Western Civilization Midterm Practice Test

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Western Civilization Quizzes & Trivia

A compilation of Multiple Choice and Fill In The blanks


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The ____________ helped maintain a stable population in Western Europe as it's population boomed.

    Explanation
    The Black Death refers to the devastating pandemic that occurred in the 14th century, resulting in the death of millions of people in Europe. This catastrophic event had a significant impact on the population, causing a decline in numbers. The reduced population helped maintain stability in Western Europe as it balanced the population growth that was occurring during that time.

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  • 2. 

    ___________ is a period of time where there were 2 popes.

    Explanation
    The Great Schism refers to a historical period in the Catholic Church where there were two rival popes, each claiming to be the true successor of Saint Peter. This division occurred from 1378 to 1417 and was a result of political and religious conflicts within the church. The Great Schism led to a significant split in the Catholic Church, with different regions and countries supporting different popes. It was not until the Council of Constance in 1414-1418 that the schism was resolved and a single pope was recognized.

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  • 3. 

    The goal of the reformation was to ________ the church.

    • A.

      Re-structure

    • B.

      Purify

    • C.

      Enhance

    • D.

      Rid of

    Correct Answer
    B. Purify
    Explanation
    The goal of the reformation was to purify the church. This suggests that the church was seen as impure or corrupt, and the reformation aimed to remove these impurities and restore the church to its original, pure state. This could involve addressing issues such as corruption within the clergy, indulgences, and other practices that were seen as deviating from the true teachings of Christianity. The reformation sought to bring about a more genuine and authentic expression of faith within the church.

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  • 4. 

    Who was first to challenge the Roman Catholic church?

    • A.

      Frederick III

    • B.

      John Calvin

    • C.

      Pope Leo X

    • D.

      Martin Luther

    Correct Answer
    D. Martin Luther
    Explanation
    Martin Luther was the first to challenge the Roman Catholic church. He was a German monk and theologian who publicly criticized the church's practices, particularly the sale of indulgences, which sparked the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Luther's Ninety-Five Theses, published in 1517, called for reform within the church and questioned its authority. His actions led to a significant divide within Christianity and the establishment of Protestantism as a separate branch of the faith. Luther's challenge to the Roman Catholic church marked a turning point in religious history and had a lasting impact on Christianity.

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  • 5. 

    Selling the offices of the Roman Catholic Church to the highest bidder.

    • A.

      Simony

    • B.

      Indulgences

    • C.

      Purgatory

    • D.

      Statesmanship

    Correct Answer
    A. Simony
    Explanation
    Simony refers to the act of selling or buying positions or privileges within the Church. In this context, the correct answer suggests that the act of selling the offices of the Roman Catholic Church to the highest bidder is an example of simony. This practice was considered unethical and corrupt, as it undermined the spiritual integrity of the Church by allowing individuals to obtain positions of power based on their wealth rather than their qualifications or dedication to serving God.

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  • 6. 

    Who is the Pope during the time of Martin Luther?

    Correct Answer
    Pope Leo X
    Explanation
    During the time of Martin Luther, Pope Leo X was the Pope. He served as the Pope from 1513 until his death in 1521. Pope Leo X was known for his lavish lifestyle and patronage of the arts, but he also faced criticism for his handling of the Protestant Reformation, including his response to Martin Luther's 95 Theses.

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  • 7. 

    Martin Luther wrote 95 theories in 1517, why?

    Correct Answer
    To protest the churches actions that weren't biblically supported.
    Explanation
    Martin Luther wrote 95 theses in 1517 as a form of protest against the actions of the church that he believed were not supported by biblical teachings. He wanted to challenge the corrupt practices of the Catholic Church, particularly the sale of indulgences, which he saw as a distortion of Christian doctrine. By publicly posting his theses, Luther aimed to spark a debate and bring about reform within the church. This act eventually led to the Protestant Reformation and the establishment of new Christian denominations.

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  • 8. 

    Martin Luther believed....

    • A.

      Must have faith to achieve salvation

    • B.

      Must buy indulgences to achieve salvation

    • C.

      Must do good works to achieve salvation

    • D.

      Must dedicate your life to God to achieve salvation

    Correct Answer
    A. Must have faith to achieve salvation
    Explanation
    Martin Luther believed that having faith is essential for achieving salvation. He emphasized that salvation cannot be attained through buying indulgences or solely relying on good works. Instead, he argued that true salvation comes from a genuine and personal faith in God. Luther's teachings played a significant role in the Protestant Reformation, challenging the Catholic Church's practices and emphasizing the importance of faith as the foundation of salvation.

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  • 9. 

    What isn't true about: Martin Luther tried excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church in 1520?

    • A.

      Diet of Worms

    • B.

      Accused of 41 Heresies

    • C.

      Caused Nationalism through uprising against church

    • D.

      Frederick III, Prince of Saxony, didn't like Martin Luther

    Correct Answer
    D. Frederick III, Prince of Saxony, didn't like Martin Luther
    Explanation
    The statement "Frederick III, Prince of Saxony, didn't like Martin Luther" is not true. In fact, Frederick III, Prince of Saxony, was a supporter of Martin Luther and provided him with protection and shelter during his time of conflict with the Roman Catholic Church. Frederick III played a significant role in ensuring Luther's safety and allowing him to continue his work and teachings.

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  • 10. 

    Martin Luther appealed to the people because he didn't agree with having to pay indulgences. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Martin Luther appealed to the people because he didn't agree with the practice of paying indulgences. Indulgences were payments made to the Catholic Church in exchange for the forgiveness of sins or reduction of time in purgatory. Luther believed that salvation could not be bought or earned through monetary means, but rather through faith in God. He argued that indulgences were a corrupt practice that exploited people's fear and ignorance, and he called for a reform of the church. His appeals resonated with many people who were also dissatisfied with the church's practices, leading to the Protestant Reformation.

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  • 11. 

    The Treaty of Augsburg ISN'T....

    • A.

      Treaty that gave german region choice of religion

    • B.

      Written by german princes

    • C.

      An agreement between boundaries in germany

    • D.

      Foundation of Lutheran religion

    Correct Answer
    C. An agreement between boundaries in germany
    Explanation
    The Treaty of Augsburg was not an agreement between boundaries in Germany. It was a treaty that gave the German region the choice of religion, allowing each prince to determine whether their territory would be Catholic or Lutheran. This treaty was written by German princes and played a significant role in establishing religious tolerance in the region.

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  • 12. 

    King Henry DID NOT ..

    • A.

      Separate from the church to marry Anne Boleyn

    • B.

      Execute Catherine of Aragon

    • C.

      Start the Anglican Church

    • D.

      Give Parliament 6 articles that cut the pope's power

    Correct Answer
    B. Execute Catherine of Aragon
    Explanation
    King Henry did not execute Catherine of Aragon. Despite his desire to divorce her in order to marry Anne Boleyn, Henry did not resort to execution as a means to end his marriage with Catherine. Instead, he pursued an annulment from the Pope, which was ultimately denied. This led Henry to separate from the Catholic Church and establish the Anglican Church in order to grant himself the authority to divorce Catherine and marry Anne Boleyn. However, Catherine of Aragon was not executed by Henry.

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  • 13. 

    _________ wrote The Institutions of The Christian Religion

    Correct Answer
    John Calvin
    Explanation
    John Calvin is the correct answer because he is the author of "The Institutions of The Christian Religion." This book, first published in 1536, is one of the most influential works of Protestant theology. It outlines Calvin's beliefs and teachings on various aspects of Christianity, including the nature of God, salvation, and the role of the church. Calvin's writings had a significant impact on the development of Reformed theology and played a crucial role in shaping Protestant thought during the Reformation.

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  • 14. 

    John Calvin (Calvinists) DON'T believe that...

    • A.

      Faith is simple

    • B.

      You are saved by faith alone and not good works

    • C.

      Catholics will be damned

    • D.

      You are predestined

    Correct Answer
    C. Catholics will be damned
    Explanation
    The given answer states that John Calvinists do not believe that Catholics will be damned. This is because Calvinists believe in the concept of predestination, which means that God has already chosen who will be saved and who will be damned. Therefore, it is not the belief or affiliation with a particular religious group, such as Catholics, that determines salvation or damnation according to Calvinists.

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  • 15. 

    _______ is a wounded warrior whom contemplated life and decided to teach the works of God. Later forming what is now known as Jesuits.

    Correct Answer
    Ignatius of Loyola
    Explanation
    Ignatius of Loyola is the correct answer because he was a wounded warrior who reflected on his life and decided to dedicate himself to teaching about God. He later founded the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits, which became a prominent religious order in the Catholic Church.

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  • 16. 

    A Jesuit is: 

    • A.

      Anglican Church leader

    • B.

      Combat Heresy within Catholic church

    • C.

      A group of Lutherans

    • D.

      The pope's council

    Correct Answer
    B. Combat Heresy within Catholic church
    Explanation
    A Jesuit is a member of the Society of Jesus, a religious order within the Catholic Church. They were founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola in the 16th century with the primary purpose of combating heresy and promoting Catholic orthodoxy. Jesuits are known for their intellectual pursuits, education, and missionary work around the world. They are not Anglican Church leaders, a group of Lutherans, or the pope's council.

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  • 17. 

    The Council of Trent (1545-1563) published a list 10 things reaffirming the Church

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The Council of Trent, held from 1545 to 1563, did indeed publish a list reaffirming the Church. This council was a significant event in the history of the Catholic Church as it addressed the challenges posed by the Protestant Reformation. The council reaffirmed Catholic doctrines, clarified teachings, and enacted reforms within the Church. The list published by the Council of Trent aimed to strengthen the authority and teachings of the Catholic Church, making the statement "True" accurate.

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  • 18. 

    Absolutism in Western Europe DID NOT consist of...

    • A.

      Religious Freedom

    • B.

      National Assemblies

    • C.

      Absolutism

    • D.

      Divine Right

    Correct Answer
    A. Religious Freedom
    Explanation
    Absolutism in Western Europe did not consist of religious freedom because during this time period, the rulers had complete control over religious matters and often enforced a single religion or imposed strict religious policies on their subjects. The rulers believed in maintaining religious unity and suppressing any form of dissent or alternative beliefs. This meant that individuals did not have the freedom to practice their own religion or express their religious beliefs freely. Instead, they were expected to conform to the religious policies set by the monarch, thus eliminating religious freedom.

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  • 19. 

    Bureaucracy is a system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than elected represenatives. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Bureaucracy is indeed a system of government where state officials, who are not elected representatives, hold the power to make crucial decisions. This system is characterized by a hierarchical structure, strict rules and regulations, and a focus on efficiency and adherence to established procedures. In a bureaucratic system, elected representatives may have limited decision-making authority, and the majority of power lies with the appointed officials. Therefore, the statement "Bureaucracy is a system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than elected representatives" is true.

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  • 20. 

    Thomas Hobbes, author of Leviathan; 1651, DID NOT believe..

    • A.

      Every man for himself; state of nature

    • B.

      John Locke's theories

    • C.

      Must be a social contract

    • D.

      Must have absolute rule

    Correct Answer
    B. John Locke's theories
    Explanation
    Thomas Hobbes, author of Leviathan, did not believe in John Locke's theories. Hobbes argued that in the state of nature, where there is no established government or authority, every individual is in a constant state of competition and conflict, leading to a "war of all against all." He believed that in order to escape this chaotic state, a social contract must be established, where individuals surrender their rights to a sovereign ruler who maintains order and security. In contrast, John Locke's theories emphasized the importance of natural rights, limited government, and the consent of the governed.

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  • 21. 

    Edict of Nance, issued by Henry IV, did what?

    • A.

      Gave religious tolerance to the Huguenots (french Calvinists)

    • B.

      Converted to Lutheran faith

    • C.

      Divorced his wife Catharine of Aaragon

    • D.

      Fought with the Pope

    Correct Answer
    A. Gave religious tolerance to the Huguenots (french Calvinists)
    Explanation
    The Edict of Nantes, issued by Henry IV, granted religious tolerance to the Huguenots, who were French Calvinists. This edict was a significant step towards ending the religious conflicts in France, as it allowed the Huguenots to practice their faith without persecution. It granted them the right to worship in certain cities and hold public office. The Edict of Nantes played a crucial role in promoting religious freedom and peace in France during the late 16th and early 17th centuries.

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  • 22. 

    Who was known as the Sun King?

    • A.

      King Henry IV

    • B.

      Frederick III

    • C.

      King Henry VIII

    • D.

      Louis XIV

    Correct Answer
    D. Louis XIV
    Explanation
    Louis XIV was known as the Sun King because he adopted the sun as his personal emblem and used it as a symbol of his power and authority. He believed that, like the sun, he was the center of his kingdom and that everything revolved around him. This title also reflected his desire to be seen as a source of light and enlightenment for his subjects. Under his reign, Louis XIV centralized power, expanded France's territories, and established a highly centralized and absolutist monarchy. His long and influential reign solidified his reputation as one of the most powerful monarchs in European history.

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  • 23. 

    _____________________ revoked the Edict of Knots and caused Huegenots to flee France; this caused the Jansenists (Catholics whom have Calvinist tendencies) to also be targeted. 

    Correct Answer
    Edict of Fountainbleu
    Explanation
    The Edict of Fountainbleu was revoked, which led to the fleeing of Huegenots from France. This action also caused the Jansenists, who were Catholics with Calvinist tendencies, to be targeted.

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  • 24. 

    The 30 Years War DID NOT cause....

    • A.

      A food shortage

    • B.

      Loss of 20% of population

    • C.

      A better understanding of Huguenot religion

    • D.

      Extreme debt

    Correct Answer
    C. A better understanding of Huguenot religion
    Explanation
    The 30 Years War was a devastating conflict that resulted in various consequences such as a food shortage, loss of 20% of the population, and extreme debt. However, it did not lead to a better understanding of Huguenot religion. The war was primarily fought between Catholic and Protestant factions, and the Huguenots were a Protestant group in France. While the war may have had some impact on religious beliefs and practices, it did not specifically result in a better understanding of Huguenot religion.

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  • 25. 

    HOP RAP

    Correct Answer
    Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire, Russia, Austria, Prussia
    Explanation
    The given answer lists five empires in chronological order: Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. These empires were all prominent powers during different periods of history. The Holy Roman Empire was a medieval empire in Central Europe, followed by the Ottoman Empire which was a powerful Islamic state in the 14th to 20th centuries. Russia, Austria, and Prussia were major European powers in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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  • 26. 

    The result of Peter the Greats strong grasp on Russian politics after his sister Sophia is forced to step down.

    • A.

      Edict of Nance

    • B.

      The Streski Revolt

    • C.

      Edict of Fountainbleu

    • D.

      Serfdom uprising

    Correct Answer
    B. The Streski Revolt
    Explanation
    The Streski Revolt is the correct answer because it refers to a historical event that occurred during Peter the Great's reign. The revolt took place in 1698, shortly after Peter's sister Sophia was forced to step down from her position as regent. The Streski Revolt was led by members of the Streltsy, a group of Russian guardsmen who were unhappy with Peter's reforms and his attempts to modernize Russia. The revolt was eventually suppressed by Peter's forces, solidifying his strong grasp on Russian politics.

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  • 27. 

    Peter the Great did NOT do what..

    • A.

      Create a table of ranking

    • B.

      Require 25 years of service to military (men)

    • C.

      Try to westernize Russia

    • D.

      Create a monument of himself in the center of St. Petersburg

    Correct Answer
    D. Create a monument of himself in the center of St. Petersburg
    Explanation
    Peter the Great did not create a monument of himself in the center of St. Petersburg. However, he did other significant things such as creating a table of ranking, requiring 25 years of service to the military for men, and trying to westernize Russia.

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  • 28. 

    British parliament did not have.....

    • A.

      Gentry

    • B.

      House of Commons

    • C.

      House of Lords

    • D.

      100 Judges

    Correct Answer
    D. 100 Judges
    Explanation
    The British parliament did not have 100 judges. The parliament consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which are composed of elected representatives and appointed members respectively. The presence of judges is not a characteristic of the British parliament.

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  • 29. 

    James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II make up the _________ ?

    Correct Answer
    Stuart Line
    Explanation
    The given answer, Stuart Line, is correct. James I, Charles I, Charles II, and James II were all members of the Stuart dynasty, which ruled England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1603 to 1714. The Stuarts were known for their conflicts with Parliament and their attempts to establish absolute monarchy. This line of monarchs ended with the death of Queen Anne, as she did not have any surviving children, leading to the ascension of the Hanoverian dynasty.

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  • 30. 

    Petition of Rights, signed by Charles I, 

    • A.

      Gave up right to tax to Parliament

    • B.

      Abolished executions

    • C.

      Habeas Corpus (right to trial)

    • D.

      Abolished quartering soldiers

    Correct Answer
    B. Abolished executions
    Explanation
    The Petition of Rights, signed by Charles I, abolished executions. This means that the king gave up the power to execute individuals without a fair trial. This was a significant step towards protecting the rights and liberties of the people, as it ensured that individuals could not be unjustly put to death by the monarch's decree. By abolishing executions, the Petition of Rights aimed to establish the principle of due process and the right to a fair trial for all individuals.

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  • 31. 

    Charles I targeted puritans causing an uprising

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    During the reign of Charles I, he implemented policies that targeted puritans, who were a religious group that sought to purify the Church of England. These policies included enforcing strict religious conformity and suppressing puritan practices. As a result, many puritans became discontented and frustrated with Charles I's rule, leading to uprisings and rebellions against his authority. Therefore, the statement that Charles I targeted puritans causing an uprising is true.

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  • 32. 

    ___________ is the leader of the New Model Army, protecting the puritans from Charles I, religious prosecution.

    Correct Answer
    Oliver Cromwell
    Explanation
    Oliver Cromwell is the correct answer because he was indeed the leader of the New Model Army. The New Model Army was formed during the English Civil War and played a crucial role in protecting the puritans from religious persecution by King Charles I. Cromwell's leadership and the military strength of the New Model Army were instrumental in the victory of the Parliamentarians over the Royalists.

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  • 33. 

    When Charles I is beheaded in 1649, England goes through a period of

    • A.

      Depression

    • B.

      Interregnum

    • C.

      Famine

    • D.

      Panic

    Correct Answer
    B. Interregnum
    Explanation
    When Charles I is beheaded in 1649, England goes through a period of Interregnum. Interregnum refers to the time between the reigns of two monarchs or the suspension of monarchy. In this case, it specifically refers to the period of republican rule in England, following the execution of Charles I and before the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II. This period was marked by political instability, with the country being governed by the Commonwealth and later the Protectorate, led by Oliver Cromwell.

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  • 34. 

    Charles II, following the death of Oliver Cromwell, will NOT what?

    • A.

      Keep Protectorate in place

    • B.

      Be known as "Merry Monarch"

    • C.

      Sign Habeas Corpus Act

    • D.

      Live to appease the people

    Correct Answer
    A. Keep Protectorate in place
    Explanation
    Following the death of Oliver Cromwell, Charles II will not keep the Protectorate in place. The Protectorate was a government system established by Oliver Cromwell after the execution of Charles I, which gave him the title of Lord Protector. However, Charles II, upon his restoration to the throne, abolished the Protectorate and reinstated the monarchy, marking the end of Cromwell's rule and the beginning of Charles II's reign as the king of England.

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  • 35. 

    At the end of the Stuart Line....this does NOT happen

    • A.

      James II is forced to give up the throne

    • B.

      Glorious Revolution begins

    • C.

      James II is beheaded

    • D.

      Bill of Rights, 1689 is signed by William

    Correct Answer
    C. James II is beheaded
  • 36. 

    Signs the Bill of Rights in 1689

    • A.

      King William

    • B.

      King Henry VIII

    • C.

      Mary of Oranges

    • D.

      James II

    Correct Answer
    A. King William
    Explanation
    King William is the correct answer because he signed the Bill of Rights in 1689. The Bill of Rights was a crucial document in British history that established certain rights and liberties for the people, such as freedom of speech and the right to a fair trial. King William III, also known as William of Orange, signed the Bill of Rights into law after the Glorious Revolution, which saw him overthrow his predecessor, James II. This event marked a significant shift in power and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in England.

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  • 37. 

    Who was the Prussian Emperor known as the "servant of the state"?

    • A.

      Peter the Great

    • B.

      Frederick II

    • C.

      King James II

    • D.

      King Henry VIII

    Correct Answer
    B. Frederick II
    Explanation
    Frederick II, also known as Frederick the Great, was the Prussian Emperor who was famously referred to as the "servant of the state." He ruled Prussia from 1740 to 1786 and implemented several reforms to strengthen the state and its military. Frederick II focused on promoting education, religious tolerance, and economic development. He believed that his duty as a ruler was to serve the state and its people, prioritizing their well-being and prosperity. His dedication to the state earned him the nickname "servant of the state" and solidified his legacy as one of Prussia's most influential rulers.

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  • 38. 

    Frederick II of Prussia, 18th century, allows all but what?

    • A.

      Allows Jewish to worship freely

    • B.

      Religious Freedom (except jews)

    • C.

      Equality under the law

    • D.

      Freedom of serfs on crowned land

    • E.

      Improves bureaucracy: civil service exams

    • F.

      Reduces censorship

    • G.

      Abolishes capital punishment

    • H.

      Clearly defines social structure

    Correct Answer
    A. Allows Jewish to worship freely
    Explanation
    During the 18th century, Frederick II of Prussia implemented various reforms aimed at improving the governance of his kingdom. These reforms included religious freedom for all citizens, except for Jews. While Frederick II allowed other religious groups to worship freely, he did not extend this right to the Jewish population. This decision reflected the prevalent anti-Semitic attitudes of the time, where Jews were often marginalized and faced discrimination. Despite implementing several progressive reforms, Frederick II's exclusion of Jews from religious freedom highlights the limitations of his policies and the persistent prejudice against the Jewish community.

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  • 39. 

    The ________________ allows Maria Theresea, Charles VII's daughter,  to be ruler, not Holy Roman Emperor, over Silesia.

    Correct Answer
    Pragmatic Sanction
    Explanation
    The Pragmatic Sanction refers to a royal decree issued by Charles VII, which allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, to inherit and rule over Silesia. This decree ensured that Maria Theresa could become the ruler of Silesia without being the Holy Roman Emperor, as the Pragmatic Sanction granted her the right to succeed her father.

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  • 40. 

    Who did not resist Prussia when trying to take Silesia? (War of Austrian Succession)

    • A.

      Great Britain

    • B.

      France

    • C.

      Hungary

    • D.

      Austria

    Correct Answer
    C. Hungary
    Explanation
    Hungary did not resist Prussia when trying to take Silesia during the War of Austrian Succession. This lack of resistance from Hungary allowed Prussia to successfully annex Silesia without facing any significant opposition from the Hungarian forces.

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  • 41. 

    The treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle gives ______ to Prussia, doubling it in size. (War of Austrian Succession)

    Correct Answer
    Silesia
    Explanation
    The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which was signed at the end of the War of Austrian Succession, granted the region of Silesia to Prussia. This territorial acquisition effectively doubled the size of Prussia, as Silesia was a significant and prosperous region located in central Europe. The treaty was a result of negotiations between the major European powers and aimed to restore the pre-war status quo. The cession of Silesia to Prussia was a significant gain for the country and marked a turning point in its rise as a major European power.

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  • 42. 

    In the Seven Years War (following the War of Austrian Succession) who joins Prussia in the battle, and who joins the opposing team against prussia?

    • A.

      France; Germany

    • B.

      Great Britain; Russia

    • C.

      Russia; Great Britain

    • D.

      Ottoman Empire; France

    Correct Answer
    B. Great Britain; Russia
    Explanation
    During the Seven Years War, Great Britain and Russia joined forces against Prussia. This alliance was formed as a response to Prussia's growing power and territorial ambitions. Great Britain, under the leadership of King George II, saw Prussia as a potential threat to its own colonial interests and therefore decided to support Russia in opposing Prussia. Russia, led by Empress Elizabeth, also had territorial ambitions in Eastern Europe and saw an opportunity to expand its influence by aligning with Great Britain against Prussia. This alliance between Great Britain and Russia played a significant role in shaping the outcome of the war.

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  • 43. 

    The Treaty of Paris did all but the following..

    • A.

      Gives Great Britain territory in North America

    • B.

      Gives Prussia, Silesia permanently

    • C.

      Sentences Frederick II to death

    • D.

      Gives Great Britain territory in India

    • E.

      Ends the Seven Years War

    Correct Answer
    C. Sentences Frederick II to death
    Explanation
    The Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War, did not include a provision to sentence Frederick II to death. The treaty did give Great Britain territory in North America and India, and it also gave Prussia permanent control over Silesia.

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  • 44. 

    Catharine the Great did all but the following

    • A.

      Leader of Russian empire after death of Peter III

    • B.

      Had a strong emphasis on French Culture

    • C.

      Was the greatest leader the Russian military had ever seen

    • D.

      Only spoke in French

    Correct Answer
    C. Was the greatest leader the Russian military had ever seen
    Explanation
    Catherine the Great, the leader of the Russian empire after the death of Peter III, had a strong emphasis on French culture and only spoke in French. However, she was not the greatest leader the Russian military had ever seen.

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  • 45. 

    The Pugachev Rebellion: 

    • A.

      Was led by Pugachev, pretending to be Peter III

    • B.

      Led to deaths of nobles by serfs

    • C.

      Convinced people that it was end of taxation, conscriptions, and serfdom

    • D.

      Helped Russia

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Was led by Pugachev, pretending to be Peter III
    B. Led to deaths of nobles by serfs
    C. Convinced people that it was end of taxation, conscriptions, and serfdom
    Explanation
    The Pugachev Rebellion was a significant uprising led by Pugachev, who claimed to be Peter III. This rebellion resulted in the deaths of many nobles at the hands of serfs. Pugachev was able to convince people that the rebellion would bring an end to taxation, conscriptions, and serfdom. This rebellion had a profound impact on Russia and its history.

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  • 46. 

    Maria Theresea, leader of Austria, after death of father Charles VII, was not...

    • A.

      An absolute ruler

    • B.

      An enlightened despot

    • C.

      The top choice of many siblings to become heir to throne

    • D.

      Catholic

    Correct Answer
    B. An enlightened despot
    Explanation
    Maria Theresa, leader of Austria, was not an absolute ruler because she implemented reforms and policies that aimed to improve the lives of her subjects and promote the welfare of the state. She can be considered an enlightened despot because she embraced the ideas of the Enlightenment and believed in the importance of education, religious tolerance, and the well-being of her people. Although she faced opposition from her siblings in becoming the heir to the throne, she eventually succeeded and became a Catholic leader.

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  • 47. 

    Joseph II was known as the...

    • A.

      Sun King

    • B.

      Merry Monarch

    • C.

      Greatest Reformer

    • D.

      Turn of Enlightenment

    Correct Answer
    C. Greatest Reformer
    Explanation
    Joseph II, known as the Greatest Reformer, earned this title due to his significant efforts in implementing a series of reforms during his reign as the Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790. He aimed to modernize and centralize the Habsburg monarchy, introducing measures such as religious tolerance, freedom of the press, and the abolition of serfdom. Joseph II also implemented reforms in education, healthcare, and the justice system, aiming to improve the lives of his subjects. His reforms, although controversial and not always successful, marked a significant turning point in the history of Austria and earned him the title of the Greatest Reformer.

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  • 48. 

    Under Joseph II, of Austria, which two religions were granted religious tolerance?

    • A.

      Protestant and Jewish

    • B.

      Lutheran and Protestant

    • C.

      Jesuits and Huguenots

    • D.

      Protestant and Hindu

    Correct Answer
    A. Protestant and Jewish
    Explanation
    Under Joseph II of Austria, religious tolerance was granted to the Protestant and Jewish religions. This means that individuals belonging to these two religions were allowed to practice their faith freely without facing persecution or discrimination. This policy aimed to promote religious freedom and equality within the Austrian Empire during Joseph II's reign.

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  • 49. 

    ______________ questions what is thought to be known by religion and converting to more practical, measurable purposes.

    Correct Answer
    The Scientific Revolution
    Explanation
    The Scientific Revolution refers to a period in history, primarily during the 16th and 17th centuries, when there was a significant shift in scientific thinking and methodology. During this time, scholars and scientists began to challenge traditional religious beliefs and instead focused on using observation, experimentation, and reason to understand the natural world. This led to advancements in various fields such as astronomy, physics, biology, and chemistry, and laid the foundation for modern scientific inquiry. The answer suggests that the Scientific Revolution questioned what was previously believed through religion and aimed to apply practical and measurable approaches to knowledge.

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  • 50. 

    Cops Bring Kids Great Big Donuts Now is code for? (last names only)

    Correct Answer
    Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Bacon, Descartes, Newton
    Explanation
    The given answer consists of a list of last names of famous scientists and philosophers. Each name represents a letter in the phrase "Cops Bring Kids Great Big Donuts Now". By taking the first letter of each last name, we can decode the phrase.

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