# Surgical Tech (Appleton And Lange) Part 14

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Questions: 44 | Attempts: 437  Settings  Appleton and Lange Part 14 Questions 1300-1399

• 1.

### Radio waves are considered __________ waves.

• A.

Isolated

• B.

Direct

• C.

Simple

• D.

Magnetic

D. Magnetic
Explanation
Radio waves are considered magnetic waves because they are a type of electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic waves consist of both electric and magnetic fields that oscillate perpendicular to each other and travel through space. Radio waves specifically have longer wavelengths and lower frequencies compared to other types of electromagnetic waves, such as visible light or X-rays. These waves are used for communication, broadcasting, and various other applications in technology.

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• 2.

### When current passes from the ESU through the active electrode, the energy is converted from electrical to ___________..

• A.

Mechanical

• B.

Chemical

• C.

Thermal

• D.

Magnetic

C. Thermal
Explanation
When current passes from the ESU through the active electrode, the energy is converted from electrical to thermal. This is because the passage of current through the active electrode generates heat, which is a form of thermal energy.

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• 3.

### What material forms the best conductor of electricity?

• A.

Rubber

• B.

Saltwater

• C.

Copper

• D.

C. Copper
Explanation
Copper is the best conductor of electricity because it has a high electrical conductivity. This means that it allows electric current to flow through it with minimal resistance. Copper is widely used in electrical wiring and circuitry due to its excellent conductivity properties.

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• 4.

### What device is used to control the flow of electricity at the will of the operator?

• A.

• B.

Resistor

• C.

Switch

• D.

Conductor

C. Switch
Explanation
A switch is a device that is used to control the flow of electricity at the will of the operator. It can be turned on or off to allow or block the flow of electricity through a circuit. By opening or closing the circuit, a switch gives the operator the ability to control the flow of electricity and determine whether a device or appliance is powered on or off. Therefore, a switch is the correct answer for this question.

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• 5.

### When operating a piece of electrical OR equipment the most vital prong for safety purposes is the

• A.

Ground

• B.

Negative

• C.

Positive

• D.

Safety

A. Ground
Explanation
When operating a piece of electrical equipment, the most vital prong for safety purposes is the ground. This is because the ground prong is designed to redirect any excess electrical current to the ground, preventing electrical shocks and potential damage to the equipment or the user. Without a proper ground connection, there is a higher risk of electrical accidents and malfunctions.

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• 6.

### Which theory explains the flow of electricity?

• A.

Ohm's

• B.

Electron

• C.

Kirchhoff's

• D.

Atomic

A. Ohm's
Explanation
Ohm's Law is a fundamental theory in physics that explains the flow of electricity. It states that the current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage applied across it and inversely proportional to the resistance of the conductor. This theory helps to understand and calculate the behavior of electric circuits and the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance.

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• 7.

### The standard metric unit of power is

• A.

Amp

• B.

Volt

• C.

Watt

• D.

Hertz

C. Watt
Explanation
The standard metric unit of power is the watt. Power is the rate at which work is done or energy is transferred. The watt is defined as one joule of work per second. It is commonly used to measure the power consumption of electrical devices and is derived from the product of voltage and current.

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• 8.

### A medical imaging technique that reveals the bodies dynamic activities is

• A.

CT

• B.

PET

• C.

Tomogram

• D.

Ultrasound

B. PET
Explanation
PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography, which is a medical imaging technique that reveals the body's dynamic activities. It involves the injection of a radioactive substance into the body, which emits positrons. These positrons collide with electrons in the body, resulting in the emission of gamma rays. The PET scanner detects these gamma rays and creates images that show the metabolic and biochemical processes occurring in the body. This technique is particularly useful in diagnosing and monitoring conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders.

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• 9.

### Motion is known as ____________ energy.

• A.

Mechanical

• B.

Total

• C.

Potential

• D.

Kinetic

D. Kinetic
Explanation
Motion is known as kinetic energy because kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its motion. When an object is in motion, it has the ability to do work and transfer energy to other objects. Kinetic energy depends on the mass and velocity of the object, and it increases as the object's speed increases. Therefore, motion is directly related to kinetic energy, making it the correct answer.

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• 10.

### The rate at which work is done is known as

• A.

Velocity

• B.

Energy

• C.

Power

• D.

Watt

C. Power
Explanation
Power is the correct answer because power is the rate at which work is done or the amount of work done per unit of time. It is a measure of how quickly energy is transferred or transformed. Velocity is the rate of change of displacement, energy is the capacity to do work, and watt is the unit of power.

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• 11.

### ___________ borders the outer perimeter of an atom and is ___________ charged.

• A.

Neutron, positively

• B.

Electron, negatively

• C.

Electron, positively

• D.

Proton, negatively

B. Electron, negatively
Explanation
The electron is a subatomic particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom. It is negatively charged, meaning it has an excess of electrons compared to protons. The outer perimeter of an atom is where the electrons are located, forming a cloud-like structure known as the electron cloud. This cloud acts as a boundary or border for the atom, and it is the negatively charged electrons that define this outer perimeter.

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• 12.

### The gain or loss of electrons in an atom is termed

• A.

Hydraulic pressure

• B.

Boyle's Law

• C.

Ionization

• D.

Consolidation

C. Ionization
Explanation
Ionization refers to the process of gaining or losing electrons in an atom. When an atom gains or loses electrons, it becomes an ion, either positively or negatively charged. This process is important in many chemical reactions and plays a crucial role in the formation of compounds. Ionization can occur through various means, such as through the interaction with other atoms or molecules, exposure to high energy radiation, or through electrical currents. By understanding ionization, scientists can better comprehend the behavior and properties of atoms and molecules.

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• 13.

### The transfer of thermal energy by contact is called

• A.

Greenhouse effect

• B.

• C.

Convention

• D.

Conduction

D. Conduction
Explanation
Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy through direct contact between particles or objects. In this process, heat is transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature. Unlike radiation, which transfers heat through electromagnetic waves, conduction requires physical contact between the objects or particles. The greenhouse effect refers to the trapping of heat in the Earth's atmosphere, while convention is the transfer of heat through the movement of fluids. Therefore, the correct answer is conduction.

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• 14.

### A repeated periodic disturbance or variation of energy, carried through a medium from point to point is called

• A.

Transfer energy

• B.

Wave

• C.

Oscillations

• D.

Molecular change

B. Wave
Explanation
A wave is a repeated periodic disturbance or variation of energy that is carried through a medium from point to point. Waves can take different forms, such as sound waves, light waves, or water waves. They transfer energy from one location to another without actually moving the particles of the medium. This is why a wave can travel through a medium like water or air, but the individual particles of the medium only oscillate in place. Waves play a crucial role in various phenomena and are fundamental to understanding many aspects of physics and the natural world.

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• 15.

### The frequency of sound is stated in a measurement of

• A.

Amps

• B.

Hertz

• C.

Waves

• D.

Compressions

B. Hertz
Explanation
The frequency of sound refers to the number of vibrations or cycles per second. It is measured in hertz (Hz), which represents one cycle per second. Amps is a unit of measurement for electric current, waves refer to the physical propagation of sound, and compressions are a result of sound waves compressing and decompressing air molecules. Therefore, hertz is the correct unit of measurement for sound frequency.

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• 16.

### The study of objects in motion is

• A.

Mechanics

• B.

Velocity

• C.

Speed

• D.

Acceleration

A. Mechanics
Explanation
The study of objects in motion is referred to as mechanics. Mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with the motion, forces, and energy of objects. It involves understanding concepts such as velocity, speed, and acceleration, but it goes beyond just these individual terms. Mechanics encompasses a broader understanding of how objects move and interact with each other, making it the correct answer.

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• 17.

### The study that focuses on the forces which cause motion is

• A.

Kinematics

• B.

Dynamics

• C.

Statics

• D.

Inertia

B. Dynamics
Explanation
Dynamics is the study that focuses on the forces which cause motion. It involves analyzing how objects move and the factors that affect their motion, such as forces, acceleration, and mass. Kinematics, on the other hand, is the study of motion without considering the forces causing it. Statics is the study of objects at rest or in equilibrium, while inertia is the property of matter that resists changes in motion. Therefore, dynamics is the correct answer as it specifically deals with the forces that cause motion.

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• 18.

### The three laws of motion that are the basics of classical mechanics are the work of

• A.

Hooke

• B.

Newton

• C.

Bohr

• D.

Ohm

B. Newton
Explanation
The correct answer is Newton because he formulated the three laws of motion, which are fundamental principles in classical mechanics. These laws describe the relationship between the motion of an object and the forces acting upon it. Newton's laws of motion have had a significant impact on the field of physics and are still widely used today to understand and analyze the behavior of objects in motion.

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• 19.

### Any time that an object's velocity is changing we say it is

• A.

Accelerating

• B.

Projecting

• C.

Orbiting

• D.

Static

A. Accelerating
Explanation
When an object's velocity is changing, we say it is accelerating. Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes over time. It can be positive when the object speeds up, negative when it slows down, or even zero when the object's velocity remains constant. Therefore, the correct answer is accelerating.

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• 20.

### The property of matter that causes matter to resist change in motion is called

• A.

Speed

• B.

Inertia

• C.

Momentum

• D.

Range

B. Inertia
Explanation
Inertia is the property of matter that causes it to resist changes in its motion. It is the tendency of an object to continue moving in a straight line at a constant speed or to remain at rest unless acted upon by an external force. Inertia is related to an object's mass, where objects with greater mass have greater inertia. This property is why it is difficult to start or stop a moving object or change its direction.

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• 21.

### What is the measure of the amount of inertia an object possesses?

• A.

Momentum

• B.

Range

• C.

Equilibrium

• D.

Mass

D. Mass
Explanation
Mass is the measure of the amount of inertia an object possesses. Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion, and it is directly proportional to the mass of the object. The greater the mass, the greater the inertia, meaning that it will be more difficult to change the object's state of motion. Therefore, mass is the correct answer as it quantifies the amount of inertia an object has.

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• 22.

### For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction references ____________law.

• A.

Newton's first law

• B.

Newton's second law

• C.

Newton's third law

• D.

Hooke's law

C. Newton's third law
Explanation
Newton's third law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that whenever an object exerts a force on another object, the second object exerts a force of equal magnitude but in the opposite direction on the first object. This law explains the relationship between two interacting objects and the forces they exert on each other. Therefore, the correct answer is Newton's third law.

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• 23.

### If an object returns to its original position after force has been applied and then removed is said to be

• A.

Dynamic

• B.

Static

• C.

Elastic

• D.

Periodic

C. Elastic
Explanation
An object that returns to its original position after a force has been applied and then removed is said to be elastic. Elasticity refers to the property of a material to regain its original shape and size after being deformed by an external force. This characteristic is commonly observed in materials like rubber bands or springs, which can stretch or compress under force but return to their original state once the force is removed.

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• 24.

### The maximum distance that an object moves from its central position (equilibrium) is called

• A.

Frequency

• B.

Amplitude

• C.

Cycle

• D.

Momentum

B. Amplitude
Explanation
The maximum distance that an object moves from its central position is called amplitude. It represents the magnitude or intensity of the object's motion. In the context of waves, such as sound or light waves, amplitude refers to the maximum displacement of the wave from its equilibrium position. It is a measure of the wave's energy and determines the loudness of sound or the brightness of light. In the context of oscillations, amplitude represents the maximum displacement of an object from its equilibrium position.

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• 25.

### The bending of a light ray as it passes from one substance to another is called

• A.

Reflection

• B.

Refraction

• C.

Vibration

• D.

Incidence

B. Refraction
Explanation
Refraction is the correct answer because it refers to the bending of a light ray as it passes from one substance to another. This bending occurs due to the change in speed of light as it travels through different mediums. The phenomenon of refraction is commonly observed when light passes from air to water or from air to glass, causing the light ray to change direction.

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• 26.

### What scientist, expanding Hooke's wave theory, theoized that light can bend because it is a wave?

• A.

Ohm

• B.

Einstein

• C.

Newton

• D.

Young

C. Newton
Explanation
Newton expanded Hooke's wave theory and theorized that light can bend because it is a wave.

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• 27.

### The longer wavelengths of the color spectrum are seen in what color?

• A.

Violet

• B.

Green

• C.

Blue

• D.

Red

D. Red
Explanation
The longer wavelengths of the color spectrum are seen in red. This is because red light has the longest wavelength among the given options. In the visible light spectrum, different colors correspond to different wavelengths, with red having the longest wavelength and violet having the shortest. Therefore, red light is associated with longer wavelengths.

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• 28.

### Who first identified a collection of particles of light as "photons"?

• A.

Einstein

• B.

Newton

• C.

Bohr

• D.

Young

A. Einstein
Explanation
Einstein is credited with first identifying a collection of particles of light as "photons". He proposed the concept of photons in his 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect, which explained how light interacts with matter. In this paper, Einstein demonstrated that light is composed of discrete packets of energy called photons, which behave both as particles and waves. This groundbreaking idea revolutionized our understanding of light and laid the foundation for the field of quantum mechanics.

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• 29.

### The device that transforms energy from other forms into electromagnetic radiation is called

• A.

Prism

• B.

Laser

• C.

Medium

• D.

Resonator

B. Laser
Explanation
A laser is a device that transforms energy from other forms into electromagnetic radiation. It does this by using a process called stimulated emission, where atoms or molecules are excited and emit photons of light. The emitted light is then amplified and focused into a coherent beam. This transformation of energy allows lasers to be used in a wide range of applications, such as communication, cutting, and medical procedures.

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• 30.

### On the surface of the Earth, what causes objects to accelerate downward?

• A.

Energy

• B.

Excitation

• C.

Gravity

• D.

Electrical charges

C. Gravity
Explanation
Gravity is the force that causes objects to accelerate downward on the surface of the Earth. It is the natural phenomenon by which physical bodies are attracted to each other. The force of gravity pulls objects towards the center of the Earth, causing them to accelerate in the downward direction. This acceleration is commonly referred to as the acceleration due to gravity, and it is approximately 9.8 meters per second squared on Earth.

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• 31.

### What laser has the most power output?

• A.

Liquid

• B.

Semiconductor

• C.

Gas

• D.

Solid state

D. Solid state
Explanation
Solid state lasers have the most power output compared to other types of lasers. This is because they use solid materials as the gain medium, such as crystals or glasses, which can handle high power levels. Solid state lasers also have a higher efficiency and can produce continuous wave or pulsed output with high energy levels. Semiconductor lasers have lower power output as they use a semiconductor material as the gain medium. Gas lasers, on the other hand, have moderate power output and use gas as the gain medium. Liquid lasers have the lowest power output among the options provided.

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• 32.

### The fourth force found only in nature, and not in the nucleus, is known as

• A.

Electromagnetic force

• B.

Gravitational force

• C.

Binding energy

• D.

Kinetic energy

B. Gravitational force
Explanation
Gravitational force is the correct answer because it is the only force mentioned that is found only in nature and not in the nucleus. Electromagnetic force is also found in nature, but it is present in the nucleus as well. Binding energy and kinetic energy are not forces, but rather forms of energy. Gravitational force is the force of attraction between objects with mass and is responsible for phenomena such as the motion of planets and the falling of objects.

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• 33.

### Nucleons are composed of subatonic particles known as

• A.

Isotopes

• B.

Quarks

• C.

Protons

• D.

Neutrons

B. Quarks
Explanation
Quarks are subatomic particles that make up nucleons, which are the protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of an atom. Isotopes are different forms of an element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. While protons and neutrons are indeed subatomic particles, they are not the fundamental particles that make up nucleons. Therefore, the correct answer is quarks.

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• 34.

### What term identifies the arms of a robot in surgery?

• A.

Articulations

• B.

Ratchets

• C.

Graspers

• D.

Manipulators

D. Manipulators
Explanation
The term "manipulators" refers to the arms of a robot in surgery. These robotic arms are designed to mimic the movements of a surgeon's hands and are used to perform precise and delicate tasks during surgical procedures. The term "articulations" refers to the joints or points of movement in the robot's arms, while "ratchets" are mechanical devices that allow for incremental movement. "Graspers" are tools used by the robot's arms to hold and manipulate objects. Therefore, the most appropriate term to identify the arms of a robot in surgery is "manipulators".

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• 35.

### Voice-controlled robots are provided with binaural hearing by

• A.

Sound transducers

• B.

Waveforms

• C.

Manipulators

• D.

Pitch

A. Sound transducers
Explanation
Voice-controlled robots are provided with binaural hearing by sound transducers. Binaural hearing refers to the ability to perceive sound from different directions, just like humans do with their two ears. Sound transducers are devices that convert sound waves into electrical signals, allowing the robot to detect and localize sound sources. By using sound transducers, the robot can accurately perceive sound and determine its direction, which is crucial for effective voice control.

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• 36.

### An "up and down" movement of a robot's arm is known as

• A.

Roll

• B.

Yaw

• C.

Pitch

• D.

Rotation

C. Pitch
Explanation
An "up and down" movement of a robot's arm is known as pitch.

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• 37.

### What is the "right to left" movement of a robotic arm called?

• A.

Yaw

• B.

Roll

• C.

Pitch

• D.

X-y-z axis rotation

A. Yaw
Explanation
The "right to left" movement of a robotic arm is called yaw. Yaw refers to the rotation of the arm around its vertical axis, allowing it to move from side to side or horizontally. This movement is similar to the motion of turning your head from right to left.

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• 38.

### The technical terms for the robot's three dimensional movement is called

• A.

Micromanipulation

• B.

Remote manipulation

• C.

Binocular machine vision

• D.

Cartesian geometry

D. Cartesian geometry
Explanation
Cartesian geometry refers to the mathematical system that describes the position and movement of objects in three-dimensional space using a coordinate system. In the context of a robot's three-dimensional movement, Cartesian geometry is used to determine the robot's position and orientation in relation to a fixed reference point. It allows the robot to navigate and perform tasks with precision by calculating the coordinates of its movements in the x, y, and z axes.

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• 39.

### What term is used when likening "robotic vision" to "human vision"?

• A.

Sensitivity

• B.

Binocular vision

• C.

Depth perception

• D.

Resolution

B. Binocular vision
Explanation
Binocular vision is the term used when likening "robotic vision" to "human vision". Binocular vision refers to the ability of both eyes to work together to perceive depth and perceive objects in three dimensions. This term is used because both robotic vision and human vision rely on the use of two visual sensors or cameras to achieve a similar effect of perceiving depth and three-dimensional objects.

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• 40.

### What allows the robotic computer to create and record 3-D data of the surgical site?

• A.

Magnetic resonance sites

• B.

Image planning

• C.

Laser scanning

• D.

CT scan

C. Laser scanning
Explanation
Laser scanning allows the robotic computer to create and record 3-D data of the surgical site. Laser scanning technology uses lasers to measure and capture the shape and details of objects or surfaces. In the context of a surgical site, the laser scanner can be used to create a detailed 3-D map of the area, which can then be recorded and used for various purposes such as surgical planning or documentation. Unlike magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scans, or image planning, laser scanning specifically utilizes laser technology to capture the 3-D data.

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• 41.

### Which of the following parts for robotic surgery SHOULD NOT be sterilized?

• A.

Manipulators

• B.

The collar that connects the endoscope

• C.

The endoscope

• D.

Surgical instrumentation

A. Manipulators
Explanation
Manipulators are the robotic arms used in robotic surgery to perform precise movements. Unlike the other options listed, manipulators are not designed to be sterilized. They are typically covered with disposable sterile drapes to maintain a sterile field during surgery. Sterilizing the manipulators could damage their delicate components and compromise their functionality. Therefore, sterilizing manipulators is not recommended in robotic surgery.

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• 42.

### Realistic simulation of bones and tissues using computational models of the behavior of human joints and tissue is called

• A.

External simulation

• B.

Deformable modeling

• C.

Surgical planning

• D.

Surfaced based registration

B. Deformable modeling
Explanation
Deformable modeling refers to the realistic simulation of bones and tissues using computational models of the behavior of human joints and tissue. This technique allows for the accurate representation of the movement and deformation of bones and tissues, which is crucial in various fields such as medical research, surgical planning, and virtual reality simulations. By accurately simulating the behavior of bones and tissues, deformable modeling can provide valuable insights and aid in improving surgical procedures, medical device design, and understanding the mechanics of the human body.

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• 43.

### Sterilization of component parts for endoscopic robotic surgery is best accomplished by

• A.

STERIS system

• B.

Steam sterilization

• C.

Hydrogen peroxide sterilizer

• D.

ETO gas sterilization

A. STERIS system
Explanation
The STERIS system is the best method for sterilizing component parts for endoscopic robotic surgery because it is a highly effective and efficient system. It uses a combination of steam and high-pressure sterilization to ensure that all microorganisms and contaminants are eliminated. This method is widely used in the medical field and has been proven to be safe and reliable. Steam sterilization is a commonly used method in healthcare facilities due to its ability to penetrate and sterilize various types of materials. Hydrogen peroxide sterilizers and ETO gas sterilization are also used in healthcare settings, but the STERIS system is considered the most effective for endoscopic robotic surgery.

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• 44.

### The most popular robotic system used today is

• A.

AESOP HR

• B.

Da Vinci system

• C.

• D.

Both A and B

D. Both A and B
Explanation
The correct answer is both A and B. This means that the most popular robotic system used today is a combination of AESOP HR and the Da Vinci system. These two systems are widely recognized and utilized in various fields, including surgery and navigation. By using both systems, professionals can benefit from the unique features and capabilities of each, leading to enhanced performance and outcomes.

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