# Medical Statistics: The Truth Behind The Numbers

5 Questions

• 1.
• A.

(a) Statement 3 represents a greater risk that statements 1 and 2

• B.

(b) Statement 2 represents a greater risk that statements 1 and 3

• C.

(c) Statement 1 represents a greater risk that statements 2 and 3

• D.

(d) All three statements represent approximately the same risk

• 2.
A chocoholic friend is horrified by a newspaper headline: "A bar of chocolate a day triples your risk of migraine".  What's the best advice you can give them?
• A.

A) swear off the brown stuff forever

• B.

B) cut their consumption by two-thirds

• C.

C) find out what their initial risk of migraine is and then decide what to do

• D.

D) find out how many migraine sufferers eat chocolate and then decide what to do

• 3.
Your newspaper reports that last July the number of cycling accidents also shot up when sales of sunglasses increased by 40 per cent. What is the most rational conclusion?
• A.

A) Cyclists wear sunglasses more than non-cyclists do

• B.

B) There are more cyclists in hot weather when sales of sunglasses increase

• C.

C) Wearing sunglasses while cycling is dangerous: you are less likely to see obstacles on the road

• D.

D) Wearing sunglasses as a pedestrian or car driver is dangerous: you are less likely to see cyclists on the road

• 4.
To test a drug expected to reduce blood pressure by 5mm Hg you need 130 people for a well-designed randomised controlled trial. Suppose you are working on a new drug that should reduce the blood pressure by double the amount, 10mm Hg.  Do you need to test it on:
• A.

A) more people?

• B.

B) fewer people?

• C.

C) the same number of people?

• D.

D) the exact same people?

• 5.
A study found that out of the 100 people diagnosed with navel cancer in country A in 1995,  20 were dead by 2000, 20 more were dead by 2005, and 20 more were dead by 2010. The 40 people that still alive were declared cured. A similar study in country B showed that of 100 people diagnosed in 1995, 60 were dead within 5 years. On the basis of these figures, which of the following statements can we make (click all that apply)?
• A.

A) You have a better chance of surviving navel cancer in country A

• B.

B) The 5-year survival rate in country B is half that in country A

• C.

C) The mortality in country B is higher than that in country A

• D.

D) The 15-year survival rate is higher in country B

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