Social Psychology Ultimate Exam! Quiz

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Social Psychology Ultimate Exam! Quiz - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _____ is a procedure for gaining compliance by first securing compliance with a small request, then escalating to a larger one.

    • A.

      The compliance technique

    • B.

      The low-ball technique

    • C.

      The conformity technique

    • D.

      The door-in-the-face technique allows an individual to gain compliance by first securing compliance with a small request, then escalating to a larger one.

    • E.

      The foot-in-the-door technique

    Correct Answer
    E. The foot-in-the-door technique
    Explanation
    The foot-in-the-door technique is a procedure for gaining compliance by first securing compliance with a small request, then escalating to a larger one. This technique works on the principle of consistency, where people are more likely to comply with a larger request after they have already agreed to a smaller one. By starting with a small request, individuals feel a sense of commitment and are more likely to continue with subsequent requests to maintain consistency in their actions. This technique is often used in sales and marketing strategies to gradually increase customer buy-in and engagement.

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  • 2. 

    One reason for Milgram's (1965) surprising findings of very high levels of obedience to an authority figure is that _____.

    • A.

      Many situations requiring obedience to authorities are dangerous for the person taking action

    • B.

      Authority figures either explicitly or implicitly relieve individuals of responsibility for their own actions

    • C.

      Authority figures appear to control information about the situation or circumstances and people are willing to comply with authorities in order to gain additional information

    • D.

      Authority figures frequently threaten to harm individuals who do not comply with requests or instructions

    • E.

      Persons in authority frequently use the door-in-the-face technique to gain compliance

    Correct Answer
    B. Authority figures either explicitly or implicitly relieve individuals of responsibility for their own actions
    Explanation
    One reason for Milgram's surprising findings of very high levels of obedience to an authority figure is that authority figures either explicitly or implicitly relieve individuals of responsibility for their own actions. This means that individuals may feel less accountable for their actions when they are following orders from an authority figure, leading them to comply even if they may not agree with or fully understand the consequences of their actions. This can create a situation where individuals are more likely to obey authority figures, even in potentially dangerous situations.

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  • 3. 

    _____ includes all efforts to change the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, or behaviors of others.

    • A.

      Ingratiation

    • B.

      Conformity

    • C.

      Obedience

    • D.

      Social influence

    • E.

      Compliance

    Correct Answer
    D. Social influence
    Explanation
    Social influence refers to all efforts to change the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, or behaviors of others. This can include various strategies such as persuasion, conformity, obedience, compliance, and ingratiation. It encompasses the ways in which individuals are influenced by others, whether through direct requests, social norms, or persuasive techniques. Overall, social influence plays a significant role in shaping individuals' thoughts, actions, and behaviors in social settings.

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  • 4. 

    Behavioral rules that indicate how people are expected to act in particular situations are _____.

    • A.

      Cohesiveness regulations

    • B.

      Descriptive norms

    • C.

      Social norms

    • D.

      Normative focus

    • E.

      Compliance mores

    Correct Answer
    C. Social norms
    Explanation
    Social norms are behavioral rules that indicate how people are expected to act in particular situations. They are the unwritten rules of society that govern social behavior and interactions. Social norms can vary across different cultures and communities, and they help to maintain order and cohesion within a group. They provide individuals with a sense of predictability and guidance on how to behave in different social contexts.

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  • 5. 

    Public conformity involves _____; private acceptance involves _____.

    • A.

      Coming to feel or think as others do; doing or saying what others around us say or do

    • B.

      Doing what others think we should do; accepting as our own the beliefs that others provide for us

    • C.

      Doing or saying what others around us say or do; coming to feel or think as others do

    • D.

      Wanting to act as others think we should; wanting to act as others act

    • E.

      Behaving as others tell us we should behave; behaving as we wish to behave

    Correct Answer
    C. Doing or saying what others around us say or do; coming to feel or think as others do
    Explanation
    Public conformity involves doing or saying what others around us say or do, which means conforming to the behavior or opinions of the group. Private acceptance, on the other hand, involves coming to feel or think as others do, which means genuinely adopting the beliefs or attitudes of the group. In public conformity, we may conform outwardly to fit in or avoid conflict, but privately we may not truly agree with the group's views. Private acceptance goes deeper, as it involves internalizing the group's beliefs and aligning our own thoughts and feelings with theirs.

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  • 6. 

    Greater conformity occurs _____, while greater individuation occurs _____.

    • A.

      In individuals with greater needs for personal control; in individuals with greater needs for acceptance

    • B.

      When the deadline technique is used; when other persuasive techniques are used

    • C.

      When individuation pressures are great; when deindividuation pressures are great

    • D.

      In collectivist societies; in individualistic societies

    • E.

      In individualistic societies; in collectivist societies

    Correct Answer
    D. In collectivist societies; in individualistic societies
  • 7. 

    _____ is a form of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes or behavior in order to adhere to existing social norms.

    • A.

      Obedience

    • B.

      Social influence

    • C.

      Ingratiation

    • D.

      Individuation

    • E.

      Conformity

    Correct Answer
    E. Conformity
    Explanation
    Conformity is the correct answer because it refers to the act of changing one's attitudes or behavior to fit in with the existing social norms. It is a form of social influence where individuals conform to the expectations and standards set by society in order to be accepted and avoid social rejection. This can involve adopting the beliefs, values, and behaviors of a group or society, even if they may differ from one's own personal beliefs or preferences.

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  • 8. 

    Lance has an intense emotional reaction to Ali and is sure he is in love with her. His friends think he is just infatuated with Ali. What type of love is it likely that Lance is experiencing?

    • A.

      Consummate love

    • B.

      Ludic love

    • C.

      Passionate love

    • D.

      Unrequited love

    Correct Answer
    C. Passionate love
    Explanation
    Lance's intense emotional reaction and belief that he is in love with Ali suggest that he is experiencing passionate love. This type of love is characterized by strong emotions, intense desire, and infatuation. It often involves a high level of physical and emotional attraction, but it may not necessarily include the commitment and intimacy that are necessary for consummate love. Lance's friends' belief that he is infatuated further supports the idea that his love for Ali is passionate rather than a more balanced and complete form of love.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is NOT an element of Sternberg's theory of love?

    • A.

      Attachment

    • B.

      Intimacy

    • C.

      Commitment

    • D.

      Passion

    Correct Answer
    A. Attachment
    Explanation
    Attachment is not an element of Sternberg's theory of love. Sternberg's theory of love consists of three components: intimacy, commitment, and passion. Attachment, on the other hand, is a concept that is associated with the development of close bonds and emotional connections between individuals, but it is not specifically included in Sternberg's theory of love.

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  • 10. 

    Paul is not concerned about Rachel losing interest in him and he believes that he is worthy and well liked. What tyoe of attachement style is Paul likely to have? Paul is not concerned about Rachel losing interest in him and he believes that he is worthy and well liked. What tyoe of attachement style is Paul likely to have?

    • A.

      Dismissing

    • B.

      Fearful-avoidant

    • C.

      Preoccupied

    • D.

      Secure

    Correct Answer
    D. Secure
    Explanation
    Paul is likely to have a secure attachment style. This is because he is not concerned about Rachel losing interest in him and he believes that he is worthy and well liked. A secure attachment style is characterized by a positive view of oneself and others, and a belief that one is deserving of love and support. Individuals with a secure attachment style are generally comfortable with intimacy and are able to form healthy and secure relationships.

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  • 11. 

    Suppose that during a conversation with one of your best friends, you discover that she dislikes social psychology.  You, on the other hand, like this subject a lot.  How would you describe the relationship under these conditions?

    • A.

      Balanced

    • B.

      Vacillating

    • C.

      Imbalanced

    • D.

      Threatened

    Correct Answer
    C. Imbalanced
    Explanation
    The relationship between you and your friend can be described as imbalanced because there is a significant difference in your preferences for social psychology. While you enjoy the subject, your friend dislikes it, creating an unevenness in your interests. This difference in preferences can potentially affect the dynamics of your conversations and shared activities, leading to an imbalanced relationship.

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  • 12. 

    Scott and Jill grew up in the same small town.  They attended the same school and went to the same college, where they took many of the same classes.  At first they were not particularly attracted to each other but the more they saw each other the more their attraction increased and eventually they married.  How might you best explain this?

    • A.

      Affect-centered model of attraction

    • B.

      Attitude similarity effect

    • C.

      Mere exposure effect

    • D.

      Proportion of similarity

    Correct Answer
    C. Mere exposure effect
    Explanation
    The Mere Exposure effect suggests that the more we are exposed to something or someone, the more we tend to like it or them. In this case, Scott and Jill saw each other frequently in school and college, which increased their exposure to each other. As a result, their attraction towards each other grew over time, leading them to eventually get married. This explanation aligns with the Mere Exposure effect, making it the best explanation for their relationship.

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  • 13. 

    .  The motivation to seek and maintain interpersonal relationships is referred to as the _____.

    • A.

      Need for affiliation

    • B.

      Similarity-dissimilarity effect

    • C.

      Anti-repulsion hypothesis

    • D.

      Interpersonal attraction.

    Correct Answer
    A. Need for affiliation
    Explanation
    The motivation to seek and maintain interpersonal relationships is referred to as the need for affiliation. This refers to the desire to establish and maintain social connections with others. People with a high need for affiliation tend to seek out social interactions, enjoy being part of groups, and value close relationships. This motivation can be influenced by factors such as personality traits, cultural norms, and individual experiences.

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  • 14. 

    Which theory explains why we will favor in-groups over out-groups?

    • A.

      Modern racism

    • B.

      Old-fashion racism

    • C.

      Self-esteem maintenance

    • D.

      Social identity

    Correct Answer
    D. Social identity
    Explanation
    Social identity theory explains why we will favor in-groups over out-groups. According to this theory, individuals strive to maintain a positive social identity by identifying with and favoring the groups they belong to (in-groups) and discriminating against those they do not belong to (out-groups). This bias occurs because people derive a sense of self-esteem and belongingness from their group memberships. Therefore, they are motivated to enhance the status and value of their in-group while devaluing and discriminating against out-groups.

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  • 15. 

    What are created by meaningless criteria such as “Klee style” versus “Kandinsky style,” blue-eyes versus brown-eyes, and sushi eaters versus non-sushi eaters?

    • A.

      Minimal groups

    • B.

      . prejudice against the in-group

    • C.

      . realistic conflicts

    • D.

      . stereotype threats

    Correct Answer
    A. Minimal groups
    Explanation
    Minimal groups are created by meaningless criteria such as "Klee style" versus "Kandinsky style," blue-eyes versus brown-eyes, and sushi eaters versus non-sushi eaters. These groups are formed based on arbitrary and insignificant distinctions and do not have any real basis or significance. They are used in social psychology experiments to study intergroup behavior and the effects of categorization on behavior and attitudes.

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  • 16. 

    .  When do advantaged groups show the most prejudice toward out-groups?

    • A.

      When the advantaged group feels threatened

    • B.

      When the disadvantaged group feels threatened

    • C.

      When the advantaged group has strong leadership

    • D.

      When the disadvantaged group has strong leadership

    Correct Answer
    A. When the advantaged group feels threatened
    Explanation
    When the advantaged group feels threatened, they are more likely to show prejudice towards out-groups. This can be attributed to the fear of losing their privileged position or resources, leading to a defensive reaction. The perceived threat activates their need to protect their status, resulting in increased prejudice towards those they perceive as a threat. This response is driven by the desire to maintain their advantage and can manifest as discrimination, stereotypes, or negative attitudes towards the out-group.

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  • 17. 

    . _____ refers to hiring based on group membership or to situations in which individuals perform trivial positive actions for out-group members, and then use this as an excuse for not taking more meaningful positive actions at a different time.

    • A.

      Prejudice

    • B.

      Tokenism

    • C.

      The glass ceiling

    • D.

      Discrimination

    Correct Answer
    B. Tokenism
    Explanation
    Tokenism refers to hiring based on group membership or to situations in which individuals perform trivial positive actions for out-group members, and then use this as an excuse for not taking more meaningful positive actions at a different time. This means that tokenism involves making a superficial effort to include individuals from underrepresented groups without actually addressing the underlying issues of inequality and discrimination. It is a form of symbolic inclusion that ultimately perpetuates systemic biases and does not lead to meaningful change.

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  • 18. 

    What is self-esteem?

    • A.

      Desire to be esteemed by others

    • B.

      Evaluations of others about the self.

    • C.

      Positive or negative evaluation of the self by oneself.

    • D.

      Positive emotion that one is experiencing at the moment.

    Correct Answer
    C. Positive or negative evaluation of the self by oneself.
    Explanation
    Self-esteem refers to the individual's own assessment or judgment of their worth, value, or importance. It is the subjective evaluation of oneself, which can be positive or negative. This means that self-esteem is not dependent on the opinions or evaluations of others, but rather on how one perceives and evaluates themselves. It is a measure of self-worth and plays a crucial role in shaping one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

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  • 19. 

    What are the expectations that we hold about our abilities to accomplish certain tasks known as?

    • A.

      An index of self-worth

    • B.

      Our competency beliefs

    • C.

      Self-efficacy beliefs

    • D.

      The ought self

    Correct Answer
    C. Self-efficacy beliefs
    Explanation
    Self-efficacy beliefs refer to the expectations that individuals have about their own abilities to successfully complete specific tasks. These beliefs play a significant role in determining the level of effort, persistence, and motivation individuals put into achieving their goals. Self-efficacy beliefs are closely related to one's sense of competence and can greatly influence one's overall self-worth.

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  • 20. 

    What are cultures that emphasize loyalty to the family, adherence to group norms, and the preservation of harmony in social relations with members of one’s own group called?

    • A.

      Acculturated

    • B.

      Collectivist

    • C.

      Communalities

    • D.

      Individualist

    Correct Answer
    B. Collectivist
    Explanation
    Collectivist cultures prioritize the needs and goals of the group over individual desires. Loyalty to the family, adherence to group norms, and maintaining harmony within the group are highly valued in these cultures. This stands in contrast to individualist cultures, which prioritize personal goals and independence. Therefore, the correct answer is "Collectivist."

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  • 21. 

    What is the part of an individual’s self-concept that is derived from his or her membership in a social group (or groups) and the value and emotional significance attached to that membership?

    • A.

      Stereotype

    • B.

      Social Identity

    • C.

      The Latent self

    • D.

      The "ought" self

    Correct Answer
    B. Social Identity
    Explanation
    Social identity refers to the part of an individual's self-concept that is derived from their membership in a social group and the value and emotional significance attached to that membership. It encompasses the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that are associated with belonging to a particular group, such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, or religion. Social identity plays a crucial role in shaping an individual's sense of self and can influence their behavior and interactions with others.

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  • 22. 

    Although you were opposed to the war with Iraq, your attitude changed when you were required to report on the justifications for it at your job as a newspaper journalist. Which theory for why attitudes follow behavior best explains the change in your attitude?

    • A.

      Cognitive dissonance theory

    • B.

      Self-consistency theory

    • C.

      Self-presentation theory

    • D.

      Social comparison theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Cognitive dissonance theory
    Explanation
    Cognitive dissonance theory best explains the change in attitude in this scenario. According to this theory, when there is a conflict or inconsistency between our attitudes and behaviors, we experience psychological discomfort or dissonance. In order to reduce this dissonance, we may change our attitudes to align with our behavior. In this case, the individual's opposition to the war conflicted with their job requirement to report on the justifications for it. To reduce the dissonance, they may have changed their attitude and become more accepting of the war.

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  • 23. 

    What is the internal state that results when individuals become aware of inconsistencies among two or more attitudes or behaviors?

    • A.

      Selective avoidance

    • B.

      Attitude accessibility

    • C.

      Cognitive dissonance

    • D.

      Ego-defensive function

    Correct Answer
    C. Cognitive dissonance
    Explanation
    Cognitive dissonance refers to the internal state that occurs when individuals become aware of inconsistencies between their attitudes and behaviors. It is the discomfort or tension that arises from holding conflicting beliefs or engaging in contradictory actions. This state motivates individuals to reduce the dissonance by either changing their attitudes, behaviors, or rationalizing the inconsistencies.

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  • 24. 

    What is belief that leads to the belief coming true called?

    • A.

      Behavioral perseverance.

    • B.

      Belief confirmation

    • C.

      Self-confirming validity.

    • D.

      Self-fulfilling prophecy.

    Correct Answer
    D. Self-fulfilling prophecy.
    Explanation
    A self-fulfilling prophecy is a belief that leads to the belief coming true. This occurs when an individual's expectations or beliefs about a situation influence their behavior in a way that ultimately causes the belief to become reality. In other words, the individual's actions and behavior align with their initial belief, leading to the outcome they anticipated. This concept highlights the power of beliefs in shaping our perceptions and experiences.

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  • 25. 

    .  _____ occurs when a group of individuals collectively misunderstands what attitudes others hold, and erroneously believes that others have different attitudes than those of the group.

    • A.

      Attitude ambivalence

    • B.

      Pluralistic ignorance

    • C.

      Biased assimilation

    • D.

      Social comparison

    Correct Answer
    B. Pluralistic ignorance
    Explanation
    Pluralistic ignorance occurs when a group of individuals collectively misunderstands what attitudes others hold, and erroneously believes that others have different attitudes than those of the group. This can happen when individuals are hesitant to express their true attitudes due to social pressure or fear of judgment, leading to a false perception of the group's attitudes. It can create a situation where everyone privately disagrees with a certain belief or behavior, but publicly goes along with it because they believe everyone else supports it.

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  • 26. 

    Our attitudes toward an object can become more positive because we have previously seen the object. What is this known as?

    • A.

      The mere exposure effect

    • B.

      . The identity function

    • C.

      Spreading of alternatives

    • D.

      The persuasion function

    Correct Answer
    A. The mere exposure effect
    Explanation
    The mere exposure effect refers to the phenomenon where our attitudes towards an object or stimuli become more positive simply because we have been exposed to it before. This effect suggests that familiarity breeds liking, and repeated exposure to something increases our comfort and preference towards it. This can occur even if we are not consciously aware of the exposure.

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  • 27. 

    .   _____ is a basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a reaction originally evoked by a different stimulus.

    • A.

      Observational learning

    • B.

      Operant conditioning

    • C.

      Social learning

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    Correct Answer
    D. Classical conditioning
    Explanation
    Classical conditioning is a basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus, through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, acquires the ability to evoke a reaction originally evoked by a different stimulus. This process involves the automatic, involuntary response of an organism to a particular stimulus. An example of classical conditioning is Pavlov's experiment where he conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell by repeatedly pairing the bell with the presentation of food.

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  • 28. 

    When Susan saw James slip and fall on a patch of ice, she assumed it was because James is clumsy, even though she had also just slipped on a patch of ice. What is this example of?

    • A.

      Fundamental attribution error

    • B.

      An implicit personality theory

    • C.

      Augmenting principle

    • D.

      A noncommon effect

    Correct Answer
    A. Fundamental attribution error
    Explanation
    This example is an illustration of the fundamental attribution error. It refers to the tendency to attribute other people's behavior to internal factors (such as their personality or character) rather than considering external factors (such as the situation or context). In this case, Susan assumes that James fell because he is clumsy, ignoring the possibility that the patch of ice was slippery for both of them.

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  • 29. 

    What is the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences on other people's behavior called?

    • A.

      The dispositional assignment.

    • B.

      The false consensus bias.

    • C.

      . The fundamental attribution error.

    • D.

      The misinformation effect

    Correct Answer
    C. . The fundamental attribution error.
    Explanation
    The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency for observers to attribute other people's behavior to internal or dispositional factors, while underestimating the influence of situational factors. This means that people often overemphasize the role of someone's personality or character in explaining their behavior, while neglecting the impact of external circumstances or social pressures. This bias can lead to misunderstandings and misjudgments about others, as it overlooks the contextual factors that may have influenced their actions.

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  • 30. 

    A fellow student is consistently late to class. You assume this is because he or she is lazy and unorganized. What type of attribution are you making for the other student's behavior?

    • A.

      Dispositional

    • B.

      External

    • C.

      Motivational

    • D.

      Situational

    Correct Answer
    A. Dispositional
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Dispositional." This means that you are attributing the student's behavior to their personal characteristics or traits, such as laziness or lack of organization.

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  • 31. 

    What is the tendency to attribute our positive outcomes to internal causes and our negative outcomes to external causes called? 

    • A.

      Discounting principle

    • B.

      Correspondence bias

    • C.

      Self-serving bias

    • D.

      Impression management

    Correct Answer
    C. Self-serving bias
    Explanation
    Self-serving bias is the tendency to attribute our positive outcomes to internal causes, such as our own abilities or efforts, and our negative outcomes to external causes, such as bad luck or other people's actions. This bias allows individuals to protect their self-esteem and maintain a positive self-image by taking credit for successes and avoiding blame for failures. It can have a significant impact on our judgments, perceptions, and interactions with others.

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  • 32. 

    In experimental research what is the variable that is change systematically? 

    • A.

      The control variable

    • B.

      The dependent variable

    • C.

      The independent variable

    • D.

      The random variable.

    Correct Answer
    C. The independent variable
    Explanation
    The independent variable is the variable that is systematically changed in experimental research. It is the variable that the researcher manipulates or controls in order to observe its effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable, on the other hand, is the variable that is measured or observed to determine the outcome of the experiment. The control variable is a variable that is held constant or kept the same throughout the experiment to ensure that any changes observed in the dependent variable are a result of the independent variable and not any other factors. The random variable, on the other hand, refers to a variable that has a random or unpredictable value.

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  • 33. 

    An experimenter has students work in a hot room or a cold room to determine the effect of temperature on test performance.   The different room temperature levels are what type of variable?

    • A.

      A confounding variable

    • B.

      The control variable.

    • C.

      The dependent variable

    • D.

      An independent variable

    Correct Answer
    D. An independent variable
    Explanation
    The different room temperature levels in the experiment are considered an independent variable because the experimenter has control over and manipulates the temperature levels in order to observe the effect on test performance.

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  • 34. 

    An experimenter exposes participants to different room temperature levels to determine the effect of temperature on aggression. Aggression is what type of variable?               

    • A.

      A confounding variable

    • B.

      The control variable.

    • C.

      The dependent variable.

    • D.

      An independent variable

    Correct Answer
    C. The dependent variable.
    Explanation
    In this experiment, the experimenter is manipulating the room temperature levels to observe its effect on aggression. The aggression is the outcome or response that is being measured and observed in the experiment. Therefore, aggression is the dependent variable because it is dependent on the changes in the independent variable (room temperature levels). The experimenter is not manipulating or controlling aggression directly, but rather measuring how it is affected by the independent variable.

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  • 35. 

    What does a negative correlations indicate?

    • A.

      One variable increases as the other decreases

    • B.

      The relationship between two variables is very weak

    • C.

      There is no meaningful relationship between two variables

    • D.

      Two variables tend to decrease at the same time

    Correct Answer
    A. One variable increases as the other decreases
    Explanation
    A negative correlation indicates that as one variable increases, the other variable decreases. This means that there is an inverse relationship between the two variables. As one variable goes up, the other tends to go down, and vice versa. This suggests that there is a clear and predictable relationship between the two variables, where they move in opposite directions.

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  • 36. 

    If you are in the market to buy a new stereo and you catch yourself getting vaught up in the salesperson's life story and personal triumphs and setbacks, then sccording to the elaboration liklihood model you are too focused on the:

    • A.

      Central route of persuasion

    • B.

      Peripheral route of persuasion

    • C.

      Foot-in-the-door

    • D.

      Door-in-the-foot

    • E.

      Cognitive dissonance

    Correct Answer
    B. Peripheral route of persuasion
    Explanation
    According to the elaboration likelihood model, when someone is too focused on the salesperson's personal story and experiences rather than the actual features and benefits of the stereo, they are more likely to be influenced by the peripheral route of persuasion. The peripheral route involves being swayed by peripheral cues such as the attractiveness or credibility of the communicator, rather than engaging in deep cognitive processing of the information. In this case, the individual is not critically evaluating the stereo based on its merits, but rather being influenced by the salesperson's personal narrative.

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  • 37. 

    Social Facilitation occurs:

    • A.

      To the tendency for people to do less in a group setting

    • B.

      To the tendency to keep personal oppinions to themselves for fear of upsetting the group

    • C.

      When the presence of other people watching improves a persons performance

    • D.

      When the prescence of other people watching hinders a person's performance

    • E.

      When people listen more attentively to people of authority

    Correct Answer
    C. When the presence of other people watching improves a persons performance
    Explanation
    Social Facilitation refers to the phenomenon where the presence of other people watching enhances an individual's performance. This occurs because individuals tend to be more alert and motivated when they are being observed by others. The presence of an audience can create a sense of pressure and accountability, leading individuals to strive for better performance. This effect is commonly seen in activities such as sports competitions or public speaking, where individuals often perform better when there is an audience present.

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  • 38. 

    Jimmy is very quiet at school, but later that night at a party Jimmy gets 'crazy' and starts to cut the rug on the dance floor. Jimmy's classmates are stunned at this displayed behavior. Jimmy is experiencing:

    • A.

      Group polarization

    • B.

      The power of SSRI's

    • C.

      Deindividuation

    • D.

      Groupthink

    • E.

      Self-fufilling prophecy

    Correct Answer
    C. Deindividuation
    Explanation
    Deindividuation refers to a psychological phenomenon where individuals lose their sense of personal identity and responsibility when they are part of a group or in situations where they feel anonymous. In this case, Jimmy's quiet behavior at school may be due to the social norms and expectations that exist in that setting. However, when he is at the party, he feels less inhibited and is able to express himself more freely, which can be attributed to deindividuation. This phenomenon explains why individuals may engage in behaviors that they would not normally do when they feel anonymous or part of a group.

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  • 39. 

    If you have a friend who is reluctant to help you clean your entire room, you maybe successful through asking him to simply help you move one item in your room. this approach is referred to as:

    • A.

      Cognitive dissonance

    • B.

      Altruism

    • C.

      Foot-in-the-door

    • D.

      Door-in-the-foot

    • E.

      Bystander effect

    Correct Answer
    C. Foot-in-the-door
    Explanation
    The foot-in-the-door technique is a persuasive strategy where a person is more likely to comply with a larger request after they have already agreed to a smaller, related request. In this scenario, asking the friend to help move just one item in the room is the smaller request, and once they agree to that, they may feel more inclined to help with the entire room. This technique works by gradually increasing the level of commitment and involvement, making it harder for the person to refuse the larger request.

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  • 40. 

    Jimmy has constantly heard that he is not a good student, after a while starts to act how people percieve him. This recent behavioral change supports the:

    • A.

      Groupthink

    • B.

      Group polarization

    • C.

      Self-fufilling prophecy

    • D.

      Social influence

    • E.

      Altruism

    Correct Answer
    C. Self-fufilling prophecy
    Explanation
    The recent behavioral change in Jimmy, where he starts to act according to how people perceive him as a not good student, supports the concept of a self-fulfilling prophecy. This is because Jimmy's belief about himself, influenced by the constant negative feedback he receives, leads to him behaving in a way that aligns with that belief. As a result, his actions confirm the initial perception, creating a cycle where the prophecy becomes true.

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  • 41. 

    At first Jimmy did not like his teacher, but after sitting in this teacher's class for a number of weeks Jimmy as started to like his teacher. this new perspective would be an example of:

    • A.

      Diffusion of responsibility

    • B.

      Bystander effect

    • C.

      In-group bias

    • D.

      Ethnocentrism

    • E.

      Mere-exposure effect

    Correct Answer
    E. Mere-exposure effect
    Explanation
    The mere-exposure effect refers to the phenomenon where people tend to develop a preference or liking for things or people that they are repeatedly exposed to. In this case, Jimmy initially did not like his teacher, but as he spent more time in the teacher's class, he started to develop a liking for them. This change in perspective can be attributed to the mere-exposure effect, as Jimmy's increased exposure to the teacher led to his change in feelings towards them.

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  • 42. 

    In-group bias is the

    • A.

      Tendency to favor one's group and see this group as correct

    • B.

      Tendency to see other members of a group as similar

    • C.

      Tendency to perform better when others are watching

    • D.

      Tendency to perform worse when others are watching

    • E.

      Tendency to conform to the social harmony of a group

    Correct Answer
    A. Tendency to favor one's group and see this group as correct
    Explanation
    In-group bias refers to the tendency to favor one's own group and perceive it as being correct. This bias can lead individuals to have a positive bias towards their group members and attribute more positive qualities to them compared to members of other groups. It can also result in a tendency to defend and support the beliefs and actions of their group, even when they may be objectively incorrect or unfair. In-group bias can contribute to the formation of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination against members of out-groups.

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  • 43. 

    Groupthink is defined as:

    • A.

      When an attitude becomes stronger in group presence

    • B.

      Thinking that revolves around keeping harmony within a group through not disagreeing with group opinion

    • C.

      The tendency to do less in a group situation

    • D.

      Improved performance when people are watching

    • E.

      The loss of identity due to a group situation

    Correct Answer
    B. Thinking that revolves around keeping harmony within a group through not disagreeing with group opinion
    Explanation
    Groupthink is a phenomenon where individuals prioritize maintaining harmony within a group over expressing their own differing opinions. This can lead to a lack of critical thinking and independent decision-making, as individuals conform to the dominant group opinion to avoid conflict or dissent. The focus is on consensus rather than challenging ideas, which can hinder creativity and result in poor decision-making. Groupthink can occur when there is a strong desire for unanimity and when group members are highly cohesive.

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  • 44. 

    The fundamental attribution error occurs when a person underestimates or does not consider ________________ attributes and focuses too much on ________________ attributes or personal factors.

    • A.

      Situational; dispositional

    • B.

      Dispositional; situational

    • C.

      Unconscious; situational

    • D.

      Situational; unconscious

    • E.

      Unconscious; dispositional

    Correct Answer
    A. Situational; dispositional
    Explanation
    The fundamental attribution error occurs when a person underestimates or does not consider situational attributes and focuses too much on dispositional attributes or personal factors. This means that individuals tend to attribute behavior to a person's internal characteristics, such as their personality or disposition, rather than considering external factors or the situation they are in.

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  • 45. 

    When a person experiences guilt or discomfort because he or she realizes that he or she is not being truthful with their friends, then this person may be experiencing:

    • A.

      Blaming the victim

    • B.

      Self-serving bias

    • C.

      Cognitive dissonance

    • D.

      Constipation

    • E.

      Normative social influence

    Correct Answer
    C. Cognitive dissonance
    Explanation
    Cognitive dissonance refers to the mental discomfort or tension that arises when a person holds conflicting beliefs, attitudes, or values, or when their behavior contradicts their beliefs. In this case, the person feels guilt or discomfort because they are aware that they are not being truthful with their friends, which creates a conflict between their behavior and their moral values. This discomfort is a manifestation of cognitive dissonance, as the person's thoughts and actions are in conflict.

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  • 46. 

    In a _______ study, only the experimenter knows who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group.

    • A.

      Placebo

    • B.

      Single-blind

    • C.

      Double-blind

    • D.

      Triple-blind

    Correct Answer
    B. Single-blind
    Explanation
    In a single-blind study, only the experimenter knows who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group. This means that the participants are unaware of which group they are assigned to. This helps to minimize bias and ensure the accuracy of the results, as the participants' expectations and beliefs cannot influence the outcome of the study.

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  • 47. 

    The theory that people in crowds come together because they share the same attitudes, views, and beliefs is:

    • A.

      Social contagion theory

    • B.

      Convergence theory

    • C.

      Emergent norm theory

    Correct Answer
    B. Convergence theory
    Explanation
    Convergence theory suggests that people in crowds come together not necessarily because they share the same attitudes, views, and beliefs, but because they are drawn to a common goal or purpose. This theory emphasizes the role of collective behavior and the idea that individuals may temporarily set aside their personal differences to join a crowd in pursuit of a common objective. It suggests that crowd behavior is not solely determined by shared attitudes, but rather by a convergence of individual motivations and goals.

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  • 48. 

    What is the process of assigning participants to experimental conditions so that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups in the study?

    • A.

      Expectancy effects

    • B.

      Random assignment

    • C.

      Demand characteristics

    • D.

      Double-blind study

    Correct Answer
    B. Random assignment
    Explanation
    Random assignment is the process of assigning participants to different experimental conditions or groups in a study. This method ensures that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions, reducing the potential for bias or confounding variables. By randomly assigning participants, researchers can increase the internal validity of the study and make more accurate conclusions about the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

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  • 49. 

    What are the 5 key provisions of ethics?

    Correct Answer
    1. informed consent and voluntary participation 2. students as research participants 3.use of deception 4. confidentiality of information 5. information about the study and debriefing
    Explanation
    The 5 key provisions of ethics in research include informed consent and voluntary participation, using students as research participants, the use of deception, maintaining confidentiality of information, and providing information about the study and debriefing. These provisions ensure that participants are fully aware of the research, have the option to participate willingly, are protected from harm or deception, and have their personal information kept confidential. Additionally, participants should be provided with information about the study and given the opportunity to ask questions or receive feedback during the debriefing process.

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  • 50. 

    What are factors that are observed and measured for change in an experiment?

    • A.

      Independent variables

    • B.

      Dependent variables

    • C.

      Expectancy effects

    • D.

      Placebo

    Correct Answer
    B. Dependent variables
    Explanation
    Dependent variables are the factors that are observed and measured for change in an experiment. These variables are affected by the independent variables, which are manipulated by the researcher. The dependent variables are the outcomes or results that are measured and analyzed to determine the effect of the independent variables. They are called dependent variables because their values depend on the values of the independent variables. In other words, any changes or differences in the dependent variables can be attributed to the changes in the independent variables.

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  • Current Version
  • Jun 17, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 04, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Msj248
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