targets are dissimilar, more of the alternation theory is working.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Alternation theory - occurs in retinal rivalry
Fusion theory - experiments show that we can attend to information in either eye

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• Jan 10, 2012
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