Western Civ. Reading Final Exam

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Western Civ. Reading Final Exam - Quiz

Western civilisation is a term used very broadly to refer to social norms, ethical values, customs, traditions, belief systems, political systems and a host of technologies that originated, at least in part, in Europe. What do you know about it?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Significant features of the Paleolithic Age include each of the following except

    • A.

      There was tool making

    • B.

      Scavenging and hunting for food was no longer necessary

    • C.

      They discovered how to cook meat

    • D.

      They used fire as a protection against dangerous animals

    Correct Answer
    B. Scavenging and hunting for food was no longer necessary
    Explanation
    The Paleolithic Age was characterized by significant features such as tool making, the discovery of cooking meat, and the use of fire for protection against dangerous animals. However, scavenging and hunting for food was still necessary during this time period, as it was the primary means of survival.

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  • 2. 

    Your text refers to which of the following as the central force in "primary" civilizations?

    • A.

      A construction of irrigation canals

    • B.

      Cooperative planning for war

    • C.

      Religion

    • D.

      Exchange of goods beyond the tribe

    Correct Answer
    C. Religion
    Explanation
    Religion is referred to as the central force in "primary" civilizations. This means that religion played a crucial role in shaping and organizing these early civilizations. Religion provided a framework for social and cultural practices, moral values, and political systems. It often served as a unifying force, bringing people together and providing a sense of identity and purpose. Additionally, religion influenced various aspects of life, including governance, law, and education. Therefore, religion can be seen as the central force that guided and influenced the development of these early civilizations.

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  • 3. 

    Who were the creators of the earliest civilizations?

    • A.

      Hittites and Egyptians

    • B.

      Egyptians and Sumerians

    • C.

      Sumerians and Assyrians

    • D.

      Persians and Egyptians

    Correct Answer
    B. Egyptians and Sumerians
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Egyptians and Sumerians. The Egyptians and Sumerians were both early civilizations that emerged around the same time in different regions. The Egyptians developed along the Nile River in Northeast Africa, while the Sumerians settled in Mesopotamia, which is present-day Iraq. Both civilizations made significant contributions to the development of human society, such as the invention of writing systems, the construction of monumental architecture, and the establishment of complex social and political structures. Their achievements laid the foundation for future civilizations and influenced subsequent cultures in the ancient world.

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  • 4. 

    Sargon the Great may be said to have been

    • A.

      One of a kind, benevolent ruler

    • B.

      Aware of the need to centralize authority through appointed officials

    • C.

      Reluctant to make demands of tribute from conquered peoples

    • D.

      Able to utilize an organized army when danger appeared

    Correct Answer
    B. Aware of the need to centralize authority through appointed officials
    Explanation
    Sargon the Great was aware of the need to centralize authority through appointed officials. This means that he understood the importance of consolidating power and delegating responsibilities to trusted individuals in order to maintain control over his empire. By appointing officials, Sargon ensured that his rule was effectively implemented throughout his territories, allowing for efficient governance and administration. This approach to centralization would have contributed to the stability and success of his reign.

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  • 5. 

    The "land between rivers" refers to

    • A.

      The Hittite kingdom

    • B.

      Mesopotamia

    • C.

      Egypt

    • D.

      Persia

    Correct Answer
    B. Mesopotamia
    Explanation
    The "land between rivers" refers to Mesopotamia because it is a region located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia was one of the cradles of civilization and is known for its advanced ancient civilizations such as the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. The fertile land between the rivers allowed for agriculture and the development of complex societies. Mesopotamia was also an important trade and cultural hub in ancient times.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following civilizations provided a basis for Mesopotamian civilization?

    • A.

      Sumerian

    • B.

      Egyptian

    • C.

      Assyrian

    • D.

      Hittite

    Correct Answer
    A. Sumerian
    Explanation
    The Sumerian civilization provided a basis for Mesopotamian civilization. Mesopotamia, located in present-day Iraq, was one of the earliest cradles of civilization. The Sumerians, who lived in southern Mesopotamia, developed many significant cultural and technological advancements, such as the invention of writing (cuneiform), the establishment of city-states, and the development of complex irrigation systems. Their contributions laid the foundation for future civilizations in the region, including the Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians.

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  • 7. 

    Cunieform was found in ancient

    • A.

      Sumeria

    • B.

      Egypt

    • C.

      Greece

    • D.

      Anatolia

    Correct Answer
    A. Sumeria
    Explanation
    Cuneiform was found in ancient Sumeria. Sumeria was an ancient civilization located in Mesopotamia, which is present-day southern Iraq. Cuneiform is the earliest known form of writing and was developed by the Sumerians around 3500 BCE. It consisted of wedge-shaped marks made on clay tablets using a stylus. The Sumerians used cuneiform for various purposes, including recording administrative, economic, and religious information. Therefore, the correct answer is Sumeria.

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  • 8. 

    In Mesopotamian civilization, the temple administration functioned in the following ways except to

    • A.

      Collect rents

    • B.

      Provide employment for many

    • C.

      Provide storage for weapons

    • D.

      Employ scribes to keep records

    Correct Answer
    C. Provide storage for weapons
    Explanation
    The temple administration in Mesopotamian civilization had various functions, such as collecting rents, providing employment for many individuals, and employing scribes to keep records. However, one function that they did not have was providing storage for weapons. This means that while they may have had other responsibilities, storing weapons was not one of them.

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  • 9. 

    Which factor best accounts for the fact that a Mesopotamian king was not seen as an all-powerful ruler?

    • A.

      The king was only the youngest of the gods

    • B.

      Kings in ritual ceremonies tried to command floods to end

    • C.

      The king was selected by the gods to rule, but responsible to them like everyone else

    • D.

      Kingship was not hereditary

    Correct Answer
    C. The king was selected by the gods to rule, but responsible to them like everyone else
    Explanation
    In Mesopotamia, the belief was that the king was chosen by the gods to rule, but he was still accountable to them just like any other person. This means that the king did not possess absolute power and was subject to the will and guidance of the gods. This belief system prevented the king from being seen as an all-powerful ruler, as he had to answer to higher authorities and could not act without consequences.

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  • 10. 

    Cunieform can be described as

    • A.

      The first stage of planning for a pyramid

    • B.

      The instrument used for writing on parchment

    • C.

      The term for records that dealt with commercial transactions

    • D.

      The symbol writing on clay tablets

    Correct Answer
    D. The symbol writing on clay tablets
    Explanation
    Cuneiform is the term used to describe the symbol writing on clay tablets. It was the earliest known form of writing, developed by the ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia around 3500 BCE. Cuneiform was primarily used for administrative and economic purposes, including keeping records of commercial transactions. The symbols were impressed onto wet clay tablets using a stylus, and once dried, the tablets could be stored and transported easily. Cuneiform played a crucial role in the development of civilization, as it allowed for the recording and preservation of information, facilitating the growth of trade, law, and government.

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  • 11. 

    According to your text, the "finest work of Mesopotamian literature" was the

    • A.

      Old Testament

    • B.

      Epic of Gilgamesh

    • C.

      Code of Hammurabi

    • D.

      Epic of Akkad

    Correct Answer
    B. Epic of Gilgamesh
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Epic of Gilgamesh. The Epic of Gilgamesh is considered the "finest work of Mesopotamian literature" because it is one of the oldest surviving works of literature in the world. It tells the story of Gilgamesh, a legendary king of Uruk, and his adventures and quest for immortality. The epic explores themes of friendship, mortality, and the search for meaning in life. It is written in poetic form and offers valuable insights into ancient Mesopotamian culture, beliefs, and values.

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  • 12. 

    Which ruler of Upper Egypt conquered the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt?

    • A.

      Menes

    • B.

      Ramses

    • C.

      Amenhotep

    • D.

      Tutankhamen

    Correct Answer
    A. Menes
    Explanation
    Menes is the correct answer because he is known as the first pharaoh of ancient Egypt and is credited with uniting Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt into one kingdom. He accomplished this by conquering the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt, establishing the capital city of Memphis, and founding the first dynasty of Egypt. Menes' unification of Egypt marked the beginning of the Old Kingdom period and laid the foundation for the long and prosperous history of ancient Egypt.

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  • 13. 

    All of the following are features of Egyptian belief in the afterlife except

    • A.

      A longing for death

    • B.

      Pyramid tombs

    • C.

      Mummification of the dead

    • D.

      Funerary art

    Correct Answer
    A. A longing for death
    Explanation
    The Egyptian belief in the afterlife is well-known for its elaborate rituals and practices, such as pyramid tombs, mummification, and funerary art. These practices were aimed at ensuring a smooth transition into the afterlife and a comfortable existence in the realm of the dead. However, a longing for death is not a feature of Egyptian belief in the afterlife. Instead, they believed in the preservation of life and the continuation of existence in the afterlife.

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  • 14. 

    The Egyptian writing known as hieroglyphics was

    • A.

      A wedge-shaped writing system

    • B.

      A form of picture writing in which physical figures represented words or sounds that could be combined to form words

    • C.

      The world's first writing system

    • D.

      The only writing system of the earliest high civilizations

    Correct Answer
    B. A form of picture writing in which physical figures represented words or sounds that could be combined to form words
    Explanation
    Hieroglyphics, the Egyptian writing system, was a form of picture writing where physical figures represented words or sounds that could be combined to form words. This means that instead of using letters or abstract symbols to represent language, hieroglyphics used images that conveyed meaning. These images could represent specific words or sounds, and by combining them, complex ideas and words could be expressed. This made hieroglyphics a unique and innovative writing system, and it is considered the world's first writing system. It was not the only writing system of the earliest high civilizations, but it was a significant and influential one.

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  • 15. 

    It was said that Pharaoh

    • A.

      Could never fail in a military undertaking

    • B.

      Was a god

    • C.

      Was a human with divine inspiration

    • D.

      Ruled as the "alter-ego" of the Nile god

    Correct Answer
    B. Was a god
    Explanation
    According to the given information, it is stated that Pharaoh "was a god". This suggests that Pharaoh was believed to possess divine qualities or was considered a deity in ancient Egyptian culture. This belief in the divinity of Pharaohs was a significant aspect of their power and authority, as they were seen as the intermediary between the gods and the people. Therefore, the statement "was a god" accurately reflects the perception of Pharaoh in ancient Egypt.

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  • 16. 

    Qualities of truth and justice

    • A.

      Were really lacking of the Egyptian religion

    • B.

      Are associated with Ma'at

    • C.

      Were traditions Egyptians absorbed from the Hebrews during their captivity

    • D.

      Was the primary code of loyalty to pharaoh

    Correct Answer
    B. Are associated with Ma'at
    Explanation
    Ma'at was a central concept in ancient Egyptian religion, representing truth, justice, and balance. It was believed that living in accordance with Ma'at would bring order and harmony to society. The qualities of truth and justice were closely associated with Ma'at, and adhering to these principles was considered essential for a just and righteous society. Therefore, the correct answer is that these qualities are associated with Ma'at in the Egyptian religion.

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  • 17. 

    All of the following were achievements of the Egyptians except

    • A.

      Pyramid building

    • B.

      The invention of the solar calendar

    • C.

      Superb engineering skills

    • D.

      The invention of the lunar calendar

    Correct Answer
    D. The invention of the lunar calendar
    Explanation
    The Egyptians were known for their pyramid building, superb engineering skills, and the invention of the solar calendar. However, there is no evidence or historical records to suggest that they invented the lunar calendar. The lunar calendar was used by various ancient civilizations such as the Babylonians and the Chinese, but not by the Egyptians.

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  • 18. 

    Who is most associated with promoting monotheistic ideas?

    • A.

      Ramses

    • B.

      Ahmose

    • C.

      Tutankhamen

    • D.

      Akhenaton

    Correct Answer
    D. Akhenaton
    Explanation
    Akhenaton is most associated with promoting monotheistic ideas. He was an Egyptian pharaoh who introduced the worship of a single god, the Aten, and attempted to suppress the worship of other deities. Akhenaton's religious reforms were radical for their time and had a significant impact on Egyptian society and culture. His reign marked a departure from the traditional polytheistic beliefs and established a brief period of monotheism in ancient Egypt.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following groups ended Egyptian independence?

    • A.

      Libyans

    • B.

      Nubians

    • C.

      Assyrians

    • D.

      Greeks

    Correct Answer
    D. Greeks
    Explanation
    The Greeks ended Egyptian independence.

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  • 20. 

    The Hittites are best associated with

    • A.

      Early development of iron

    • B.

      Early bone tools

    • C.

      Bronze weapons

    • D.

      The first war chariots

    Correct Answer
    A. Early development of iron
    Explanation
    The Hittites are best associated with the early development of iron. The Hittites were an ancient civilization that emerged in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) around the 18th century BCE. They are known for their advanced knowledge and use of iron, which gave them a significant advantage in warfare and trade. The Hittites were among the first civilizations to master the techniques of ironworking and were able to produce stronger and more durable weapons and tools compared to those made of bronze. Their mastery of iron technology played a crucial role in their military dominance and cultural influence in the ancient Near East.

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  • 21. 

    One can credit Ashurbanipal with

    • A.

      Building the Hanging Gardens

    • B.

      Maintaining a large library of clay tablets

    • C.

      Furthering the ideas of Zoroaster

    • D.

      Restoring Nineveh

    Correct Answer
    B. Maintaining a large library of clay tablets
    Explanation
    Ashurbanipal can be credited with maintaining a large library of clay tablets. This is because Ashurbanipal was known for his extensive collection of written works, which included various subjects such as literature, history, and astronomy. The library contained over 30,000 clay tablets, making it one of the largest and most important libraries of its time. Ashurbanipal's dedication to preserving and expanding knowledge through the maintenance of this library demonstrates his commitment to education and the dissemination of information in ancient Mesopotamia.

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  • 22. 

    Which religion came to be associated with Persian rulers?

    • A.

      Worship of Marduk

    • B.

      Judaism

    • C.

      Zoroastrianism

    • D.

      The monotheism of Akhenaten

    Correct Answer
    C. Zoroastrianism
    Explanation
    Zoroastrianism came to be associated with Persian rulers. Zoroastrianism is an ancient Iranian religion that originated in Persia (modern-day Iran). It was founded by the prophet Zoroaster and became the dominant religion in Persia during the Achaemenid Empire. Persian rulers, such as Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, embraced Zoroastrianism and promoted it as the state religion. Zoroastrianism emphasizes the worship of Ahura Mazda, the supreme deity, and promotes concepts such as good versus evil, moral responsibility, and the afterlife.

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  • 23. 

    The term satrap relates to

    • A.

      A flat-bottomed sailboat that moved heavy goods

    • B.

      A type of sandal that distinguished slaves from free peasants in Persia

    • C.

      A governor in the Persian Empire

    • D.

      A collection of cunieform tablets

    Correct Answer
    C. A governor in the Persian Empire
    Explanation
    The term satrap refers to a governor in the Persian Empire. In ancient Persia, the empire was divided into provinces, and each province was governed by a satrap. The satraps were appointed by the Persian king and were responsible for maintaining order, collecting taxes, and enforcing the king's laws in their respective provinces. They held significant power and were accountable to the king. This system of governance helped the Persian Empire maintain control over its vast territories.

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  • 24. 

    Who founded a dualistic religion in the Near East?

    • A.

      Zoroaster

    • B.

      Moses

    • C.

      Akhenaton

    • D.

      Joshua

    Correct Answer
    A. Zoroaster
    Explanation
    Zoroaster is the correct answer because he is known as the founder of Zoroastrianism, a dualistic religion that originated in the Near East. Zoroastrianism is characterized by the belief in a constant battle between good and evil forces, with Zoroaster being the prophet who received divine revelations and teachings. This religion had a significant influence on the development of many later religious and philosophical traditions in the region.

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  • 25. 

    Which term is best associated with the "Wise Lord" or the god of light and justice?

    • A.

      Ahriman

    • B.

      Ma'at

    • C.

      Ahura Mazda

    • D.

      Isis

    Correct Answer
    C. Ahura Mazda
    Explanation
    Ahura Mazda is the best term associated with the "Wise Lord" or the god of light and justice. Ahura Mazda is the supreme deity in Zoroastrianism, an ancient Persian religion. He is considered the creator of all things and represents wisdom, light, and righteousness. Ahura Mazda is often depicted as a benevolent and just god, in contrast to Ahriman, who represents evil and darkness. Ma'at is an Egyptian goddess associated with truth and justice, while Isis is an Egyptian goddess associated with motherhood and magic.

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  • 26. 

    One Greek contribution to Western Civilization was

    • A.

      The application of reason to understanding the meaning of life

    • B.

      Hellenistic foreign policy

    • C.

      Increasing women's political rights

    • D.

      Joining together religion and politics to derive Greek ethics

    Correct Answer
    A. The application of reason to understanding the meaning of life
    Explanation
    The Greek contribution to Western Civilization was the application of reason to understanding the meaning of life. The ancient Greeks valued rational thinking and sought to explore and understand the world around them through logic and critical thinking. This approach, known as philosophy, influenced many aspects of Western culture and laid the foundation for scientific inquiry, ethics, and political thought. By emphasizing reason, the Greeks encouraged the pursuit of knowledge and the development of intellectual discourse, which continues to shape our understanding of the world today.

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  • 27. 

    The work of Heinrich Schliemann resulted in

    • A.

      The discovery of Mycenaean civilization

    • B.

      The earliest translation of Homeric works

    • C.

      Excavations on the island of Crete

    • D.

      An understanding of the Dorian invasions

    Correct Answer
    A. The discovery of Mycenaean civilization
    Explanation
    Heinrich Schliemann's work led to the discovery of the Mycenaean civilization. Schliemann was an archaeologist who believed in the historical accuracy of the Homeric epics, specifically the Iliad and the Odyssey. He conducted excavations in Greece and Turkey, focusing on sites mentioned in these epics. His most significant find was the city of Troy, confirming the existence of the Trojan War. In addition to Troy, Schliemann also discovered the ancient city of Mycenae, which was the center of the Mycenaean civilization. Through his excavations, Schliemann brought to light the rich history and culture of the Mycenaeans.

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  • 28. 

    Mycenaean civilization thrived between

    • A.

      1700-1650 bc

    • B.

      1400-1230 bc

    • C.

      1000-850 bc

    • D.

      800-600 bc

    Correct Answer
    B. 1400-1230 bc
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1400-1230 BC. The Mycenaean civilization thrived during this time period, which is commonly referred to as the Late Bronze Age. This was a time of significant cultural and economic development in ancient Greece, characterized by the rise of powerful city-states and the construction of monumental palaces and fortifications. The Mycenaeans were known for their advanced architecture, pottery, and military prowess, and their civilization reached its peak during the 14th and 13th centuries BC.

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  • 29. 

    Homer's major epics were

    • A.

      Illiad and Odyssey

    • B.

      Lysistrata and The Frogs

    • C.

      Antigone and The Bacchae

    • D.

      The Symposium and The Republic

    Correct Answer
    A. Illiad and Odyssey
    Explanation
    Homer's major epics were the Illiad and Odyssey. These two poems are considered the cornerstone of Western literature and are attributed to Homer, an ancient Greek poet. The Illiad is an epic poem that tells the story of the Trojan War, while the Odyssey follows the adventures of Odysseus as he tries to return home after the war. Both epics are renowned for their rich storytelling, vivid characters, and exploration of themes such as heroism, fate, and the human condition.

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  • 30. 

    Mount Olympus was famous as

    • A.

      The home of the Greek gods

    • B.

      The area where the gods fought for supremacy

    • C.

      A shrine for those who died in the Peloponnesian Wars

    • D.

      Agamemnon's home

    Correct Answer
    A. The home of the Greek gods
    Explanation
    Mount Olympus was famous as the home of the Greek gods because according to Greek mythology, it was believed to be the dwelling place of the twelve major gods and goddesses. It was considered a sacred and divine place, where the gods resided and ruled over the mortal world. Mount Olympus was depicted as a majestic and awe-inspiring mountain, symbolizing the power and authority of the gods. It was a central and significant location in Greek mythology, serving as the backdrop for many mythological stories and legends involving the gods and their interactions with humans.

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  • 31. 

    By the fifth century bc, Greeks believed the only way to the good life was through

    • A.

      Loyalty the the family

    • B.

      Ammassing enough wealth to live without fear

    • C.

      The polis

    • D.

      Devotion to the gods of their city

    Correct Answer
    C. The polis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the polis." In ancient Greece, the polis referred to the city-state and its political community. Greeks believed that the good life could only be achieved through active participation and loyalty to the polis. This included being a responsible citizen, engaging in politics, and contributing to the well-being of the community. The polis was seen as the center of social, cultural, and political life, and it played a crucial role in shaping the values and identity of the Greeks.

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  • 32. 

    The early inhabitants of the area around Sparta

    • A.

      Assimilated with their conquerors

    • B.

      Moved to Athens

    • C.

      Became known as helots

    • D.

      Were trained as slave-warriors

    Correct Answer
    C. Became known as helots
    Explanation
    The early inhabitants of the area around Sparta became known as helots. The term "helot" refers to the enslaved population in ancient Sparta who were conquered by the Spartans and forced into servitude. The helots were a crucial part of the Spartan economy and society, providing labor and agricultural production. They were treated as property and had limited rights, but they also played a significant role in Spartan military efforts as they were trained as slave-warriors.

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  • 33. 

    Which period in Greek History is referred to as the Dark Age?

    • A.

      1400-1230 bc

    • B.

      1100-800 bc

    • C.

      800-500 bc

    • D.

      2000-1900 bc

    Correct Answer
    B. 1100-800 bc
    Explanation
    The period in Greek History referred to as the Dark Age is 1100-800 BC. This era is characterized by a decline in population, trade, and cultural advancements. It was a time of political instability, economic hardship, and limited written records. The term "Dark Age" is used to describe this period because of the lack of historical documentation and the overall decline in civilization compared to the preceding Mycenaean period.

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  • 34. 

    The Greek term arete means

    • A.

      A theory of the absolutist state

    • B.

      The notion that laws had divine sanction

    • C.

      The recognition that political power and morality could be separated

    • D.

      Excellence

    Correct Answer
    D. Excellence
    Explanation
    The Greek term "arete" refers to excellence. In ancient Greek culture, arete was highly valued and represented the pursuit of excellence in all aspects of life, including moral and intellectual virtues. It encompassed the idea of striving for the highest potential and achieving greatness in one's actions and character. Arete was seen as a noble quality that distinguished individuals who displayed exceptional skill, virtue, and moral integrity. Thus, the term "excellence" accurately captures the meaning of arete in Greek philosophy and society.

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  • 35. 

    Of the following, the pair that is least well matched is

    • A.

      Homer-Illiad

    • B.

      Solon-Spartan military leader

    • C.

      Draco-law code

    • D.

      Pesistratus-tyrant

    Correct Answer
    B. Solon-Spartan military leader
    Explanation
    The pair that is least well matched is Solon-Spartan military leader. Solon was an Athenian statesman and lawmaker, known for his reforms and contributions to the development of democracy in Athens. He was not associated with the Spartan military leadership.

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  • 36. 

    Helots were

    • A.

      Agricultural slaves of the Spartans

    • B.

      Athenian light infantry

    • C.

      Oarsmen in the city-states' fleets

    • D.

      Spartan hoplites

    Correct Answer
    A. Agricultural slaves of the Spartans
    Explanation
    Helots were agricultural slaves of the Spartans. The term "helots" refers to a class of unfree individuals who were bound to the land and forced to work for Spartan citizens. They were considered property and were subjected to harsh treatment and exploitation. The Spartans relied on the labor of the helots to support their society and maintain their military dominance. The helots played a crucial role in the agricultural production of Sparta, allowing the Spartan citizens to focus on military training and warfare.

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  • 37. 

    The reputation of Cleisthenes rests upon his work as

    • A.

      A demagogue who rallied Athens against Sparta

    • B.

      The father of Athenian democracy

    • C.

      The oracle at Delphi

    • D.

      A compiler of medical texts

    Correct Answer
    B. The father of Athenian democracy
    Explanation
    Cleisthenes is known as the father of Athenian democracy because he played a crucial role in the establishment of democratic reforms in Athens during the late 6th century BC. He introduced several important democratic principles, such as the creation of a council of representatives, the institution of ostracism, and the reorganization of political districts. Cleisthenes' reforms aimed to give more power and voice to the Athenian citizens, marking a significant shift towards a more inclusive and participatory form of government. His contributions to the development of Athenian democracy solidify his reputation as its father.

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  • 38. 

    The Athenian conception of excellence is best associated with

    • A.

      Participating in civic affairs

    • B.

      Loyalty to the clan

    • C.

      Harmony of physical and mental attributes

    • D.

      The full development and enrichment of the human personality

    Correct Answer
    D. The full development and enrichment of the human personality
    Explanation
    The Athenian conception of excellence is best associated with the full development and enrichment of the human personality. This is because the Athenians believed that true excellence could only be achieved through the cultivation of all aspects of a person's being, including their physical, mental, and moral attributes. They believed that individuals should strive to become well-rounded and virtuous citizens who contribute to the betterment of society. This idea of excellence was deeply rooted in the Athenian democratic ideals of active participation in civic affairs and the pursuit of knowledge and self-improvement.

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  • 39. 

    The First Persian Invasion of Greece was brought on by

    • A.

      Persian king Darius's hatred of Greek culture

    • B.

      Spartan raids on Persian territory in Phoenicia

    • C.

      A Spartan invitation to the Persians to intervene in their war with Athens

    • D.

      Athenian support for a Greek rebellion in Asia Minor

    Correct Answer
    D. Athenian support for a Greek rebellion in Asia Minor
    Explanation
    The First Persian Invasion of Greece was brought on by Athenian support for a Greek rebellion in Asia Minor. This rebellion threatened Persian control over the region, prompting King Darius to retaliate by invading Greece. The Athenians, in their support for the rebellion, had indirectly provoked the Persian invasion.

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  • 40. 

    The Athenian statesman Solon wanted to

    • A.

      Restore aristocracy

    • B.

      Concentrate wealth in the hands of a few to make easier tax collection

    • C.

      Balance the interests of the wealthy aristocrats and ordinary Athenians in politics

    • D.

      Establish order in Athens with a law code enforcing very harsh punishments

    Correct Answer
    C. Balance the interests of the wealthy aristocrats and ordinary Athenians in politics
    Explanation
    Solon, the Athenian statesman, aimed to balance the interests of both the wealthy aristocrats and the ordinary Athenians in politics. This suggests that he wanted to create a system that would consider the needs and desires of both groups, ensuring a fair representation of their interests in the political decision-making process. By doing so, Solon aimed to promote harmony and stability within Athens, while also preventing any one group from dominating the political landscape.

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  • 41. 

    During the era of the Delian League

    • A.

      Athens dominated and abused other Greek states

    • B.

      States could withdraw from the League only after paying a crushing fine

    • C.

      Money from the League treasury was distributed equally to each member state

    • D.

      There was increased admiration and loyalty to Athens among the Greeks

    Correct Answer
    A. Athens dominated and abused other Greek states
    Explanation
    During the era of the Delian League, Athens emerged as the dominant power and took advantage of its position by exerting control over other Greek states. This domination involved exploiting and mistreating these states. Additionally, the League imposed a hefty fine on any member state that wished to withdraw, making it difficult for them to break free from Athens' control. The unequal distribution of funds from the League treasury further reinforced Athens' power and influence, leading to an increase in admiration and loyalty towards Athens among the Greeks.

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  • 42. 

    The oration delivered by Pericles demonstrated Athenian concern for

    • A.

      The condition fo slaves

    • B.

      Civic freedom

    • C.

      Personal freedom

    • D.

      Both b and c

    Correct Answer
    D. Both b and c
    Explanation
    The oration delivered by Pericles demonstrated Athenian concern for both civic freedom and personal freedom. Pericles emphasized the importance of democracy and the rights of individuals in Athenian society. He highlighted the freedom of speech, the right to participate in public affairs, and the equal treatment of citizens under the law. Additionally, Pericles acknowledged the contributions of slaves to Athenian society, indicating a level of concern for their condition. Therefore, the oration addressed both civic freedom and personal freedom, showing Athenian concern for both.

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  • 43. 

    The Peloponnesian War was

    • A.

      The Persian invasion of Greece just after 500 BC

    • B.

      A war between the Delian League adn the Peloponnesian League

    • C.

      A war between Thebes and Sparta

    • D.

      The Macedonian invasion of Greece

    Correct Answer
    B. A war between the Delian League adn the Peloponnesian League
    Explanation
    The Peloponnesian War was a war between the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League. The Delian League, led by Athens, was an alliance of Greek city-states formed to defend against the Persian invasion. The Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta, was a rival alliance of city-states in the Peloponnese region. The war was fought between these two powerful alliances and lasted for nearly three decades, from 431 to 404 BC. It was a conflict over power, influence, and control in ancient Greece.

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  • 44. 

    The Peloponnesian League was led by

    • A.

      Macedonia

    • B.

      Athens

    • C.

      Sparta

    • D.

      Thebes

    Correct Answer
    C. Sparta
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Sparta because the Peloponnesian League was an alliance of city-states in ancient Greece, and Sparta was the dominant city-state and leader of this league. Sparta was known for its military prowess and its role in the Peloponnesian War against Athens. The league was formed as a counterbalance to Athenian power and influence, and Sparta played a central role in coordinating the military and political affairs of the member states.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following states emerged as a first-rate power in the fourth century BC?

    • A.

      Sparta

    • B.

      Syracuse

    • C.

      Macedonia

    • D.

      Thebes

    Correct Answer
    C. Macedonia
    Explanation
    Macedonia emerged as a first-rate power in the fourth century BC. Under the leadership of Philip II, Macedonia expanded its territory and built a strong and professional army. Philip's son, Alexander the Great, further expanded the empire, conquering vast territories and establishing one of the largest empires in history. This period is known as the Hellenistic period, and Macedonia played a significant role in spreading Greek culture and influence throughout the ancient world.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following statement describes Anaximander's work with the Ionian school of philosophy?

    • A.

      He believed the primary substance was fire

    • B.

      He argues that Nature was lawful

    • C.

      Water was referred to as the primary substance

    • D.

      Floods were said to have been caused by Poseidon

    Correct Answer
    B. He argues that Nature was lawful
    Explanation
    Anaximander's work with the Ionian school of philosophy can be described by the statement "he argues that Nature was lawful." This means that Anaximander believed that there were natural laws or principles that governed the workings of the universe. He sought to understand and explain the natural world through rational and systematic thinking, rather than attributing natural phenomena to the actions of gods or mythical beings. This perspective was a departure from earlier beliefs that attributed natural events to the whims of gods or other supernatural forces. Anaximander's emphasis on natural laws laid the foundation for scientific inquiry and the development of Western philosophy.

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  • 47. 

    The earliest Ionian philosophy

    • A.

      Was associated with the priesthood

    • B.

      Originated in Mesopotamia

    • C.

      Began with Thales

    • D.

      Still maintained the gods were the origin of nature

    Correct Answer
    C. Began with Thales
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "began with Thales." This is because Thales of Miletus is considered the first philosopher in the Ionian tradition. He sought to explain natural phenomena without reference to mythological or supernatural explanations, marking a shift towards rational and naturalistic thinking. Thales believed that the fundamental substance of the universe was water, and he sought to explain various natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and eclipses, in terms of natural causes rather than divine intervention. Therefore, the Ionian philosophy began with Thales and his rejection of the gods as the origin of nature.

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  • 48. 

    The term "matter philosophers" has been applied to

    • A.

      The theoreticians of Miletus

    • B.

      Early Athenian philosophers

    • C.

      The Ionian School

    • D.

      Teachers in the Sophist tradition

    Correct Answer
    C. The Ionian School
    Explanation
    The term "matter philosophers" refers to the theoreticians of Miletus, early Athenian philosophers, the Ionian School, and teachers in the Sophist tradition. However, the correct answer is the Ionian School. This school of thought, which was centered in the ancient Greek region of Ionia, focused on understanding the nature of the physical world and the fundamental elements that make it up. They believed that the primary substance of the universe was a single material called "physis" or "matter." The Ionian School included prominent thinkers like Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following speculated that the world was composed of atoms?

    • A.

      Democritus

    • B.

      Parmenides

    • C.

      Thales

    • D.

      Pythagoras

    Correct Answer
    A. Democritus
    Explanation
    Democritus is the correct answer because he was a Greek philosopher who proposed the atomic theory. He believed that the world was composed of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms. Democritus argued that these atoms were in constant motion and combined to form different substances. His ideas were revolutionary at the time and laid the foundation for modern atomic theory. Parmenides, Thales, and Pythagoras were also ancient Greek philosophers, but they did not specifically speculate about the composition of the world in terms of atoms.

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  • 50. 

    Hippocrates

    • A.

      Ascribed a divine origin to epilepsy

    • B.

      Treated epilepsy with "cupping"

    • C.

      Denied that epilepsy was sacred or had a divine origin

    • D.

      Believed epilepsy was a contagious disease spread by mosquitoes

    Correct Answer
    C. Denied that epilepsy was sacred or had a divine origin
    Explanation
    Hippocrates believed that epilepsy was not a sacred or divine condition. He did not attribute the cause of epilepsy to any supernatural or divine origins. Instead, he approached epilepsy as a medical condition that could be understood and treated through scientific means. This perspective challenged the prevailing belief at the time that epilepsy was a result of divine intervention or possession. By denying the sacred or divine nature of epilepsy, Hippocrates paved the way for a more rational and scientific understanding of the condition.

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