Surgical Technology Examination Appleton & Lange Pg109-124 CST Exam Prep

104 Questions | Total Attempts: 1431

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Surgical Technology Quizzes & Trivia

Surgical Technology Examination Appleton & Lange pg74-88 CST exam prep


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    719. In a gastrointestinal closure, the mucosa of the intestinal tract is closed with
    • A. 

      Chromic 4-0 or 3-0

    • B. 

      Silk 4-0 or 3-0

    • C. 

      Dacron 3-0 or 2-0

    • D. 

      Novafil 3-0 or 2-0

  • 2. 
    720. Which type of suture would be used to invert the stump of an appendix?
    • A. 

      Buried

    • B. 

      Purse-string

    • C. 

      Mattress

    • D. 

      Tension

  • 3. 
    721. Why are bumpers or bolsters used on retention sutures?
    • A. 

      To prevent the suture from cutting into the skin surface

    • B. 

      To facilitate easy removal

    • C. 

      To identify the order of suture removal

    • D. 

      To prevent unequal tension on the wound edges

  • 4. 
    722. A Nissen Fundoplication procedure is done to correct
    • A. 

      Repeated attacks of volvulus

    • B. 

      Antireflux disease

    • C. 

      Bladder prolapse

    • D. 

      Gastroesophageal stenosis

  • 5. 
    723. A dissecting sponge that is a small roll of heavy cotton tape is a
    • A. 

      Kitner

    • B. 

      Peanut

    • C. 

      Tonsil

    • D. 

      Tape

  • 6. 
    724. Which procedure would not require a pressure dressing?
    • A. 

      Plastic surgery

    • B. 

      Knee surgery

    • C. 

      Radical mastectomy

    • D. 

      Hysterectomy

  • 7. 
    725. Peanuts and dissecting sponges are generally
    • A. 

      Used dry

    • B. 

      Moistened with saline

    • C. 

      Moistened with water

    • D. 

      Moistened with antibiotic solution

  • 8. 
    726. Intraabdominally, lap pads are most often used
    • A. 

      Dry

    • B. 

      Moistened with saline

    • C. 

      Moistened with water

    • D. 

      Moistened with glycine solution

  • 9. 
    727. A catheter commonly used in a gastrostomy is a
    • A. 

      Mushroom

    • B. 

      Rehfus

    • C. 

      Cantor

    • D. 

      Sengstaken-Blakemore

  • 10. 
    728. Before handing a Penrose drain to the surgeon
    • A. 

      Place it on an Allis clamp

    • B. 

      Attach a safety pin to it

    • C. 

      Cut it to the desired length

    • D. 

      Moisten it in saline

  • 11. 
    729. A closed-wound suction system works by
    • A. 

      Possitive pressure

    • B. 

      Negative-pressure vacuum

    • C. 

      Air displacement

    • D. 

      Constant gravity drainage

  • 12. 
    730. Which condition regarding sterile technique is NOT recommended?
    • A. 

      Sterile tables are set up just before the operation

    • B. 

      Sterile tables may be set up and safely covered until time of surgery

    • C. 

      Once sterile packs are open, someone must remain in the room to maintain vigilance

    • D. 

      Sterile persons pass each other back to back

  • 13. 
    731. Which of the following conditions is not an acceptable aseptic technique?
    • A. 

      Scrub nurse standing on a platform or standing stool

    • B. 

      Scrub nurse keeps hands below shoulder level

    • C. 

      Scrub nurse folds arms with hands at axillae

    • D. 

      Scrub nurse's hands are at or above waist level

  • 14. 
    732. The disposable circular staple designed to hold two tubular structures together after resection is known as
    • A. 

      TA linear

    • B. 

      LDS

    • C. 

      EEA

    • D. 

      GIA

  • 15. 
    733. When a sterile item is hanging or extending over the sterile table edge, the scrub nurse
    • A. 

      Must watch closely that no one comes near it

    • B. 

      Does not touch the part hanging below table level

    • C. 

      Should pull it back onto the table so it does not become contaminated

    • D. 

      May use the item

  • 16. 
    734. Which of the following is considered a break in technique?
    • A. 

      A sterile person turns his or her back to a nonsterile person or area when passing

    • B. 

      Sterile persons face sterile areas

    • C. 

      A sterile person sits or leans against a nonsterile surface

    • D. 

      Nonsterile persons avoid sterile areas

  • 17. 
    735. In which situation should sterility be questioned?
    • A. 

      If a sterilized pack is found in an unsterile workroom

    • B. 

      If the surgeon turns away from the sterile field for a brow wipe

    • C. 

      If the scrub drapes a nonsterile table, covering the edge nearest the body first

    • D. 

      If the lip of a pour bottle is held over the basin as close to the edge as possible

  • 18. 
    736. Transduodenal sphincterotomy refers to the incision made into the ________ to relieve stenosis.
    • A. 

      Cardiac sphincter

    • B. 

      Ileocecal sphincter

    • C. 

      Sphincter of Oddi

    • D. 

      Phyloric sphincter

  • 19. 
    737. when handing skin towels to the surgeon, where should the scrubperson stand in relation to the surgeon?
    • A. 

      On the opposite side of the table

    • B. 

      On the same side of the table

    • C. 

      At the foot of the table

    • D. 

      Any position is acceptable

  • 20. 
    738. Irrigating fluid used to flush the organ between harvest and transplantation of a liver is known as
    • A. 

      Ringer's Lactate

    • B. 

      Physiosol

    • C. 

      Collin's

    • D. 

      Normal saline

  • 21. 
    739. Each of the following actions by a scrubperson prevents wounds and punctures, according to CDC guidelines EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Use an instrument to remove blades

    • B. 

      Recap injection needles

    • C. 

      Account for each needle as surgeon finishes with it

    • D. 

      Protect sharp blades, edges, and tips

  • 22. 
    740. Which of the following is NOT an acceptable technique when draping a patient?
    • A. 

      Hold the drapes high until directly over the proper area

    • B. 

      Protect the gloved hands by cuffing the end of the drape over them

    • C. 

      Unfold the drapes before bringing them to the OR table

    • D. 

      Place the drapes on a dry area

  • 23. 
    741. The procedure to follow if a hair is found on the operative field is to
    • A. 

      Notify circulator

    • B. 

      Complete an incident report

    • C. 

      Remove it with a clamp, cover over area

    • D. 

      No action is necessary

  • 24. 
    742. Cancer technique in surgery refers to
    • A. 

      The administration of an anticancer drug directly into the cancer site

    • B. 

      The discarding of instruments coming in contact with tumor after each use

    • C. 

      The use of radiation therapy at the time of surgery

    • D. 

      The identification of the lesion

  • 25. 
    743. Why are gowns, gloves, drapes, and instruments changed following a breast biopsy and before incision for a mastectomy?
    • A. 

      To respect individual surgeon's choice

    • B. 

      To follow aseptic principles

    • C. 

      To accommodate two separate incisions

    • D. 

      To protect margins of healthy tissue from tumor cells

  • 26. 
    744. A postoperative complication attributed to glove powder entering a wound is
    • A. 

      Granulomata

    • B. 

      Infection

    • C. 

      Inflammation

    • D. 

      Keloid formation

  • 27. 
    745. The correct procedure for sterile dressing application is
    • A. 

      Apply dressing after drape removal

    • B. 

      Apply dressing before drape removal

    • C. 

      Apply raytex sponges in thick layer

    • D. 

      Apply dressing in recovery room

  • 28. 
    746. When drop technique for an intestinal procedure is utilized
    • A. 

      Two Mayo stands are used

    • B. 

      Drapes and gloves do not need to be changed

    • C. 

      Contaminated instruments are discarded, gloves are changed

    • D. 

      A separate setup is used for the closure

  • 29. 
    747. If the floor or wall becomes contaminated with organic debris during a case, the circulator
    • A. 

      Calls housekeeping stat

    • B. 

      Decontaminates promptly

    • C. 

      Decontaminates after case is complete

    • D. 

      Defers for terminal cleaning

  • 30. 
    748. The Sengstaken-Blakemore tube is used for
    • A. 

      Esophageal hemorrhage

    • B. 

      Tonsillar hemorrhage

    • C. 

      Uterine hemorrhage

    • D. 

      Nasal hemorrhage

  • 31. 
    749. A specially treated form of surgical gauze that has a hemostatic effect when buried in tissue is
    • A. 

      Topical thrombin

    • B. 

      Gelfoam

    • C. 

      Human fibrin foam

    • D. 

      Oxycel

  • 32. 
    750. An enzyme extract from bovine blood used as a topical hemostatic agent is
    • A. 

      Oxytocin

    • B. 

      Tannic acid

    • C. 

      Thrombin

    • D. 

      Collagen

  • 33. 
    751. A common complication of extubation is
    • A. 

      Hypotension

    • B. 

      Tachypnea

    • C. 

      Hypoxia

    • D. 

      Hypercapnia

  • 34. 
    752. The desirable position for better visualization in the lower abdomen or pelvis is
    • A. 

      Fowler's

    • B. 

      Reverse Trendelenburg

    • C. 

      Trendelenburg

    • D. 

      Kraske

  • 35. 
    753. Another name for the Kraske position is
    • A. 

      Prone on an adjustable arch

    • B. 

      Lateral

    • C. 

      Knee-chest

    • D. 

      Jackknife

  • 36. 
    754. All of the following are helpful in keeping accurate account of the sponges EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Keep sponges separate from linen and instruments

    • B. 

      Keep needles separate from sponges

    • C. 

      Keep all sponges and tapes in a basin or close together on the field

    • D. 

      Keep a mental count of the number of sponges on the field at any given time

  • 37. 
    755. Dark Blood in the operative field may indicate that the patient is
    • A. 

      Hyperkalemic

    • B. 

      Hypovolemic

    • C. 

      Hypotensive

    • D. 

      Hypoxic

  • 38. 
    756. In an extreme patient emergency, a sponge count
    • A. 

      May be omitted

    • B. 

      May be done by the scrub alone

    • C. 

      Must be done before the case is allowed to begin

    • D. 

      Must be done before closure

  • 39. 
    757. Cultures obtained during surgery
    • A. 

      Are handled as any other specimen

    • B. 

      Are passed off the sterile field into a bag or container held by the circulator

    • C. 

      Should be kept warm or sent to the lab immediately

    • D. 

      Should be handled only by the scrub nurse

  • 40. 
    758. How is a frozen section sent to the lab?
    • A. 

      In formalin

    • B. 

      In saline

    • C. 

      In water

    • D. 

      Dry

  • 41. 
    759. Which of the following specimens is NOT placed in preservative solution?
    • A. 

      Stones

    • B. 

      Curettings

    • C. 

      Tonsils

    • D. 

      Uterus

  • 42. 
    760. The term transduodenal sphincterotomy indicates surgery of the
    • A. 

      Hepatic duct

    • B. 

      Proximal end of the common bile duct

    • C. 

      Distal end of the common bile duct

    • D. 

      Pyloric sphincter

  • 43. 
    761. McBurney is an incision used for
    • A. 

      Appendectomy

    • B. 

      Cholecystectomy

    • C. 

      Herniorrhaphy

    • D. 

      Pilonidal cystectomy

  • 44. 
    762. The simplest abdominal incision offering good exposure to any part of the abdominal cavity is the
    • A. 

      Right subcostal

    • B. 

      Kocher's

    • C. 

      Midabdominal transverse

    • D. 

      Vertical midline

  • 45. 
    763. During an appendectomy, a purse-string suture is placed around the appendix stump to
    • A. 

      Amputate the appendiceal base

    • B. 

      Retract the appendix

    • C. 

      Tie off the appendix

    • D. 

      Invert the stump of the appendix

  • 46. 
    764. Gastrointestinal technique is required in all of the following procedures EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Cholecystectomy

    • B. 

      Low anterior colon resection

    • C. 

      Appendectomy

    • D. 

      Hemicolectomy

  • 47. 
    765. A hernia occurring in Hesselback's triangle is called
    • A. 

      Indirect

    • B. 

      Spigelean

    • C. 

      Direct

    • D. 

      Femoral

  • 48. 
    766. Pathologic enlargement of the male breast is called
    • A. 

      Subcutaneous adenoma

    • B. 

      Gynecomastia

    • C. 

      Hypoplasia

    • D. 

      Cystic mastitis

  • 49. 
    767. Sutures placed in a wound to prevent wound evisceration are called
    • A. 

      Stent

    • B. 

      Fixation

    • C. 

      Retention

    • D. 

      Traction

  • 50. 
    768. Surgical enlargement of the passage between the prepylorus of the stomach and the duodenum is a
    • A. 

      Pyloromyotomy

    • B. 

      Pyloroplasty

    • C. 

      Billroth I

    • D. 

      Billroth II

  • 51. 
    769. A Whipple operation is surgically termed a
    • A. 

      Pancreatectomy

    • B. 

      Pancreatoduodenectomy

    • C. 

      Pancreatic cyst marsupialization

    • D. 

      Transduodenal sphincterotomy

  • 52. 
    770. A left subcostal incision indicates surgery of the
    • A. 

      Gallbladder

    • B. 

      Pancreas

    • C. 

      Spleen

    • D. 

      Common bile duct

  • 53. 
    771. A lower oblique incision is a(n)
    • A. 

      Pfannenstiel

    • B. 

      Inguinal

    • C. 

      Paramedian

    • D. 

      Midabdominal

  • 54. 
    772. The curved transverse incision used for pelvic surgery is
    • A. 

      Midabdominal transverse

    • B. 

      Poupart

    • C. 

      Pfannenstiel

    • D. 

      McVey

  • 55. 
    773. Which breast procedure removes the entire breast and axillary contents but preserves the pectoral muscles?
    • A. 

      Lumpectomy

    • B. 

      Wedge resection

    • C. 

      Modified radical mastectomy

    • D. 

      Radical mastectomy

  • 56. 
    774. The breast procedure performed to remove extensive benign disease is a(n)
    • A. 

      Axillary node dissection

    • B. 

      Simple mastectomy

    • C. 

      Radical mastectomy

    • D. 

      Modified radical mastectomy

  • 57. 
    775. What incision is indicated for an esophagogastrectomy?
    • A. 

      Left paramedian

    • B. 

      Upper vertical midline

    • C. 

      Thoracoabdominal

    • D. 

      Full midabdominal

  • 58. 
    776. In which incision could retention sutures be used?
    • A. 

      Vertical midline

    • B. 

      McBurney

    • C. 

      Transverse

    • D. 

      Thoracoabdominal

  • 59. 
    777. In which hernia is the blood supply of the trapped sac contents compromised and in danger of necrosing?
    • A. 

      Direct

    • B. 

      Indirect

    • C. 

      Strangulated

    • D. 

      Reducible

  • 60. 
    778. In which hernia does the herniation protrude into the inguinal canal but not the cord?
    • A. 

      Incisional

    • B. 

      Femoral

    • C. 

      Direct

    • D. 

      Indirect

  • 61. 
    779. Which hernia leaves the abdominal cavity at the internal inguinal ring and passes with the cord structures down the inguinal canal?
    • A. 

      Direct

    • B. 

      Umbilical

    • C. 

      Spigelian

    • D. 

      Indirect

  • 62. 
    780. An abdominal wall defect may be reconstructed using
    • A. 

      Gore-Tex patch

    • B. 

      Heavy interrupted silk

    • C. 

      Shouldice repair

    • D. 

      Bassini repair

  • 63. 
    781. Mersilene is a(n)
    • A. 

      Wire mesh

    • B. 

      Absorbable suture

    • C. 

      Nonabsorbable suture

    • D. 

      Synthetic mesh

  • 64. 
    782. In a cholecystectomy, which structures are ligated and divided?
    • A. 

      Cystic duct and cystic artery

    • B. 

      Common bile duct and hepatic duct

    • C. 

      Cystic duct and common bile duct

    • D. 

      Hepatic duct and cystic artery

  • 65. 
    783. All of the following statements refer to pilonidal cyst surgery EXCEPT
    • A. 

      It is performed with an elliptical incision

    • B. 

      The wound frequently heals by granulation

    • C. 

      Probes are required on setup

    • D. 

      The cyst is removed, but the tract remains

  • 66. 
    784. An important consideration during cholangiogram is to
    • A. 

      Irrigate with distilled water

    • B. 

      Remove all air bubbles from the cholangiocath

    • C. 

      Flash sterilize the choledocoscope

    • D. 

      Dip the catheter in lubricating jelly

  • 67. 
    785. An instrument used to elevate the thyroid lobe during surgical excision is a
    • A. 

      Babcock

    • B. 

      Lahey

    • C. 

      Green

    • D. 

      Jackson

  • 68. 
    786. The intestinal layer in order, from inside to outside, is
    • A. 

      Serosa, mucosa, musculature

    • B. 

      Mucosa, submucosa, serosa

    • C. 

      Serosa, musculature, mucosa

    • D. 

      Mucosa, serosa, musculature

  • 69. 
    787. A common postoperative patient complaint following a laparoscopic procedure is
    • A. 

      Headache

    • B. 

      Diarrhea

    • C. 

      Gastric upset

    • D. 

      Shoulder pain

  • 70. 
    788. A subphrenic abscess occurs in the
    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Spleen

    • C. 

      Lung

    • D. 

      Liver

  • 71. 
    789. Portal pressure measurement is indicated in
    • A. 

      Liver transplant

    • B. 

      Splenectomy

    • C. 

      Hepatic resection

    • D. 

      Whipple operation

  • 72. 
    790. Which organ is removed either because of trauma, a blood condition, or as a staging procedure for malignancy?
    • A. 

      Adrenals

    • B. 

      Spleen

    • C. 

      Liver

    • D. 

      Pancreas

  • 73. 
    791. Following a hemorrhoidectomy, a
    • A. 

      Dry dressing of 4 X 4s is packed in the rectum

    • B. 

      Petroleum gauze packing is placed in the anal canal

    • C. 

      Stent dressing is applied

    • D. 

      Steri-strip dressing is used

  • 74. 
    792. A benign anal wall "slit" type of lesion requiring excision is a(n)
    • A. 

      Hemorrhoid

    • B. 

      Anal fistula

    • C. 

      Anal fissure

    • D. 

      Pilonidal sinus

  • 75. 
    793. Which gallbladder procedure ALWAYS requires intraoperative x-rays?
    • A. 

      Choledochoscopy

    • B. 

      Cholelithotripsy

    • C. 

      Choledochoduodenostomy

    • D. 

      Cholangiogram

  • 76. 
    794. In a pilonidal cystectomy, the defect frequently is too large to close and requires use of a(n)
    • A. 

      Skin graft

    • B. 

      Traction suture

    • C. 

      Implant

    • D. 

      Packing and pressure dressing

  • 77. 
    795. The instrument most commonly used to grasp the mesoappendix during an appendectomy is a
    • A. 

      Kelly

    • B. 

      Kocher

    • C. 

      Babcock

    • D. 

      Allis

  • 78. 
    796. Vaporization and coagulation of hemorrhoidal tissue can be accomplished with
    • A. 

      Cautery, bipolar

    • B. 

      Cautery monopolar

    • C. 

      CO2 laser

    • D. 

      Cryosurgery

  • 79. 
    797. An entire tumor / mass removal is termed
    • A. 

      Needle biopsy

    • B. 

      Staging biopsy

    • C. 

      Excisional biopsy

    • D. 

      Incisional biopsy

  • 80. 
    798. A surgical procedure performed to relieve esophageal obstruction caused by cardiospasm is an
    • A. 

      Esophagectomy

    • B. 

      Esophagogastrectomy

    • C. 

      Esophagomyotomy

    • D. 

      Esophagogastrostomy

  • 81. 
    799. Thrombosed vessels of the rectum are known surgically as
    • A. 

      Polyps

    • B. 

      Hemorrhoids

    • C. 

      Fistulas

    • D. 

      Anorectal tumors

  • 82. 
    800. A procedure done to give the colon a rest and then reversed is
    • A. 

      Temporary colectomy

    • B. 

      Temporary colostomy

    • C. 

      Abdominoperineal resection

    • D. 

      McVey procedure

  • 83. 
    801. A device that may obviate the need for an abdominoperineal resection because a low anterior anastomosis can be performed is a(n)
    • A. 

      End-to-end anastomosis (EEA)

    • B. 

      GIA

    • C. 

      TA 55

    • D. 

      LDS

  • 84. 
    802. An advanced inflammation of the bowel could be conservatively treated with which procedure?
    • A. 

      Temporary colostomy

    • B. 

      Anterior resection

    • C. 

      Hemicolectomy

    • D. 

      Abdominal perineal resection

  • 85. 
    803. Blunt dissection of the gallbladder from the sulcus of the liver requires the use of a
    • A. 

      Metzenbaum

    • B. 

      Kelly

    • C. 

      Tampon

    • D. 

      Peanut

  • 86. 
    804. Direct visualization of the common bile duct is accomplished with a
    • A. 

      Cholangiocath

    • B. 

      Cholangiogram

    • C. 

      Choledochoscope

    • D. 

      Trocar

  • 87. 
    805. "Scratch" marking is done in surgery of the
    • A. 

      Chin

    • B. 

      Eye

    • C. 

      Breast

    • D. 

      Thyroid

  • 88. 
    806. Fogarty biliary catheters are used to
    • A. 

      Drain the gallbladder

    • B. 

      Drain the common bile duct

    • C. 

      Instill contrast media

    • D. 

      Facilitate stone removal

  • 89. 
    807. In laparoscopy, tubal patency is checked by
    • A. 

      Irrigating with normal saline

    • B. 

      Injecting renografin into the tube

    • C. 

      Injecting methylene blue into the cervical canal

    • D. 

      Irrigating tube with Lugol's solution

  • 90. 
    808. In a thyroidectomy, a loop retractor retracts the
    • A. 

      Platysma muscle

    • B. 

      Cervical fascia

    • C. 

      Thyroid veins

    • D. 

      Sternocleidomastoid muscle

  • 91. 
    809. Which structure(s) are identified and preserved in thyroid surgery?
    • A. 

      Parathyroid glands

    • B. 

      Hyoid bone

    • C. 

      Thyroglossal duct

    • D. 

      Thyroid lobe

  • 92. 
    810. Bariatric surgery treats
    • A. 

      Ulcers

    • B. 

      Obesity

    • C. 

      Thyroid disease

    • D. 

      Carcinoma of the pancreas

  • 93. 
    811. Which incision would require cutting through Scarpa's fascia?
    • A. 

      Subcostal

    • B. 

      Inguinal

    • C. 

      Pfannenstiel

    • D. 

      McBurney

  • 94. 
    812. A gastroplasty
    • A. 

      Reduces stomach size

    • B. 

      Corrects gastric junction stenosis

    • C. 

      Releases adhesions

    • D. 

      Provides avenue for hyperalimentation

  • 95. 
    813. Which item retracts the spermatic cord structure in herniorrhaphy?
    • A. 

      Army-navy retractor

    • B. 

      Penrose drain

    • C. 

      Green retractor

    • D. 

      Silk suture

  • 96. 
    814. After uterus removal in a hysterectomy
    • A. 

      Cervical and vaginal instruments are isolated from the instrument set in a discard basin

    • B. 

      The cervix is cauterized

    • C. 

      New instruments are used on the cervical closure

    • D. 

      Cervical instruments are returned to the basket

  • 97. 
    815. An irreducible hernia whose abdominal contents have become trapped in the extraabdominal sac is called a(n)
    • A. 

      Incarcerated hernia

    • B. 

      Sliding hernia

    • C. 

      Spigelean hernia

    • D. 

      Strangulated hernia

  • 98. 
    816. Which type of endoscopy camera produces the truest color?
    • A. 

      One-chip

    • B. 

      Two-chip

    • C. 

      Three-chip

    • D. 

      Four-chip

  • 99. 
    817. White balancing a video camera in endoscopy requires the scrub person to focus the camera on
    • A. 

      A white sponge

    • B. 

      A white wall

    • C. 

      A glove wrapper

    • D. 

      Any of the above

  • 100. 
    818. Defogging the video camera is usually the responsibility of the
    • A. 

      Circulator

    • B. 

      Surgeon

    • C. 

      Scrub person

    • D. 

      Camera operator

  • 101. 
    819. A palliative invasive procedure done to prevent malnutrition or starvation is known as
    • A. 

      Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) procedure

    • B. 

      Gastrotomy

    • C. 

      Gastrostomy

    • D. 

      Gastrojejunostomy

  • 102. 
    820. The use of noninvasive high-energy shock waves to pulverize gallstones into small fragments for easy passage through the common bile duct and out of the body is called
    • A. 

      Choledochoscopy

    • B. 

      Cholelithotripsy

    • C. 

      Choledochostomy

    • D. 

      Choledochotomy

  • 103. 
    821. Intraoperative cholangiograms can be performed either through open abdominal or laparoscopic procedures using a contrast medium directly into the common bile duct through a
    • A. 

      Cystocath

    • B. 

      Cholangiocath

    • C. 

      T-tube

    • D. 

      Red rubber catheter

  • 104. 
    822. intra-abdominal pressure during the instillation of CO2 for creation of pneumoperitoneum is 8-10 mmHg. A pressure reading higher than this may indicate that the needle may be
    • A. 

      Buried in fatty tissue

    • B. 

      Buried in the omentum

    • C. 

      In a lumen of intestines

    • D. 

      All of the above