Social Psychology

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Social Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

Rutgers social psychology final review


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    _____ is a procedure for gaining compliance by first securing compliance with a small request, then escalating to a larger one.
    • A. 

      The compliance technique

    • B. 

      The low-ball technique

    • C. 

      The conformity technique

    • D. 

      The door-in-the-face technique allows an individual to gain compliance by first securing compliance with a small request, then escalating to a larger one.

    • E. 

      The foot-in-the-door technique

  • 2. 
    • A. 

      Many situations requiring obedience to authorities are dangerous for the person taking action

    • B. 

      Authority figures either explicitly or implicitly relieve individuals of responsibility for their own actions

    • C. 

      Authority figures appear to control information about the situation or circumstances and people are willing to comply with authorities in order to gain additional information

    • D. 

      Authority figures frequently threaten to harm individuals who do not comply with requests or instructions

    • E. 

      Persons in authority frequently use the door-in-the-face technique to gain compliance

  • 3. 
    _____ includes all efforts to change the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, or behaviors of others.
    • A. 

      Ingratiation

    • B. 

      Conformity

    • C. 

      Obedience

    • D. 

      Social influence

    • E. 

      Compliance

  • 4. 
    Behavioral rules that indicate how people are expected to act in particular situations are _____.
    • A. 

      Cohesiveness regulations

    • B. 

      Descriptive norms

    • C. 

      Social norms

    • D. 

      Normative focus

    • E. 

      Compliance mores

  • 5. 
    • A. 

      Coming to feel or think as others do; doing or saying what others around us say or do

    • B. 

      Doing what others think we should do; accepting as our own the beliefs that others provide for us

    • C. 

      Doing or saying what others around us say or do; coming to feel or think as others do

    • D. 

      Wanting to act as others think we should; wanting to act as others act

    • E. 

      Behaving as others tell us we should behave; behaving as we wish to behave

  • 6. 
    Social influence that is based on the desire to be liked or accepted by others is _____.
    • A. 

      Conformity social influence

    • B. 

      Normative social influence

    • C. 

      Informational social influence

    • D. 

      Compliance social influence

    • E. 

      Individuation social influence

  • 7. 
    Greater conformity occurs _____, while greater individuation occurs _____.
    • A. 

      In individuals with greater needs for personal control; in individuals with greater needs for acceptance

    • B. 

      When the deadline technique is used; when other persuasive techniques are used

    • C. 

      When individuation pressures are great; when deindividuation pressures are great

    • D. 

      In collectivist societies; in individualistic societies

    • E. 

      In individualistic societies; in collectivist societies

  • 8. 
    _____ is a form of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes or behavior in order to adhere to existing social norms.
    • A. 

      Obedience

    • B. 

      Social influence

    • C. 

      Ingratiation

    • D. 

      Individuation

    • E. 

      Conformity

  • 9. 
    Lance has an intense emotional reaction to Ali and is sure he is in love with her. His friends think he is just infatuated with Ali. What type of love is it likely that Lance is experiencing?
    • A. 

      Consummate love

    • B. 

      Ludic love

    • C. 

      Passionate love

    • D. 

      Unrequited love

  • 10. 
    Which of the following is NOT an element of Sternberg's theory of love?
    • A. 

      Attachment

    • B. 

      Intimacy

    • C. 

      Commitment

    • D. 

      Passion

  • 11. 
    Paul is not concerned about Rachel losing interest in him and he believes that he is worthy and well liked. What tyoe of attachement style is Paul likely to have?
    • A. 

      Dismissing

    • B. 

      Fearful-avoidant

    • C. 

      Preoccupied

    • D. 

      Secure

  • 12. 
    Suppose that during a conversation with one of your best friends, you discover that she dislikes social psychology.  You, on the other hand, like this subject a lot.  How would you describe the relationship under these conditions?
    • A. 

      Balanced

    • B. 

      Vacillating

    • C. 

      Imbalanced

    • D. 

      Threatened

  • 13. 
    • A. 

      Affect-centered model of attraction

    • B. 

      Attitude similarity effect

    • C. 

      Mere exposure effect

    • D. 

      Proportion of similarity

  • 14. 
    .  The motivation to seek and maintain interpersonal relationships is referred to as the _____.
    • A. 

      Need for affiliation

    • B. 

      Similarity-dissimilarity effect

    • C. 

      Anti-repulsion hypothesis

    • D. 

      Interpersonal attraction.

  • 15. 
    Which theory explains why we will favor in-groups over out-groups?
    • A. 

      Modern racism

    • B. 

      Old-fashion racism

    • C. 

      Self-esteem maintenance

    • D. 

      Social identity

  • 16. 
    What are created by meaningless criteria such as “Klee style” versus “Kandinsky style,” blue-eyes versus brown-eyes, and sushi eaters versus non-sushi eaters?
    • A. 

      Minimal groups

    • B. 

      . prejudice against the in-group

    • C. 

      . realistic conflicts

    • D. 

      . stereotype threats

  • 17. 
    .  When do advantaged groups show the most prejudice toward out-groups?
    • A. 

      When the advantaged group feels threatened

    • B. 

      When the disadvantaged group feels threatened

    • C. 

      When the advantaged group has strong leadership

    • D. 

      When the disadvantaged group has strong leadership

  • 18. 
    • A. 

      Prejudice

    • B. 

      Tokenism

    • C. 

      The glass ceiling

    • D. 

      Discrimination

  • 19. 
    What is self-esteem?
    • A. 

      Desire to be esteemed by others

    • B. 

      Evaluations of others about the self.

    • C. 

      Positive or negative evaluation of the self by oneself.

    • D. 

      Positive emotion that one is experiencing at the moment.

  • 20. 
    What are the expectations that we hold about our abilities to accomplish certain tasks known as?
    • A. 

      An index of self-worth

    • B. 

      Our competency beliefs

    • C. 

      Self-efficacy beliefs

    • D. 

      The ought self

  • 21. 
    What are cultures that emphasize loyalty to the family, adherence to group norms, and the preservation of harmony in social relations with members of one’s own group called?
    • A. 

      Acculturated

    • B. 

      Collectivist

    • C. 

      Communalities

    • D. 

      Individualist

  • 22. 
    What is the part of an individual’s self-concept that is derived from his or her membership in a social group (or groups) and the value and emotional significance attached to that membership?
    • A. 

      Stereotype

    • B. 

      Social Identity

    • C. 

      The Latent self

    • D. 

      The "ought" self

  • 23. 
    Although you were opposed to the war with Iraq, your attitude changed when you were required to report on the justifications for it at your job as a newspaper journalist. Which theory for why attitudes follow behavior best explains the change in your attitude?
    • A. 

      Cognitive dissonance theory

    • B. 

      Self-consistency theory

    • C. 

      Self-presentation theory

    • D. 

      Social comparison theory

  • 24. 
    What is the internal state that results when individuals become aware of inconsistencies among two or more attitudes or behaviors?
    • A. 

      Selective avoidance

    • B. 

      Attitude accessibility

    • C. 

      Cognitive dissonance

    • D. 

      Ego-defensive function

  • 25. 
    What is belief that leads to the belief coming true called?
    • A. 

      Behavioral perseverance.

    • B. 

      Belief confirmation

    • C. 

      Self-confirming validity.

    • D. 

      Self-fulfilling prophecy.

  • 26. 
    .  _____ occurs when a group of individuals collectively misunderstands what attitudes others hold, and erroneously believes that others have different attitudes than those of the group.
    • A. 

      Attitude ambivalence

    • B. 

      Pluralistic ignorance

    • C. 

      Biased assimilation

    • D. 

      Social comparison

  • 27. 
    Our attitudes toward an object can become more positive because we have previously seen the object. What is this known as?
    • A. 

      The mere exposure effect

    • B. 

      . The identity function

    • C. 

      Spreading of alternatives

    • D. 

      The persuasion function

  • 28. 
    .   _____ is a basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a reaction originally evoked by a different stimulus.
    • A. 

      Observational learning

    • B. 

      Operant conditioning

    • C. 

      Social learning

    • D. 

      Classical conditioning

  • 29. 
    When Susan saw James slip and fall on a patch of ice, she assumed it was because James is clumsy, even though she had also just slipped on a patch of ice. What is this example of?
    • A. 

      Fundamental attribution error

    • B. 

      An implicit personality theory

    • C. 

      Augmenting principle

    • D. 

      A noncommon effect

  • 30. 
    What is the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences on other people's behavior called?
    • A. 

      The dispositional assignment.

    • B. 

      The false consensus bias.

    • C. 

      . The fundamental attribution error.

    • D. 

      The misinformation effect

  • 31. 
    A fellow student is consistently late to class. You assume this is because he or she is lazy and unorganized. What type of attribution are you making for the other student's behavior?
    • A. 

      Dispositional

    • B. 

      External

    • C. 

      Motivational

    • D. 

      Situational

  • 32. 
    What is the tendency to attribute our positive outcomes to internal causes and our negative outcomes to external causes called? 
    • A. 

      Discounting principle

    • B. 

      Correspondence bias

    • C. 

      Self-serving bias

    • D. 

      Impression management

  • 33. 
    In experimental research what is the variable that is change systematically? 
    • A. 

      The control variable

    • B. 

      The dependent variable

    • C. 

      The independent variable

    • D. 

      The random variable.

  • 34. 
    An experimenter has students work in a hot room or a cold room to determine the effect of temperature on test performance.   The different room temperature levels are what type of variable?
    • A. 

      A confounding variable

    • B. 

      The control variable.

    • C. 

      The dependent variable

    • D. 

      An independent variable

  • 35. 
    An experimenter exposes participants to different room temperature levels to determine the effect of temperature on aggression. Aggression is what type of variable?               
    • A. 

      A confounding variable

    • B. 

      The control variable.

    • C. 

      The dependent variable.

    • D. 

      An independent variable

  • 36. 
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      .66

    • C. 

      + or - .33

    • D. 

      - .72

  • 37. 
    What does a negative correlations indicate?
    • A. 

      One variable increases as the other decreases

    • B. 

      The relationship between two variables is very weak

    • C. 

      There is no meaningful relationship between two variables

    • D. 

      Two variables tend to decrease at the same time

  • 38. 
    If you are in the market to buy a new stereo and you catch yourself getting vaught up in the salesperson's life story and personal triumphs and setbacks, then sccording to the elaboration liklihood model you are too focused on the:
    • A. 

      Central route of persuasion

    • B. 

      Peripheral route of persuasion

    • C. 

      Foot-in-the-door

    • D. 

      Door-in-the-foot

    • E. 

      Cognitive dissonance

  • 39. 
    Social Facilitation occurs:
    • A. 

      To the tendency for people to do less in a group setting

    • B. 

      To the tendency to keep personal oppinions to themselves for fear of upsetting the group

    • C. 

      When the presence of other people watching improves a persons performance

    • D. 

      When the prescence of other people watching hinders a person's performance

    • E. 

      When people listen more attentively to people of authority

  • 40. 
    • A. 

      Group polarization

    • B. 

      The power of SSRI's

    • C. 

      Deindividuation

    • D. 

      Groupthink

    • E. 

      Self-fufilling prophecy

  • 41. 
    If you have a friend who is reluctant to help you clean your entire room, you maybe successful through asking him to simply help you move one item in your room. this approach is referred to as:
    • A. 

      Cognitive dissonance

    • B. 

      Altruism

    • C. 

      Foot-in-the-door

    • D. 

      Door-in-the-foot

    • E. 

      Bystander effect

  • 42. 
    Jimmy has constantly heard that he is not a good student, after a while starts to act how people percieve him. This recent behavioral change supports the:
    • A. 

      Groupthink

    • B. 

      Group polarization

    • C. 

      Self-fufilling prophecy

    • D. 

      Social influence

    • E. 

      Altruism

  • 43. 
    At first Jimmy did not like his teacher, but after sitting in this teacher's class for a number of weeks Jimmy as started to like his teacher. this new perspective would be an example of:
    • A. 

      Diffusion of responsibility

    • B. 

      Bystander effect

    • C. 

      In-group bias

    • D. 

      Ethnocentrism

    • E. 

      Mere-exposure effect

  • 44. 
    In-group bias is the
    • A. 

      Tendency to favor one's group and see this group as correct

    • B. 

      Tendency to see other members of a group as similar

    • C. 

      Tendency to perform better when others are watching

    • D. 

      Tendency to perform worse when others are watching

    • E. 

      Tendency to conform to the social harmony of a group

  • 45. 
    Groupthink is defined as:
    • A. 

      When an attitude becomes stronger in group presence

    • B. 

      Thinking that revolves around keeping harmony within a group through not disagreeing with group opinion

    • C. 

      The tendency to do less in a group situation

    • D. 

      Improved performance when people are watching

    • E. 

      The loss of identity due to a group situation

  • 46. 
    The fundamental attribution error occurs when a person underestimates or does not consider ________________ attributes and focuses too much on ________________ attributes or personal factors.
    • A. 

      Situational; dispositional

    • B. 

      Dispositional; situational

    • C. 

      Unconscious; situational

    • D. 

      Situational; unconscious

    • E. 

      Unconscious; dispositional

  • 47. 
    When a person experiences guilt or discomfort because he or she realizes that he or she is not being truthful with their friends, then this person may be experiencing:
    • A. 

      Blaming the victim

    • B. 

      Self-serving bias

    • C. 

      Cognitive dissonance

    • D. 

      Constipation

    • E. 

      Normative social influence

  • 48. 
    Symbolic threat is a:
    • A. 

      Emotional process

    • B. 

      Behavioural process

    • C. 

      Cognitive process

    • D. 

      Psychological process

    • E. 

      Motivational process

  • 49. 
    In a _______ study, only the experimenter knows who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group.
    • A. 

      Placebo

    • B. 

      Single-blind

    • C. 

      Double-blind

    • D. 

      Triple-blind

  • 50. 
    The theory that people in crowds come together because they share the same attitudes, views, and beliefs is:
    • A. 

      Social contagion theory

    • B. 

      Convergence theory

    • C. 

      Emergent norm theory

  • 51. 
    What is the process of assigning participants to experimental conditions so that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups in the study?
    • A. 

      Expectancy effects

    • B. 

      Random assignment

    • C. 

      Demand characteristics

    • D. 

      Double-blind study

  • 52. 
    What are the 5 key provisions of ethics?
  • 53. 
    What are factors that are observed and measured for change in an experiment?
    • A. 

      Independent variables

    • B. 

      Dependent variables

    • C. 

      Expectancy effects

    • D. 

      Placebo

  • 54. 
    What are purposely manipulated factors thought to produce change in an experiment.
    • A. 

      Independent variables

    • B. 

      Dependent variables

    • C. 

      Expectancy effects

    • D. 

      Placebo

  • 55. 
    What is the two variables more in opposite directions?
    • A. 

      Correlation coefficient

    • B. 

      Positive correlation

    • C. 

      Correlational study

    • D. 

      Negative correlation

  • 56. 
    What is the research method to demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between changes in one variable and the effect that is produced on another variable?
    • A. 

      Random assignment method

    • B. 

      Scientific method

    • C. 

      Causality method

    • D. 

      Experimental method

  • 57. 
    What is the two factor vary in the same direction?
    • A. 

      Correlation coefficient

    • B. 

      Positive correlation

    • C. 

      Correlational study

    • D. 

      Negative correlation

  • 58. 
    Changes in behavior that are elicited by direct request
    • A. 

      Group

    • B. 

      Compliance

    • C. 

      Collective

    • D. 

      Norm of reciprocity

  • 59. 
    A set of people who share a common fate, identitiy, set goals, joint membership
    • A. 

      Compliance

    • B. 

      Group

    • C. 

      Collective

    • D. 

      Norm of reciprocity

  • 60. 
    Compliance  
    • A. 

      Changes in behavior that are elicited by direct request

    • B. 

      Joint membership in a social category

    • C. 

      Talking fast & catching people off guard

    • D. 

      People can be disarmed by the simple phrasing of the request