Western Civ Chapter 1

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Western Civ Chapter 1 - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A __________ is a social system that ranks certain people as more important and more dominant than others. 

    • A.

      Ranking

    • B.

      Meritocracy

    • C.

      Division of labor

    • D.

      Hierarchy

    • E.

      Gender role

    Correct Answer
    D. Hierarchy
    Explanation
    A hierarchy is a social system that ranks certain people as more important and more dominant than others. In a hierarchy, individuals are organized into levels or positions based on their power, authority, or status. This system creates a clear structure of dominance and subordination, where those at the top have more control and influence than those at the bottom. Hierarchy can exist in various contexts, such as in organizations, governments, or even within social groups. It is a way of organizing and maintaining order, but it can also perpetuate inequality and privilege.

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  • 2. 

    By around _________ B.C.E., domesticated animals had become common throughout the Near East. 

    • A.

      10,000

    • B.

      8,000

    • C.

      7,000

    • D.

      5,000

    • E.

      4,000

    Correct Answer
    C. 7,000
    Explanation
    By around 7,000 B.C.E., domesticated animals had become common throughout the Near East. This suggests that humans had already developed the necessary skills and knowledge to successfully domesticate animals for their own use. The domestication of animals would have provided numerous benefits such as a stable food source, labor assistance, and transportation. This development would have greatly influenced the way societies functioned and contributed to the agricultural revolution that occurred during this time period.

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  • 3. 

    The first cities and thus the first civilization emerged in _________.

    • A.

      Babylon

    • B.

      Sumer

    • C.

      Egypt

    • D.

      Crete

    • E.

      Anatolia

    Correct Answer
    B. Sumer
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Sumer. Sumer, located in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), is widely regarded as the birthplace of the first cities and civilization. The Sumerians developed advanced agricultural techniques, invented writing (cuneiform), built complex city-states with organized governments, and made significant contributions in various fields such as mathematics, astronomy, and architecture. Their innovations and cultural achievements laid the foundation for future civilizations in the region and beyond.

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  • 4. 

    The city-state of _______ formed the world's first empire by subjugating a number of formerly independant territories and peoples.

    • A.

      Knossos

    • B.

      Thebes

    • C.

      Babylon

    • D.

      Sumer

    • E.

      Akkad

    Correct Answer
    E. Akkad
    Explanation
    The city-state of Akkad formed the world's first empire by subjugating a number of formerly independent territories and peoples.

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  • 5. 

    The ________ Kingdom, which arose in Anatolia, provides one of the best-known examples of early capitalism, in which private entrepreneurs rather than royal officials managed international trade. 

    • A.

      Egyptian

    • B.

      Sumerian

    • C.

      Hittite

    • D.

      Assyrian

    • E.

      Babylonian

    Correct Answer
    D. Assyrian
    Explanation
    The Assyrian Kingdom, which emerged in Anatolia, is recognized as one of the earliest examples of early capitalism. In this system, international trade was overseen by private entrepreneurs instead of royal officials.

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  • 6. 

    King ________ created the Egyptian Old Kingdom by uniting Upper and Lower Egypt.

    • A.

      Hammurabi

    • B.

      Sargon

    • C.

      Ramesses

    • D.

      Menes

    • E.

      Akhenaton

    Correct Answer
    C. Ramesses
    Explanation
    Ramesses is not the correct answer for this question. The correct answer is Menes. Menes is credited with uniting Upper and Lower Egypt and establishing the first dynasty of the Egyptian Old Kingdom. Ramesses, on the other hand, was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom period and is known for his military campaigns and monumental building projects.

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  • 7. 

    King Cheops's pyramid, the largest of them all, is the Great Pyramid of _________.

    • A.

      Cairo

    • B.

      Memphis

    • C.

      Giza

    • D.

      Thebes

    • E.

      The Nile

    Correct Answer
    C. Giza
    Explanation
    The Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest pyramid built by King Cheops. Giza is a famous archaeological site in Egypt, located on the outskirts of Cairo. It is home to the three largest pyramids in Egypt, including the Great Pyramid. The pyramids at Giza are considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and are a significant historical and cultural landmark in Egypt.

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  • 8. 

    Egyptian royal authority was frequently undermined by ___________.

    • A.

      Economic isolation

    • B.

      The absence of an effective legal system

    • C.

      Nubian invasions

    • D.

      A lack of pride in their homeland

    • E.

      Irregular flooding of the Nile

    Correct Answer
    A. Economic isolation
    Explanation
    Egyptian royal authority was frequently undermined by economic isolation. This means that the Egyptian rulers faced challenges in maintaining their authority due to being cut off from economic interactions with other regions. Economic isolation would have limited their access to resources, trade, and alliances, weakening their power and influence.

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  • 9. 

    King _________ created a montheistic religion in Egypt that some scholars argue was the world's first monotheism. 

    • A.

      Narmer

    • B.

      Moses

    • C.

      Horus

    • D.

      Amun-Re

    • E.

      Akhenaten

    Correct Answer
    D. Amun-Re
    Explanation
    Akhenaten is the correct answer because he is known for creating a monotheistic religion in Egypt. He introduced the worship of the sun god, Aten, as the supreme deity, replacing the traditional polytheistic beliefs centered around Amun-Re. This shift in religious practice is considered by some scholars to be the world's first instance of monotheism.

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  • 10. 

    The security of the New Kingdom was threatened most by _________.

    • A.

      The Hittites

    • B.

      Slave revolts

    • C.

      Tutankhamun

    • D.

      Sargon

    • E.

      Gilgamesh

    Correct Answer
    A. The Hittites
    Explanation
    The security of the New Kingdom was most threatened by the Hittites. The Hittites were a powerful empire located in Anatolia, modern-day Turkey, and they posed a significant military threat to Egypt during the New Kingdom period. The Hittites engaged in several military campaigns against Egypt, including the famous Battle of Kadesh. This conflict between the Hittites and Egypt resulted in a power struggle for control over the region, making the Hittites a major threat to the security of the New Kingdom.

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  • 11. 

    Because the neo-Assyrians forced conquered  subjects to labor in Assyria, ________ had replaced Assyrian as the everyday language of that kingdom by the eighth century B.C.E.

    • A.

      Greek

    • B.

      Aramaic

    • C.

      Egyptian

    • D.

      Hebrew

    • E.

      Babylonian

    Correct Answer
    B. Aramaic
    Explanation
    The neo-Assyrians forced their conquered subjects to labor in Assyria, which led to the replacement of Assyrian as the everyday language of the kingdom by the eighth century B.C.E. The correct answer is Aramaic. Aramaic became the dominant language in the region due to its widespread use among the diverse population of the Assyrian Empire.

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  • 12. 

    ____________ was the capital city of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

    • A.

      Babylon

    • B.

      Troy

    • C.

      Knossos

    • D.

      Nineveh

    • E.

      Sumer

    Correct Answer
    D. Nineveh
    Explanation
    Nineveh was the capital city of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The city was located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in present-day Iraq. It was a major center of trade, culture, and military power during the reign of the Assyrian Empire. Nineveh was known for its impressive architecture, including the famous palace of King Sennacherib. The city was eventually destroyed in 612 BCE, marking the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

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  • 13. 

    The most notable ruler of the short-lived Neo-Babylonian Empire was __________. 

    • A.

      Nebuchadnezzar II

    • B.

      Ramesses II

    • C.

      Darius I

    • D.

      Zoroaster

    • E.

      Cyrus

    Correct Answer
    A. Nebuchadnezzar II
    Explanation
    Nebuchadnezzar II was the most notable ruler of the short-lived Neo-Babylonian Empire. He is known for his military campaigns, architectural achievements, and the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Nebuchadnezzar II also played a significant role in the biblical accounts, particularly in the story of the Babylonian captivity of the Jewish people. His reign marked a period of cultural and economic prosperity for the Neo-Babylonian Empire, making him the correct answer to the question.

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  • 14. 

    The Zoroastrian religion was based on the doctrines of the prophet _________.

    • A.

      Moses

    • B.

      David

    • C.

      Ahura Mazda

    • D.

      Zarathustra

    • E.

      Ahriman

    Correct Answer
    D. Zarathustra
    Explanation
    The Zoroastrian religion was based on the doctrines of the prophet Zarathustra. Zarathustra, also known as Zoroaster, was the founder of Zoroastrianism and is considered a major figure in the religion. He preached monotheism and the existence of a supreme god, Ahura Mazda, who represented truth, light, and goodness. Zarathustra's teachings emphasized the battle between good and evil, with Ahriman representing the force of evil. His teachings formed the foundation of Zoroastrianism and influenced many aspects of Persian culture and belief systems.

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  • 15. 

    The primary god of the Hebrews was named _____.

    • A.

      Zarathustra

    • B.

      Baal

    • C.

      Yahweh

    • D.

      Amun-Re

    • E.

      Moses

    Correct Answer
    C. Yahweh
    Explanation
    The primary god of the Hebrews was named Yahweh. This is because Yahweh is the name of the God in the Hebrew Bible, and it is the name that is commonly used to refer to God in Jewish tradition. The Hebrews believed that Yahweh was the one true God and that they were his chosen people. Yahweh is also often referred to as Jehovah in some Christian traditions.

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  • 16. 

    The _______ created a civilization on the island of Crete that thrived between 2200 and 1400 B.C.E. 

    • A.

      Mycenaeans

    • B.

      Minoans

    • C.

      Assyrians

    • D.

      Hittites

    • E.

      Hebrews

    Correct Answer
    B. Minoans
    Explanation
    The Minoans created a civilization on the island of Crete that thrived between 2200 and 1400 B.C.E. The Minoans were known for their advanced culture, including their impressive architecture, complex social structure, and maritime trade. They were skilled in arts and crafts, as seen in their intricate pottery and frescoes. The Minoans also had a system of writing known as Linear A, although it has not been deciphered yet. Their civilization declined around 1400 B.C.E., possibly due to natural disasters or invasions.

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  • 17. 

    The _______ were an Indo-European people who developed a civilization in the Peloponnese peninsula. 

    • A.

      Mycenaeans

    • B.

      Minoans

    • C.

      Assyrians

    • D.

      Hittites

    • E.

      Hebrews

    Correct Answer
    A. Mycenaeans
    Explanation
    The Mycenaeans were an Indo-European people who developed a civilization in the Peloponnese peninsula. They were known for their advanced architecture, including the construction of fortified cities like Mycenae and Tiryns. They were also skilled warriors and were involved in the Trojan War as depicted in Homer's epic, the Iliad. The Mycenaeans were influential in the spread of Greek culture and language throughout the region.

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  • 18. 

    ________ was the Greek poet credited with composing two epics, the Illiad and the Odyssey.

    • A.

      Hesiod

    • B.

      Hippias

    • C.

      Sappho

    • D.

      Thales

    • E.

      Homer

    Correct Answer
    E. Homer
    Explanation
    Homer is the Greek poet credited with composing two of the most famous epic poems in Western literature, the Illiad and the Odyssey. These poems are considered foundational works in the genre of epic poetry and have had a significant influence on subsequent literary traditions. Homer's authorship of these epics is widely accepted and he is regarded as one of the greatest poets of ancient Greece.

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  • 19. 

    _____________ was the most highly valued personal quality among the Greeks.

    • A.

      Compassion

    • B.

      Individual Excellence

    • C.

      Eloquence

    • D.

      Loyalty

    • E.

      Strength

    Correct Answer
    B. Individual Excellence
    Explanation
    Individual Excellence was the most highly valued personal quality among the Greeks. This can be attributed to the Greek's emphasis on personal achievement and the pursuit of excellence in various aspects of life, including athletics, arts, and philosophy. The Greeks believed that individuals who excelled in their respective fields were deserving of admiration and respect. This value of individual excellence can be seen in the Greek concept of arete, which refers to the fulfillment of one's potential and the pursuit of excellence in all aspects of life.

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  • 20. 

    The Archaic Greeks adapted the writing of the _______ to their own language sometime around 800 B.C.E. 

    • A.

      Neo-Assyrians

    • B.

      Hebrews

    • C.

      Phoenicians

    • D.

      Egyptians

    • E.

      Mycenaeans

    Correct Answer
    C. Phoenicians
    Explanation
    The Archaic Greeks adopted the writing system of the Phoenicians to their own language around 800 B.C.E. The Phoenicians were known for their highly developed script, which was based on an alphabet of 22 consonants. The Greeks modified this alphabet by adding vowels, creating the foundation for the Greek alphabet that is still in use today. This adoption of the Phoenician writing system allowed the Greeks to record and communicate their own language more effectively, leading to advancements in literature, philosophy, and other fields.

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  • 21. 

    The Olympic games were held every four years at Olympus in a sanctuary dedicated to the god _______.

    • A.

      Poseidon

    • B.

      Kronos

    • C.

      Achilles

    • D.

      Hera

    • E.

      Zeus

    Correct Answer
    E. Zeus
    Explanation
    The Olympic games were held every four years at Olympus in a sanctuary dedicated to the god Zeus. Zeus was the king of the gods in Greek mythology and was associated with thunder, lightning, and the sky. The Olympic games were an important religious and athletic event in ancient Greece, and were held in honor of Zeus. The athletes would compete in various sports to showcase their physical abilities and honor the god Zeus.

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  • 22. 

    The ________ were infantrymen who constituted the main strike force of the Greek militia. 

    • A.

      Helots

    • B.

      Hoplites

    • C.

      Satraps

    • D.

      Stadions

    • E.

      Metics

    Correct Answer
    B. Hoplites
    Explanation
    Hoplites were infantrymen who formed the main strike force of the Greek militia. They were heavily armed soldiers who fought in a phalanx formation, using spears and shields. Their disciplined and coordinated attacks made them a formidable force on the battlefield.

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  • 23. 

    Helots did almost all of the work in the Greek city-state of _________. 

    • A.

      Sparta

    • B.

      Athens

    • C.

      Minos

    • D.

      Polis

    • E.

      Lesbos

    Correct Answer
    A. Sparta
    Explanation
    In the Greek city-state of Sparta, the helots were a class of enslaved people who were responsible for performing the majority of the work. They were owned by the Spartan citizens and were primarily tasked with agricultural labor, allowing the Spartans to focus on military training and warfare. The helots were an integral part of the Spartan society and their labor was essential for the functioning of the city-state.

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  • 24. 

    _______ was a poet who became famous for his poems that mocked traditional values such as militarism. 

    • A.

      Archilochus

    • B.

      Sappho

    • C.

      Cypselus

    • D.

      Thales

    • E.

      Anazimander

    Correct Answer
    A. Archilochus
    Explanation
    Archilochus was a poet known for his satirical and mocking poems that challenged traditional values, particularly militarism. His works often criticized the glorification of war and the ideals associated with it. Through his poems, Archilochus used his wit and humor to question and challenge the prevailing beliefs and norms of his time. His satirical approach made him famous and influential in the literary world, as he used poetry as a medium to express his dissent and critique societal values.

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  • 25. 

    ________, who was a native of the island of Samos, taught that the world could be explained through numerical relationships. 

    • A.

      Thales

    • B.

      Anazimander

    • C.

      Xenophanes

    • D.

      Pythagoras

    • E.

      Archilochus

    Correct Answer
    D. Pythagoras
    Explanation
    Pythagoras, a native of the island of Samos, believed that the world could be understood and explained through numerical relationships. He is famous for his contributions to mathematics, particularly the Pythagorean theorem, which states that in a right-angled triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. This theorem revolutionized the field of geometry and had a profound impact on mathematics and science as a whole.

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  • 26. 

    Why did temporary dwellings of Paleolithic groups never become permanent settlements?

    • A.

      They did not have the technology to build permanent settlements

    • B.

      Settlements became too unsanitary after prolonged use

    • C.

      They had to roam continually to survive

    • D.

      Permanent settlements attracted dangerous animals

    Correct Answer
    C. They had to roam continually to survive
    Explanation
    The temporary dwellings of Paleolithic groups never became permanent settlements because they had to constantly roam in order to survive. Paleolithic groups were hunter-gatherers, relying on the availability of food and resources in different areas. Staying in one place for too long would deplete the resources in that area, making it necessary for them to move on to new locations. This constant movement prevented them from establishing permanent settlements.

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  • 27. 

    What development in the Stone Age was the most significant in all of ancient human history? 

    • A.

      Learning to control fire

    • B.

      Learning to make tools from rocks and bones

    • C.

      The production of food by farming

    • D.

      Settling in communities of more than one hundred people

    Correct Answer
    C. The production of food by farming
    Explanation
    The most significant development in the Stone Age was the production of food by farming. This marked a major shift from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to an agricultural one, allowing humans to settle in communities and develop a more stable and reliable food source. Farming led to the domestication of plants and animals, which in turn led to the development of complex societies, the division of labor, and the advancement of technology. This shift laid the foundation for the development of civilizations and the progress of human history.

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  • 28. 

    Around 4000-3000 B.C.E. the first cities were formed. Where were these cities located? 

    • A.

      Canaan

    • B.

      Mesopotamia

    • C.

      Egypt

    • D.

      Greece

    Correct Answer
    B. Mesopotamia
    Explanation
    The first cities were formed in Mesopotamia around 4000-3000 B.C.E. Mesopotamia, which means "between the rivers" in Greek, was located in the region of modern-day Iraq and Kuwait. It was situated between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which provided fertile land for agriculture and facilitated trade and transportation. The cities in Mesopotamia, such as Uruk and Ur, were centers of civilization and innovation, with advanced systems of writing, governance, and architecture.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is not a part of historians' traditional definition of civilizations? 

    • A.

      Cities with dense populations and large buildings for community purposes

    • B.

      Formal political systems and diverse crafts

    • C.

      The knowledge of writing among at least part of the population

    • D.

      Trade practices capable of transporting goods great distances

    Correct Answer
    D. Trade practices capable of transporting goods great distances
    Explanation
    Historians' traditional definition of civilizations includes cities with dense populations and large buildings for community purposes, formal political systems and diverse crafts, and the knowledge of writing among at least part of the population. However, trade practices capable of transporting goods great distances is not specifically mentioned as a part of their definition.

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  • 30. 

    King Hammurabi's law code divided society into which three categories? 

    • A.

      Priests, royalty, and commoners

    • B.

      Royalty, commoners, and slaves

    • C.

      Elders, free persons, and slaves

    • D.

      Free persons, commoners, slaves

    Correct Answer
    D. Free persons, commoners, slaves
    Explanation
    King Hammurabi's law code divided society into three categories: free persons, commoners, and slaves. This division was based on the social hierarchy prevalent during that time. Free persons were individuals who had certain rights and freedoms, such as owning property and participating in trade. Commoners were the majority of the population who were not part of the royalty or priestly class but had some rights and responsibilities. Slaves, on the other hand, were considered the lowest class and were owned by others, lacking personal freedoms and rights.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following statements best describe the Old Kingdom in Egypt?

    • A.

      It was a strong centralized state headed by a king

    • B.

      It was a loose configuration of city-states headed by a king

    • C.

      It was a military alliance of independent city-states

    • D.

      It was a decentralized state with strong provincial governors and a weak king

    Correct Answer
    A. It was a strong centralized state headed by a king
    Explanation
    The Old Kingdom in Egypt was a period characterized by a strong centralized state, with power concentrated in the hands of a king. This means that the political authority and decision-making were controlled by the king, who held significant power and influence over the entire kingdom. The centralization of power allowed for effective governance and administration, as well as the implementation of large-scale projects such as the construction of monumental pyramids.

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  • 32. 

    All of the following contributed to the relative stability and prosperity of ancient Egypt except:

    • A.

      Mediterranean seaports that promoted commerce

    • B.

      The predictable annual flooding of the Nile River

    • C.

      A high degree of social equality among inhabitants

    • D.

      Surrounding deserts that helped shield Egypt from hostile invaders

    Correct Answer
    C. A high degree of social equality among inhabitants
    Explanation
    Ancient Egypt was known for its social hierarchy, with pharaohs at the top and slaves at the bottom. There was a clear distinction between different social classes, and social equality was not a prominent feature of ancient Egyptian society. This lack of social equality would not have contributed to the relative stability and prosperity of Egypt.

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  • 33. 

    Where was the first capital of the united Egypt?

    • A.

      Cairo

    • B.

      Thebes

    • C.

      Giza

    • D.

      Memphis

    Correct Answer
    D. Memphis
    Explanation
    Memphis was the first capital of united Egypt. It was founded around 3100 BCE and served as the political and cultural center of the country during the Early Dynastic and Old Kingdom periods. Located near the Nile River, Memphis held great importance as a strategic and administrative hub. It was home to numerous temples, palaces, and monuments, including the Great Sphinx and the Pyramid of Djoser. However, over time, the capital shifted to other cities like Thebes and eventually Cairo.

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  • 34. 

    For the author/s of the Egyptian THe Book of the Dead, which of the following would not be true?

    • A.

      The gods judge each human after death

    • B.

      Each human's goal is a life dedicated to justice and good deeds

    • C.

      The dead had to convince a jury of kings their life was virtuous

    • D.

      Souls receiving positive judgment by the gods are spiritually united with Osiris

    Correct Answer
    C. The dead had to convince a jury of kings their life was virtuous
    Explanation
    According to the Egyptian Book of the Dead, the dead did not have to convince a jury of kings that their life was virtuous. Instead, the gods judged each human after death based on their actions and deeds in life. The goal for each human was to live a life dedicated to justice and good deeds, and those who received a positive judgment from the gods would be spiritually united with Osiris.

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  • 35. 

    All of the following are true about the Hittites except:

    • A.

      They had become the most powerful people of Anatolia during the Egyptian New Kingdom

    • B.

      They spoke an Indo-European language

    • C.

      They were less religious than other ancient civilizations

    • D.

      Their aggressive army excelled in the use of war chariots

    Correct Answer
    C. They were less religious than other ancient civilizations
    Explanation
    The Hittites were known for their strong religious beliefs and practices, making them more religious than other ancient civilizations. They worshipped a pantheon of gods and performed various religious rituals. They even had a high priestess who played a significant role in their religious ceremonies. Therefore, the statement that they were less religious than other ancient civilizations is incorrect.

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  • 36. 

    In the Near East, how long was the Dark Age that followed the period of calamities between 1200-1000 B.C.E.?

    • A.

      500 years

    • B.

      300 years

    • C.

      100 years

    • D.

      There was no Dark Age in the Near East

    Correct Answer
    C. 100 years
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 100 years. The Dark Age in the Near East lasted for a period of 100 years following the calamities between 1200-1000 B.C.E. This suggests that there was a significant decline in civilization, cultural development, and economic prosperity during this time. It is important to note that this period is often characterized by a lack of written records and archaeological evidence, making it challenging to precisely determine the duration and extent of the Dark Age.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following was the first empire to emerge following the Dark Age in the ancient Near East? 

    • A.

      Egyptian

    • B.

      Neo-Assyrian

    • C.

      Neo-Babylonian

    • D.

      Neo-Sumerian

    Correct Answer
    B. Neo-Assyrian
    Explanation
    The Neo-Assyrian Empire was the first empire to emerge following the Dark Age in the ancient Near East. This empire rose to power in the 10th century BCE and reached its height in the 8th and 7th centuries BCE. The Neo-Assyrians were known for their military prowess and aggressive expansion, conquering many surrounding regions and establishing a vast empire. They were also known for their advanced administrative systems and cultural achievements, making them a significant power in the ancient world.

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  • 38. 

    What was the principal miltary striking force of the Neo-Assyrians?

    • A.

      Foot soldiers

    • B.

      Mounted cavalry

    • C.

      Warships

    • D.

      Chariots

    Correct Answer
    A. Foot soldiers
    Explanation
    The principal military striking force of the Neo-Assyrians was foot soldiers. This means that their main force consisted of infantry troops who fought on foot rather than using other means of transportation or weaponry such as cavalry, warships, or chariots. Foot soldiers were likely the backbone of their army, providing the necessary manpower and versatility for various types of warfare and tactics.

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  • 39. 

    King Nebuchadnezzar II ruled which of the following empires? 

    • A.

      The Neo-Assyrian Empire

    • B.

      The Neo-Babylonian Empire

    • C.

      The Greek Empire

    • D.

      The Persian Empire

    Correct Answer
    B. The Neo-Babylonian Empire
    Explanation
    King Nebuchadnezzar II ruled the Neo-Babylonian Empire. This empire was a successor to the Neo-Assyrian Empire and was known for its architectural achievements, such as the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The Greek Empire and the Persian Empire were ruled by different leaders and were not under the control of King Nebuchadnezzar II.

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  • 40. 

    Who was the last king of a unified Hebrew kingdom?

    • A.

      Abraham

    • B.

      Solomon

    • C.

      Moses

    • D.

      Cyrus

    Correct Answer
    B. Solomon
    Explanation
    Solomon was the last king of a unified Hebrew kingdom because after his reign, the kingdom split into two separate entities: the Kingdom of Israel in the north and the Kingdom of Judah in the south. Solomon's rule was characterized by prosperity, wisdom, and the construction of the first Temple in Jerusalem. However, his excessive taxation and forced labor policies led to discontent among the people, ultimately resulting in the division of the kingdom after his death.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following civilizations emerged on the island of Crete about 2200 B.C.E.?

    • A.

      Hittite

    • B.

      Minoan

    • C.

      Mycenaean

    • D.

      Anatolian

    Correct Answer
    B. Minoan
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Minoan. The Minoan civilization emerged on the island of Crete around 2200 B.C.E. The Minoans were known for their advanced culture, trade networks, and sophisticated art and architecture. They had a complex society with a centralized government, a system of writing known as Linear A, and a thriving economy based on agriculture, fishing, and trade. The Minoans also had a strong influence on later civilizations, such as the Mycenaeans, who eventually conquered them.

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  • 42. 

    What term refers to a community with many-chambered buildings that served as the residences of rulers and the centers of political, economic, and religious administration?

    • A.

      Palace society

    • B.

      A megaron complex

    • C.

      A labyrinth community

    • D.

      A pyramid society

    Correct Answer
    A. Palace society
    Explanation
    A palace society refers to a community that consists of many-chambered buildings that were used as the residences of rulers and as centers for political, economic, and religious administration. This term implies that the rulers and administrators of the community lived in elaborate palaces, which were not only their homes but also the central hubs of power and governance. These palaces would have housed various administrative offices, religious spaces, and economic activities, making them the focal points of the community's social and political life.

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  • 43. 

    Archaeological findings suggest that redistributive economic systems in which of the following cultures?

    • A.

      Minoan and Persian

    • B.

      Mesopotamian and Hittite

    • C.

      Persian, Hittite, and Mycenaean

    • D.

      Minoan, Mesopotamian, and Mycenaean

    Correct Answer
    D. Minoan, Mesopotamian, and Mycenaean
    Explanation
    Archaeological findings suggest that redistributive economic systems were present in the Minoan, Mesopotamian, and Mycenaean cultures. This means that these cultures had economic systems where resources were collected and then redistributed among the population. These findings provide evidence of a centralized authority or governing body that controlled the allocation of resources in these societies.

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  • 44. 

    Approximately when was the Greek Dark Age?

    • A.

      1200-1000 B.C.E.

    • B.

      1000-750 B.C.E.

    • C.

      1000-900 B.C.E.

    • D.

      1000-500 B.C.E.

    Correct Answer
    B. 1000-750 B.C.E.
    Explanation
    The Greek Dark Age is believed to have occurred between 1000-750 B.C.E. This period followed the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization and was characterized by a decline in population, trade, and cultural development. It was a time of political instability and economic hardship, with many cities being abandoned and the Greek population becoming more fragmented. The Dark Age eventually gave way to the Archaic period, marked by the revival of trade, the development of city-states, and the emergence of Greek literature and art.

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  • 45. 

    How did Hesiod feel that a leader should dempnstrate excellence?

    • A.

      By unchallenged physical superiority

    • B.

      By employing persuasion instead of force

    • C.

      By giving all his personal wealth to the state

    • D.

      By generously supporting the temples and sacrificing to the gods and goddesses

    Correct Answer
    B. By employing persuasion instead of force
    Explanation
    Hesiod believed that a leader should demonstrate excellence by employing persuasion instead of force. This means that a leader should be able to convince and influence others through their words and ideas rather than relying on physical strength or coercion. By using persuasion, a leader can create a more harmonious and cooperative environment, where decisions are made based on mutual understanding and agreement rather than through the use of power. This approach promotes a more inclusive and democratic leadership style, where the leader is able to gain the trust and support of their followers through their ability to communicate effectively and convince others of their ideas.

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  • 46. 

    During the Archaic Age, how many city-states were there in Greece?

    • A.

      More than a thousand

    • B.

      A few dozen

    • C.

      Seven main city-states and twelve minor ones

    • D.

      Five

    Correct Answer
    A. More than a thousand
    Explanation
    During the Archaic Age, Greece was divided into numerous independent city-states, each with its own government and ruling elite. These city-states were characterized by their own unique culture, laws, and political systems. The sheer number of city-states in Greece during this time period was more than a thousand, indicating a highly fragmented and decentralized political landscape.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following rights was denied to women in Archaic Age Greece? 

    • A.

      Citizenship in the city state

    • B.

      Access to the justice system

    • C.

      Participation in religious activities

    • D.

      Participation in politics

    Correct Answer
    D. Participation in politics
    Explanation
    In Archaic Age Greece, women were denied the right to participate in politics. Although they were considered citizens of the city-state, they were excluded from political activities and decision-making processes. Women had limited roles and were expected to focus on domestic duties and child-rearing. While they had access to the justice system and could participate in religious activities, their involvement in politics was restricted, reflecting the patriarchal nature of the society during that time.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following statements is not true of Spartan society in the Archaic Age?

    • A.

      Adolescent boys were often mentored by older warriors in a relationship that was sometimes sexual

    • B.

      Spartan women were known throughout the Greek world for their relative liberty

    • C.

      From age ten to twenty-one, boys lived in community barracks in order to learn a trade

    • D.

      War was formally declared on helots annually in order to reduce civil unrest

    Correct Answer
    C. From age ten to twenty-one, boys lived in community barracks in order to learn a trade
    Explanation
    During the Archaic Age, Spartan society did not require boys to live in community barracks from the ages of ten to twenty-one in order to learn a trade. Instead, boys underwent rigorous military training during this period, focusing on physical fitness, discipline, and combat skills. They were mentored by older warriors, sometimes in a relationship that involved sexual aspects. Spartan women had more freedom compared to other Greek women, and they were known for their relative liberty. Additionally, war was declared on helots annually to maintain control and prevent uprisings.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following were Athenian democratic reformers?

    • A.

      Homer and Hesiod

    • B.

      Peisistratus and Achilles

    • C.

      Solon and Cleisthenes

    • D.

      Pythagoras and Anaximander

    Correct Answer
    C. Solon and Cleisthenes
    Explanation
    Solon and Cleisthenes were Athenian democratic reformers. Solon was an Athenian statesman and poet who introduced political and economic reforms to address social inequality and prevent civil unrest. He established a system of four property classes, expanded citizen participation in the government, and abolished debt slavery. Cleisthenes, on the other hand, is known as the father of Athenian democracy. He reformed the political system by creating the Council of Five Hundred, which allowed citizens to participate in decision-making and reduced the power of the aristocracy. These reforms laid the foundation for Athenian democracy and had a significant impact on the development of Western political thought.

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  • 50. 

    All of the following describe Ionian and other philosophers of Archaic Age except:

    • A.

      They believed that the universe was arranged in an orderly and therefore knowable way

    • B.

      They founded schools and academics to train others

    • C.

      They reasoned that the universe was regulated by a set of laws of nature rather than by the arbitrary intervention of divine beings

    • D.

      They believed that people must use logic and evidence to explain the cosmos, rather than rely upon tradition and authority alone

    Correct Answer
    B. They founded schools and academics to train others
    Explanation
    Ionian and other philosophers of the Archaic Age believed that the universe was arranged in an orderly and therefore knowable way. They also reasoned that the universe was regulated by a set of laws of nature rather than by the arbitrary intervention of divine beings. They believed that people must use logic and evidence to explain the cosmos, rather than rely upon tradition and authority alone. However, the statement that they founded schools and academics to train others is not true.

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