Apwh Chapter 16 The Transformation Of The West

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Transformation Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following sequences lists some major developments of Western civilization in proper sequence?

    • A.

      Protestant Reformation, Renaissance, absolute monarchy, Enlightenment

    • B.

      Absolute monarchy, Renaissance, Enlightenment, Protestant Reformation

    • C.

      Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, absolute monarchy, Enlightenment

    • D.

      Absolute monarchy, Enlightenment, Protestant Reformation, Renaissance

    Correct Answer
    C. Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, absolute monarchy, Enlightenment
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, absolute monarchy, Enlightenment. This sequence follows a chronological order of major developments in Western civilization. The Renaissance was a period of cultural and intellectual growth, followed by the Protestant Reformation which challenged the authority of the Catholic Church. The rise of absolute monarchy came next, with monarchs gaining more power and control. Finally, the Enlightenment emerged as a movement emphasizing reason, science, and individual rights.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following statements about the Renaissance is NOT accurate?

    • A.

      The Renaissance challenged medieval intellectual values and styles.

    • B.

      The Renaissance was largely an artistic movement that began in Italy.

    • C.

      The Renaissance failed to develop any new ideas concerning political organization.

    • D.

      The Renaissance was built on a more commercialized economy.

    • E.

      The Renaissance had a southern and northern phase.

    Correct Answer
    C. The Renaissance failed to develop any new ideas concerning political organization.
    Explanation
    During the Renaissance, there was a significant shift in intellectual values and styles, challenging the traditional medieval beliefs. The Renaissance was indeed a predominantly artistic movement that originated in Italy and spread throughout Europe. It also saw the rise of a more commercialized economy, with increased trade and wealth. Additionally, the Renaissance can be divided into southern and northern phases, each with its own distinct characteristics. However, the statement that the Renaissance failed to develop any new ideas concerning political organization is not accurate. The Renaissance brought about significant political changes, including the rise of humanism and the development of new political theories such as Machiavelli's ideas on governance.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following was NOT a participant in the 15th-century Italian Renaissance?

    • A.

      Michelangelo

    • B.

      Leonardo da Vinci

    • C.

      Niccolo Machiavelli

    • D.

      Giotto

    • E.

      Donatello

    Correct Answer
    D. Giotto
    Explanation
    Giotto was not a participant in the 15th-century Italian Renaissance. While he was an influential artist and considered a precursor to the Renaissance, his major works were created in the 14th century, before the Renaissance period began. Giotto's artistic style and techniques were influential in the development of Renaissance art, but he himself did not actively participate in the cultural and intellectual movements of the 15th century.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following statements concerning Italian humanism is most accurate?

    • A.

      Humanists focused on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor.

    • B.

      Humanists attacked Christianity as rife with superstition and witchcraft.

    • C.

      Humanists carved out new literary styles without reference to classical or medieval models.

    • D.

      Humanists de-emphasized the corporate and communal aspects of human society.

    • E.

      Humanists rejected scientific explanations in favor of spiritual ones.

    Correct Answer
    A. Humanists focused on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor.
    Explanation
    Humanists focused on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor. This statement accurately describes the main focus of Italian humanism. Humanists during this time period emphasized the importance of human potential, individualism, and the study of classical literature and philosophy. They believed in the power of human reason and sought to elevate human achievements in various fields such as literature, art, and education. This emphasis on human-centered thinking and creativity marked a shift away from the dominance of religious and theological ideas that had characterized the medieval period.

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  • 5. 

    Johannes Gutenberg was responsible for

    • A.

      The unification of the Holy Roman Empire in 1537.

    • B.

      The construction of Wittenberg cathedral during the 15th century.

    • C.

      The defeat of the Catholic forces during the Thirty Years War.

    • D.

      The invention of movable type in the West.

    • E.

      The split that occurred in the Catholic church in the late 1500s.

    Correct Answer
    D. The invention of movable type in the West.
    Explanation
    Johannes Gutenberg is known for inventing movable type in the West. This invention revolutionized the printing industry by allowing for the mass production of books and other printed materials. Gutenberg's invention, the printing press, played a crucial role in the spread of knowledge and the dissemination of ideas during the Renaissance and beyond. It laid the foundation for the modern printing industry and had a profound impact on the development of literacy and education worldwide.

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  • 6. 

    What was the European-style family pattern that emerged in the 15th century?

    • A.

      Extended families, early marriage ages

    • B.

      Nuclear families, early marriage ages

    • C.

      Extended families, late marriage ages

    • D.

      Nuclear families, late marriage ages

    • E.

      Extended families, marriage optional

    Correct Answer
    D. Nuclear families, late marriage ages
    Explanation
    In the 15th century, the European-style family pattern that emerged was characterized by nuclear families and late marriage ages. This means that families consisted of parents and their children living together as a unit, rather than extended families with multiple generations. Additionally, individuals tended to marry at a later age, suggesting a shift towards more individualistic and independent lifestyles.

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  • 7. 

    What determined the age of marriage for many people in Europe?

    • A.

      The occupation of the husband

    • B.

      Access to real property

    • C.

      The approval of the church

    • D.

      Securing license to marry from the government

    • E.

      Local traditions

    Correct Answer
    B. Access to real property
    Explanation
    Access to real property determined the age of marriage for many people in Europe. This is because marriage was often seen as a way to secure land and property rights, and therefore individuals were more likely to marry when they had access to real property.

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  • 8. 

    Who is generally credited with initiating the Protestant Reformation in 1517?

    • A.

      Jean Calvin

    • B.

      Henry VIII

    • C.

      Ignatius Loyola

    • D.

      Martin Luther

    • E.

      Johann Eck

    Correct Answer
    D. Martin Luther
    Explanation
    Martin Luther is generally credited with initiating the Protestant Reformation in 1517. He was a German monk and theologian who famously nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of the All Saints' Church in Wittenberg. This act sparked a widespread movement that challenged the teachings and practices of the Catholic Church, leading to the formation of Protestant denominations. Luther's writings and teachings emphasized the concepts of salvation by faith alone and the authority of scripture. His actions and ideas had a profound impact on religious, social, and political developments in Europe during the 16th century.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following statements most accurately describes the reason why Luther picked up widespread support among the German elite?

    • A.

      Luther proposed moving the papacy from Rome to Germany.

    • B.

      Luther's support for a more centralized German government under the control of the Holy Roman emperor struck a responsive chord in German nationalism.

    • C.

      German princes who turned Protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories.

    • D.

      Luther proposed that indulgences should be collected by the Holy Roman emperor instead of the pope.

    • E.

      Luther was seen as anti-Muslim and many German princes saw a way to expand their power into eastern Europe.

    Correct Answer
    C. German princes who turned Protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories.
    Explanation
    Luther's support for a more centralized German government under the control of the Holy Roman emperor struck a responsive chord in German nationalism. German princes who turned Protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories. This resonated with the German elite as it provided them with an opportunity to gain more power and control over their own territories, while also aligning with the growing sense of German national identity.

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  • 10. 

    What was the church established by Henry VIII in England?

    • A.

      Lutheran

    • B.

      Calvinism

    • C.

      Jesuit

    • D.

      Anglican

    • E.

      Baptist

    Correct Answer
    D. Anglican
    Explanation
    Henry VIII established the Anglican Church in England. This decision was made as a result of Henry's desire to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. The Catholic Church, which held authority at the time, refused to grant the annulment, leading Henry to break away from Rome and establish the Church of England. The Anglican Church maintained some Catholic traditions but also introduced reforms influenced by Protestantism. The monarch of England serves as the head of the Anglican Church, and it remains the official church of England to this day.

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  • 11. 

    The theological foundation of Jean Calvin's Protestantism was

    • A.

      The doctrine of penance.

    • B.

      Iconodulism.

    • C.

      Predestination.

    • D.

      Solipsism.

    • E.

      The sacraments.

    Correct Answer
    C. Predestination.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is predestination. Jean Calvin's Protestantism was based on the belief that God has already predetermined who will be saved and who will be damned. This doctrine of predestination was a central tenet of Calvinism, shaping its theology and practices. It emphasized the sovereignty of God and the inability of humans to earn salvation through good works or penance. Calvin taught that salvation was solely a result of God's grace and that believers were chosen by God before the foundation of the world. This belief in predestination set Calvinism apart from other Protestant denominations and had a significant impact on the development of Reformed theology.

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  • 12. 

    What new religious order was associated with the Catholic Reformation?

    • A.

      Benedictines

    • B.

      Jesuits

    • C.

      Calvinists

    • D.

      Cistercians

    • E.

      Franciscans

    Correct Answer
    B. Jesuits
    Explanation
    The Jesuits were a new religious order associated with the Catholic Reformation. Founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534, the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits, played a significant role in the Counter-Reformation. They focused on education, missionary work, and combating Protestantism. The Jesuits established schools and universities, engaged in missionary activities around the world, and were known for their strict discipline and loyalty to the Pope. Their efforts helped to revitalize the Catholic Church and spread its influence during a time of religious turmoil.

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  • 13. 

    The Edict of Nantes, issued in France in 1598,

    • A.

      Granted tolerance to Protestants and helped end the French civil wars of religion.

    • B.

      Established Calvinism as the state religion of France.

    • C.

      Decreed the abolition of Protestantism in France.

    • D.

      Declared war against the Lutheran princes of Germany.

    • E.

      Led to the Thirty Years War between France and Sweden.

    Correct Answer
    A. Granted tolerance to Protestants and helped end the French civil wars of religion.
    Explanation
    The Edict of Nantes, issued in France in 1598, granted tolerance to Protestants and helped end the French civil wars of religion. This means that the edict allowed for religious freedom and protected the rights of Protestants to practice their faith without persecution. This was a significant development in France as it helped to bring an end to the violent conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, known as the French civil wars of religion. The edict aimed to promote peace and stability within the country by allowing for religious coexistence.

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  • 14. 

    The religious wars that followed the Protestant Reformation led generally to

    • A.

      The restoration of Catholic unity.

    • B.

      The establishment of Protestant dominance.

    • C.

      A limited acceptance of the idea of religious pluralism.

    • D.

      The end of the involvement of the state in religion.

    • E.

      A monolithic Protestantism in Europe.

    Correct Answer
    C. A limited acceptance of the idea of religious pluralism.
    Explanation
    The religious wars that followed the Protestant Reformation resulted in a limited acceptance of the idea of religious pluralism. These wars, such as the Thirty Years' War, caused significant destruction and loss of life, leading to a recognition that religious diversity could not be completely eradicated. As a result, some level of tolerance and acceptance of different religious beliefs and practices emerged, albeit limited. This marked a shift from the previous mindset of religious exclusivity and the belief that only one religion should be dominant.

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  • 15. 

    Inflation and commercialization in the West produced a group of people without access to producing property called the

    • A.

      Bourgeoisie.

    • B.

      Sans culottes.

    • C.

      Proletariat.

    • D.

      Provencales.

    • E.

      Gentry.

    Correct Answer
    C. Proletariat.
    Explanation
    Inflation and commercialization in the West resulted in the emergence of a social class known as the proletariat. This group of people did not have access to producing property and typically worked in factories or industries for wages. The bourgeoisie refers to the middle class, the sans culottes are a term for the working class during the French Revolution, provencales refers to a region in France, and gentry refers to the upper class.

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  • 16. 

    Who used astronomical observation and mathematical calculation to disprove the Hellenistic belief that the Earth was the center of the universe?

    • A.

      Galileo

    • B.

      Copernicus

    • C.

      Vesalius

    • D.

      Francis Bacon

    • E.

      Isaac Newton

    Correct Answer
    B. Copernicus
    Explanation
    Copernicus used astronomical observation and mathematical calculation to disprove the Hellenistic belief that the Earth was the center of the universe. He proposed the heliocentric model, which stated that the Sun was at the center of the solar system and the Earth and other planets revolved around it. This challenged the geocentric model that had been widely accepted for centuries. Copernicus' work laid the foundation for modern astronomy and our understanding of the solar system.

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  • 17. 

    The monarch most associated with absolute monarchy was

    • A.

      Charles I of England.

    • B.

      Frederick William of Prussia.

    • C.

      William of Orange of the Netherlands.

    • D.

      Louis XIV of France.

    • E.

      Joseph II of Austria

    Correct Answer
    D. Louis XIV of France.
    Explanation
    Louis XIV of France is the most associated monarch with absolute monarchy because he famously declared, "I am the state." He centralized power in himself and his royal court, diminishing the power of the nobility and establishing an absolute rule. He implemented policies such as the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which limited religious freedoms, and the construction of the Palace of Versailles, which symbolized his absolute power. His reign is often seen as the epitome of absolute monarchy in Europe.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following descriptions most accurately defines mercantilism?

    • A.

      Mercantilism was a scientific theory that attempted to limit the growing dominance of merchants within society.

    • B.

      Mercantilism held that government should promote the internal economy in order to improve tax revenues and to limit imports from other nations.

    • C.

      Mercantilism was an economic philosophy that argued that natural laws would determine the flow of goods according to supply and demand.

    • D.

      Mercantilism argued that the money supply should be freed from the supply of bullion and based instead on the flow of goods within regional markets.

    • E.

      Mercantilism is the idea that all trade should be international and free of any restraints.

    Correct Answer
    B. Mercantilism held that government should promote the internal economy in order to improve tax revenues and to limit imports from other nations.
    Explanation
    Mercantilism is an economic philosophy that advocates for government intervention in the economy to promote the growth of the domestic economy and limit imports from other nations. The main goal of mercantilism is to improve tax revenues and ensure a favorable balance of trade. This theory believes that a country's wealth and power can be measured by its accumulation of precious metals, such as gold and silver. By limiting imports and promoting exports, mercantilism aims to increase the inflow of precious metals and strengthen the nation's economy.

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  • 19. 

    The aftermath of the Scientific Revolution spilled over into a new intellectual movement in the 18th century called the

    • A.

      Renaissance.

    • B.

      Enlightenment.

    • C.

      Great Awakening.

    • D.

      Risorgimento.

    • E.

      Baroque Era.

    Correct Answer
    B. Enlightenment.
    Explanation
    The question asks for the intellectual movement that emerged after the Scientific Revolution in the 18th century. The Renaissance occurred much earlier, in the 14th to 17th centuries, and the Great Awakening was a religious revival movement in the 18th century, but it was not directly related to the Scientific Revolution. The Baroque Era was a period of artistic style that overlapped with the Scientific Revolution but was not an intellectual movement. The correct answer, Enlightenment, refers to the philosophical and intellectual movement that emphasized reason, science, and individualism, and emerged as a response to the Scientific Revolution.

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  • 20. 

    Adam Smiths' economic theory advocated

    • A.

      Government intervention in order to control the flow of bullion through extensive tariff systems.

    • B.

      The use of a controlled money supply as a means of limiting inflation.

    • C.

      That governments avoid regulation in favor of the operation of individual initiative and market forces.

    • D.

      The institution of state-controlled guilds to fix standards of production and wages.

    • E.

      That government should allocate labor and capital whenever they engaged in warfare.

    Correct Answer
    C. That governments avoid regulation in favor of the operation of individual initiative and market forces.
    Explanation
    Adam Smith's economic theory advocated that governments avoid regulation in favor of the operation of individual initiative and market forces. Smith believed that individuals acting in their own self-interest would naturally lead to economic growth and prosperity. He argued that government intervention in the economy, such as tariffs or regulations, would only hinder the efficient functioning of markets. Instead, Smith believed that a free market system, driven by competition and individual initiative, would lead to the best outcomes for society as a whole.

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  • 21. 

    In 1733, James Kay of England introduced

    • A.

      Double-entry bookkeeping to western Europe.

    • B.

      The flying shuttle to automate weaving.

    • C.

      The steam engine.

    • D.

      The potato to European agriculture.

    • E.

      The cotton gin.

    Correct Answer
    B. The flying shuttle to automate weaving.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the flying shuttle to automate weaving. This is because in 1733, James Kay of England introduced the flying shuttle, a device that revolutionized the weaving industry by allowing weavers to work faster and more efficiently. The flying shuttle enabled weavers to produce wider fabrics and increased the speed of production, leading to significant advancements in the textile industry. This invention played a crucial role in the Industrial Revolution and had a profound impact on the development of western Europe's textile manufacturing capabilities.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Nov 17, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Mlindbom

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