Social Psych

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Social psychology is a branch of pyschology that refers to social interaction and its origins, including the effects that it has on the individuals in question. Can you answer all the questions related to the subject?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    We are most likely to incorporate a performance into our own self-concept when which of the following happen?

    • A.

      Repeated performance

    • B.

      Role support from significant others

    • C.

      Neither a nor b

    • D.

      Both a and b

    Correct Answer
    D. Both a and b
    Explanation
    When both a repeated performance and role support from significant others occur, we are most likely to incorporate that performance into our own self-concept. This means that when we repeatedly perform well in a certain area and receive support and validation from important people in our lives, we are more likely to see that performance as a part of our identity and believe that we are capable and successful in that particular domain.

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  • 2. 

    According to Zerubavel, when we lump together all those whose income falls below a certain “poverty line” as an undifferentiated lot – the poor, we establish:

    • A.

      Symbolic meaning

    • B.

      Perceptual significance

    • C.

      Background activities

    • D.

      Social clusters

    Correct Answer
    D. Social clusters
    Explanation
    When we categorize individuals based on their income falling below a certain "poverty line," we create social clusters. This means that we group people together who share a common characteristic, in this case, being below the poverty line. This categorization helps establish a sense of belonging and identity within these social clusters, allowing for the identification and understanding of the experiences and challenges faced by those in poverty.

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  • 3. 

    The process of learning the gestures, cues, and expectations that enable us to engage in successful impression management is called:

    • A.

      Situated identity

    • B.

      Socialization

    • C.

      Self-concept

    • D.

      Identity performance

    Correct Answer
    B. Socialization
    Explanation
    Socialization refers to the process of learning the gestures, cues, and expectations that enable us to engage in successful impression management. It involves acquiring the necessary social skills, norms, and values that allow individuals to fit into society and interact effectively with others. Through socialization, individuals learn how to present themselves in a way that is deemed appropriate and acceptable in their social environment. This process helps shape our self-concept and identity performance, allowing us to navigate social interactions and meet societal expectations.

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  • 4. 

    According to Babbie, if you can’t be sure what your mind tells you is true, how can you gain some confidence in that regard?

    • A.

      Different subjects report the same thing

    • B.

      Different subjects report different things

    • C.

      Authorities confirm your view

    • D.

      Authorities reject your view

    Correct Answer
    A. Different subjects report the same thing
    Explanation
    If different subjects report the same thing, it can provide some confidence in the accuracy of what your mind tells you. This suggests that there is a consensus or agreement among different individuals, which increases the likelihood that the information is true. It reduces the possibility of individual biases or errors influencing the perception of truth. Therefore, when multiple sources or subjects report the same information, it can help to gain confidence in the validity of one's own thoughts.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is considered by Howard Becker to account for the use of marijuana?

    • A.

      Psychological traits

    • B.

      Predispositional characteristics

    • C.

      Childhood trauma

    • D.

      Social experiences

    Correct Answer
    D. Social experiences
    Explanation
    Howard Becker, a sociologist, considers social experiences to account for the use of marijuana. According to Becker, individuals are influenced by their social environment and the people they interact with. Social experiences, such as peer pressure, cultural norms, and social networks, play a significant role in shaping an individual's behavior, including their decision to use marijuana. Becker's perspective highlights the importance of social factors in understanding drug use and emphasizes the need to consider the broader social context when examining drug-related behaviors.

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  • 6. 

    • A.

      Locate the self outside of politics

    • B.

      Connect past, present and future

    • C.

      Give purpose to change

    • D.

      Organize personal and cultural meanings into plots

    Correct Answer
    A. Locate the self outside of politics
  • 7. 

    Feeling and expression norms

    • A.

      Determine adolescent girls' affect and behavior

    • B.

      Serve as an important cultural resource

    • C.

      All of these

    • D.

      Are learned through media sources

    • E.

      Come directly from adults

    Correct Answer
    C. All of these
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of these." The explanation for this answer is that feeling and expression norms, which determine adolescent girls' affect and behavior, can be learned through media sources as well as directly from adults. Additionally, these norms serve as an important cultural resource for adolescent girls. Therefore, all of these options contribute to the understanding of feeling and expression norms among adolescent girls.

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  • 8. 

    Symbolic Interactionists explain people’s different appetites for beetle burritos and burnt cow muscle by:

    • A.

      Measuring within a cultural group, the individuals tolerance for other cultures

    • B.

      Noting the assumptions people make within social groups regarding which foods are desirable

    • C.

      Showing that people's tastes usually lead them to act in ways contradictory to their beliefs

    • D.

      Asking people directly to say why they like the foods they choose to eat

    Correct Answer
    B. Noting the assumptions people make within social groups regarding which foods are desirable
    Explanation
    Symbolic Interactionists explain people's different appetites for beetle burritos and burnt cow muscle by noting the assumptions people make within social groups regarding which foods are desirable. This means that individuals' preferences for certain foods are influenced by the cultural norms and values of the social groups they belong to. People tend to conform to the food choices that are considered desirable within their social circles, which shapes their appetites and preferences.

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  • 9. 

    Western cultural ideals  of the self include All of the below EXCEPT

    • A.

      Our various social positions relative to socio-political arrangements

    • B.

      Self-reliance

    • C.

      Mentalism or control of life by positive thinking

    • D.

      Perseverance

    Correct Answer
    A. Our various social positions relative to socio-political arrangements
    Explanation
    The Western cultural ideals of the self include self-reliance, mentalism or control of life by positive thinking, and perseverance. However, it does not include our various social positions relative to socio-political arrangements.

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  • 10. 

    When you learn the skills and attitudes associated with a new job, you experience:

    • A.

      Situated identity

    • B.

      Front-stage

    • C.

      Self-concept

    • D.

      Identity performance

    Correct Answer
    A. Situated identity
    Explanation
    Situated identity refers to the process of developing a sense of self and identity within a specific context or situation, such as a new job. When learning the skills and attitudes associated with a new job, individuals are likely to develop a sense of identity that is shaped by the demands and expectations of that particular work environment. This includes understanding the roles and responsibilities associated with the job, as well as adapting one's behavior and self-concept to fit within the organizational culture. Therefore, the concept of situated identity aligns with the experience of learning new job skills and attitudes.

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  • 11. 

    The process of routinization accounts for the way:

    • A.

      An identity becomes a self

    • B.

      Significant others engage in social control

    • C.

      Deception infiltrates relationships

    • D.

      Humans seek self-improvement

    Correct Answer
    A. An identity becomes a self
    Explanation
    The process of routinization refers to the transformation of an identity into a self. It implies that as individuals engage in routine activities and interactions, they develop a sense of self and establish their identity. This process involves internalizing societal norms, values, and expectations, which shape one's self-concept and behavior. Through routinization, individuals become aware of their own identity and develop a sense of self based on their experiences and interactions with others.

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  • 12. 

    The ideals of being oneself are

    • A.

      Aspects of natural self-fulfillment

    • B.

      Based on one's nature and influenced by environment

    • C.

      Usually difficult because common sense distorts knowing oneself

    • D.

      Governed by common sense or the plausibility of being a recognizable self

    Correct Answer
    D. Governed by common sense or the plausibility of being a recognizable self
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the ideals of being oneself are governed by common sense or the plausibility of being a recognizable self. This means that individuals often shape their sense of self based on societal norms, expectations, and what is considered socially acceptable. Common sense and the desire to fit in or be recognized by others can influence how one presents themselves and behaves. This implies that being oneself is not solely based on personal nature, but also influenced by external factors and the need for social acceptance.

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  • 13. 

    Before interaction can proceed successfully, the actors must go through a process of identity negotiation. In this process:

    • A.

      An actor must choose which identity to present before entering a new situation, and disentangle that identity from its previous uses

    • B.

      The actors must come to an agreement about what sort of situation they are in and what sort of role each is playing

    • C.

      be considered a competent adult in interaction, humans must have a firm sense of their own personal identity

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    In order for interaction to proceed successfully, the actors must go through a process of identity negotiation. This includes an actor choosing which identity to present before entering a new situation and disentangling that identity from its previous uses. Additionally, the actors must come to an agreement about the type of situation they are in and the roles each will play. Lastly, for humans to be considered competent adults in interaction, they must have a firm sense of their own personal identity. Therefore, all of the above statements are correct explanations of the identity negotiation process.

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  • 14. 

    Becker suggests that culturally-specific contours or shapes of life organize the meanings people use to guide themselves. One central Western ‘shape’ of life is

    • A.

      Life is a linear order of progress –achieved by strength of will

    • B.

      Life is determined by a series of good and bad fortune

    • C.

      Life happens

    • D.

      Life is largely determined by political arrangements outside of personal choice

    Correct Answer
    A. Life is a linear order of progress –achieved by strength of will
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that in Western culture, life is perceived as a linear order of progress, where individuals can achieve success through their own determination and willpower. This cultural belief emphasizes the importance of personal agency and the ability to overcome obstacles to achieve goals.

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  • 15. 

    • A.

      Inspirations to make something of ourselves

    • B.

      Cultural artifacts that articulate the experiences of some groups and silence others

    • C.

      Reflections of who we really are

    • D.

      Determined by the best ordinary heroes.

    Correct Answer
    B. Cultural artifacts that articulate the experiences of some groups and silence others
  • 16. 

    When we observe and evaluate our own performances, we are engaging in:

    • A.

      Situated identity

    • B.

      Identity performance

    • C.

      Role support

    • D.

      Impression management

    Correct Answer
    D. Impression management
    Explanation
    Impression management refers to the process of controlling or influencing the impressions others have of us. When we observe and evaluate our own performances, we are engaging in impression management because we are actively monitoring and assessing how we are presenting ourselves to others. This can involve adjusting our behavior, appearance, or communication style in order to create a desired impression. By engaging in impression management, we are attempting to shape how others perceive and evaluate us.

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  • 17. 

    Based on the discussion of the Freudian perspective, which of the following is true?

    • A.

      The personal characteristics of an individual explain behavior in social situations.

    • B.

      People submit to social order because they are forced to do so by powerful individuals.

    • C.

      Cognitive processes intervene between the social environment and an individual’s behavior.

    • D.

      Attempts to control unconscious impulses are the primary reason for the development of society.

    Correct Answer
    D. Attempts to control unconscious impulses are the primary reason for the development of society.
    Explanation
    According to the Freudian perspective, attempts to control unconscious impulses are believed to be the primary reason for the development of society. Freud argued that individuals have unconscious desires and instincts that need to be controlled in order to maintain social order. Society develops rules, norms, and institutions to regulate and control these unconscious impulses, ensuring that individuals behave in socially acceptable ways. This perspective emphasizes the importance of the unconscious mind and the role it plays in shaping human behavior and society.

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  • 18. 

    According to the text, Data has not achieved “humanness” yet because he:

    • A.

      Cannot manipulate symbols the way true humans can.

    • B.

      Cannot comprehend the situated meaning of social interaction.

    • C.

      Continues to make cognitive mistakes in processing information on human activities

    • D.

      Tries to be too emotional in his interactions with human beings

    Correct Answer
    B. Cannot comprehend the situated meaning of social interaction.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that Data cannot comprehend the situated meaning of social interaction. This means that he is unable to fully understand the context and nuances of human social interactions, which is a key aspect of being human. While Data may be able to manipulate symbols and process information, his lack of understanding in this area prevents him from achieving true "humanness".

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  • 19. 

    Personal or self coherence is achieved by

    • A.

      College education

    • B.

      Ongoing struggles to grasp one'e true identity

    • C.

      Participation in cultural narratives that connect personal experience and social interpretations

    • D.

      Modeling the decisions of high status individuals

    Correct Answer
    C. Participation in cultural narratives that connect personal experience and social interpretations
    Explanation
    Personal or self coherence is achieved by participating in cultural narratives that connect personal experience and social interpretations. This means that individuals can find a sense of coherence and understanding of themselves by engaging in and being a part of the larger cultural narratives that exist in society. These narratives help individuals make sense of their personal experiences and provide a framework for interpreting and understanding the social world around them. Through participation in these narratives, individuals can develop a stronger sense of identity and coherence in their lives.

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  • 20. 

    The emphasis on US willpower is 

    • A.

      Evidence how freedom transcends social divisions

    • B.

      An illustration how thomas the train engine story is true

    • C.

      Part of the dominant cultural myth of rational control

    • D.

      A reason why americans are comparitvely healthy

    Correct Answer
    C. Part of the dominant cultural myth of rational control
    Explanation
    The emphasis on US willpower being part of the dominant cultural myth of rational control suggests that there is a belief in American society that individuals have the ability to control and determine their own outcomes through sheer willpower and rational decision-making. This belief may contribute to the idea that Americans are expected to be in control of their own lives and health, and that success or failure is solely a result of individual effort and choices. This emphasis on willpower may also downplay the influence of social and structural factors on individual outcomes, reinforcing the belief in personal responsibility and self-determination.

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  • 21. 

    According to Mead, which of the following form the basis of what we think of as our core self?

    • A.

      Repeated performance

    • B.

      Self-observation

    • C.

      Internal conversations

    • D.

      Ideal scripts for behavior

    Correct Answer
    C. Internal conversations
    Explanation
    According to Mead, internal conversations form the basis of what we think of as our core self. These internal conversations refer to the ongoing dialogue that individuals have with themselves in their minds. They involve thoughts, reflections, and evaluations of oneself and the world around them. These internal conversations play a crucial role in shaping our self-identity and how we perceive ourselves. They contribute to the development of our beliefs, values, and attitudes, ultimately influencing our behavior and actions.

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  • 22. 

    Normalcy describes

    • A.

      The true purpose of life

    • B.

      Universal stages people experience

    • C.

      General reasons for why social reality is as it is

    • D.

      The internal guidelines behind impression management

    Correct Answer
    C. General reasons for why social reality is as it is
    Explanation
    The term "normalcy" refers to the general reasons for why social reality is as it is. It encompasses the underlying factors and explanations for the way society functions and operates. It helps us understand the norms, values, and behaviors that are considered acceptable and expected in a given society. By studying normalcy, we can gain insights into the social structures and systems that shape our everyday lives.

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  • 23. 

    Cooley's notion of the looking glass self requires us to

    • A.

      Groom impeccably

    • B.

      Consider our goals in life

    • C.

      Develop an original theory

    • D.

      Imagine how others see us

    Correct Answer
    D. Imagine how others see us
    Explanation
    Cooley's notion of the looking glass self suggests that our self-concept is shaped by our perception of how others see us. It emphasizes the idea that we imagine and interpret how we appear to others, and this perception influences our self-esteem and behavior. By imagining how others see us, we can better understand how our actions and appearance are perceived by others, and adjust our behavior accordingly. This aligns with Cooley's concept of the looking glass self, making it the correct answer.

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  • 24. 

    Conformity is

    • A.

      Submitting to group pressures despite knowing better

    • B.

      An ongoing negotiation of meaning and social activit relative to contexts and capabilities

    • C.

      The enforcement of social norms

    • D.

      Loss of self

    Correct Answer
    B. An ongoing negotiation of meaning and social activit relative to contexts and capabilities
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "an ongoing negotiation of meaning and social activity relative to contexts and capabilities." This answer suggests that conformity is not simply submitting to group pressures despite knowing better or the enforcement of social norms, but rather a continuous process of negotiating and adapting one's behavior and beliefs in relation to the specific contexts and capabilities of the individual. It implies that conformity is a dynamic and complex social phenomenon that involves the interpretation and negotiation of meaning within a social group.

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  • 25. 

    According to the text, reality is

    • A.

      A codified set of facts and possibilities

    • B.

      Something produced and reproduced through ongoing human activity

    • C.

      A codified set of rules and expectations

    • D.

      Something passed down intact through generations

    Correct Answer
    B. Something produced and reproduced through ongoing human activity
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "something produced and reproduced through ongoing human activity." This is because the text states that reality is created and maintained by humans through their continuous actions and behaviors. It implies that reality is not fixed or predetermined, but rather shaped and influenced by human activity over time.

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  • 26. 

    According to Markus and Nurius, which of the following will enhance your possibility of becoming a lawyer?

    • A.

      Imagining yourself as a lawyer

    • B.

      Watching legal dramas on TV

    • C.

      Reading legal fiction

    • D.

      Reading news accountys of court cases

    Correct Answer
    A. Imagining yourself as a lawyer
    Explanation
    According to Markus and Nurius, imagining yourself as a lawyer will enhance your possibility of becoming a lawyer. This is because visualization and imagining oneself in a particular role can help individuals develop a clearer sense of their goals and aspirations. By envisioning oneself as a lawyer, individuals can gain motivation, set specific targets, and work towards achieving them. This mental exercise can also help individuals identify the necessary steps and actions required to pursue a legal career, increasing their chances of success in the field.

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  • 27. 

    Those people whose opinions and influence are particularly important in an individual’s self-assessment are called:

    • A.

      Possible selves

    • B.

      Situated identities

    • C.

      Routinized identities

    • D.

      Significant others

    Correct Answer
    D. Significant others
    Explanation
    Significant others refer to the people whose opinions and influence hold great importance in an individual's self-assessment. These individuals can include family members, close friends, mentors, or role models. Their perspectives and feedback shape how a person sees themselves and their abilities. The opinions and approval of significant others can greatly impact an individual's self-esteem and self-worth.

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  • 28. 

    Culture is both a medium for making meanings and social practices and a context for how the prospects and demands for meanings and practices are arranged. As a result

    • A.

      Culture and persons are in general opposition

    • B.

      Culture and persons are interdependent and involved in bi-directional change and constraint

    • C.

      Power is obtained by avoiding cultural influences

    • D.

      Culture and persons are in general harmony

    Correct Answer
    B. Culture and persons are interdependent and involved in bi-directional change and constraint
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that culture and persons are interdependent and involved in bi-directional change and constraint. This means that culture and individuals influence and shape each other, and they both undergo changes and limitations as a result. It suggests that individuals are not separate from culture, but rather, they are influenced by and contribute to the cultural dynamics. This explanation highlights the reciprocal relationship between culture and individuals, emphasizing their mutual impact and interconnectedness.

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  • 29. 

    What do the authors mean by the “Myth of Individualism”?

    • A.

      The depiction of John Wayne and James Dean as rugged individuals is a myth.

    • B.

      In reality, there is no such thing as individualism

    • C.

      Individualism is a product of socialization and a culturally valued idea in American society.

    • D.

      It is almost impossible for human beings to overcome the restrictions placed on them by society.

    Correct Answer
    C. Individualism is a product of socialization and a culturally valued idea in American society.
    Explanation
    The authors mean that the belief in rugged individualism, as portrayed by John Wayne and James Dean, is a myth. They argue that individualism is not inherent, but rather a result of socialization and a culturally valued concept in American society. They suggest that it is difficult for individuals to truly break free from the constraints imposed by society.

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  • 30. 

    Individualization which emphasizes self-control and self-knowledge is

    • A.

      Evidence of how history tends to liberate people from social control

    • B.

      An indicator that modern life is less dependent on others

    • C.

      A form of social control that has accompanied industrialization and urbanization

    • D.

      A way to discover what our real needs are

    Correct Answer
    C. A form of social control that has accompanied industrialization and urbanization
    Explanation
    Individualization, which emphasizes self-control and self-knowledge, can be seen as a form of social control that has accompanied industrialization and urbanization. As societies have become more industrialized and urbanized, individuals have been expected to take more responsibility for their own actions and decisions. This shift towards individualization can be seen as a way for society to maintain control over individuals by encouraging them to regulate their own behavior and conform to societal norms.

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  • 31. 

    Phrases such as, “speaking as a Christian…” or “…as a Democrat” or “…as a sociologist,” indicate that the speaker is imagining herself as a representative of:

    • A.

      An elite organization

    • B.

      A reference group

    • C.

      A role support team

    • D.

      A situated identity

    Correct Answer
    B. A reference group
    Explanation
    The phrases "speaking as a Christian" or "as a Democrat" or "as a sociologist" suggest that the speaker is identifying themselves as a member of a specific group or category. They are using this group as a reference point to express their perspective or opinions. Therefore, the correct answer is a reference group.

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  • 32. 

    • A.

      The interdependence and linkages of lives

    • B.

      The submission of persons to established narratives

    • C.

      Historicity of events and intergenerational change

    • D.

      The context of biographies

    Correct Answer
    B. The submission of persons to established narratives
  • 33. 

    From a symbolic interactionist perspective, what did Einstein mean when he said, “It is the theory that decides what we can observe”?

    • A.

      Society forces its members to view the world in socially acceptable ways.

    • B.

      Social norms and values often prevent humans from seeing reality as it truly exists.

    • C.

      Truth is relative to the social context, and reality does not exist outside of our ability to give it meaning.

    • D.

      Facts rarely need to be interpreted and really do “speak for themselves.”

    Correct Answer
    C. Truth is relative to the social context, and reality does not exist outside of our ability to give it meaning.
    Explanation
    From a symbolic interactionist perspective, Einstein's statement suggests that truth and reality are not objective entities that exist independently of human interpretation. Instead, truth and reality are shaped by the social context and the meanings that individuals assign to them. This perspective emphasizes that our understanding of the world is influenced by social norms, values, and interactions, which can limit our ability to perceive reality as it truly exists. Therefore, the correct answer is that truth is relative to the social context, and reality does not exist outside of our ability to give it meaning.

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  • 34. 

    • A.

      The mass media

    • B.

      Parental scripts

    • C.

      Emplotments

    • D.

      Dehumanization

    Correct Answer
    C. Emplotments
  • 35. 

    According to Becker, major disruptions of self usually involve trouble with meanings of our bodies because

    • A.

      Bodies are frail

    • B.

      Narratives or stories are how embodied experiences are mediated

    • C.

      Disruption causes regression to childhood events

    • D.

      Understanding medical jargon confuses our assumptions

    Correct Answer
    B. Narratives or stories are how embodied experiences are mediated
    Explanation
    Major disruptions of self usually involve trouble with meanings of our bodies because narratives or stories are how embodied experiences are mediated. This means that our understanding and interpretation of our own bodies and experiences are shaped by the narratives or stories we create. When these narratives or stories are disrupted or distorted, it can lead to a disruption of our sense of self and understanding of our bodies.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following statements best represents the concept of psychologism?

    • A.

      Men don’t make more money than women; in my family all of the women make more than the men.

    • B.

      Psychology helps explain the social situation of many Americans.

    • C.

      Despite declining racist attitudes, racial segregation is increasing in American schools

    • D.

      Psychology is superior to psychiatry because it is more accessible to the general population.

    Correct Answer
    A. Men don’t make more money than women; in my family all of the women make more than the men.
  • 37. 

    Ideologies are

    • A.

      Various political positions about social issues

    • B.

      Distortions of the truth experienced during life disruptions

    • C.

      Plausible meanings in the service of prevailing arrangements of life

    • D.

      What other people have

    Correct Answer
    C. Plausible meanings in the service of prevailing arrangements of life
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that ideologies are plausible meanings that serve the existing arrangements of life. This implies that ideologies are not objective truths but rather subjective interpretations and beliefs that support and maintain the current social and political systems. Ideologies provide individuals with a framework to understand and make sense of the world, influencing their perspectives and actions. This explanation highlights the concept that ideologies are not fixed or universal, but rather shaped by the prevailing social, economic, and cultural contexts.

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  • 38. 

    • A.

      Our self

    • B.

      Significant others

    • C.

      All of these

    • D.

      Reference groups

    • E.

      Routinized social practices

    Correct Answer
    C. All of these
  • 39. 

    Which of the following statements best defines reification? Reification happens when:

    • A.

      One is aware of how one’s beliefs affect one’s construction of reality.

    • B.

      One thinks critically about the real meaning of the IQ test.

    • C.

      Something real is objectified as a concept.

    • D.

      A concept is treated as if it was real.

    Correct Answer
    D. A concept is treated as if it was real.
    Explanation
    Reification refers to the act of treating a concept as if it were real. This means that instead of recognizing that a concept is an abstract idea or representation, it is treated as if it has physical existence or concrete reality. Reification can occur when people attribute tangible qualities or characteristics to something that is actually intangible or conceptual. It is a cognitive process that can lead to the perception of something as concrete and objective, even though it is actually a subjective construct.

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  • 40. 

    When symbolic interactionists discuss internal conversation in reference to the self, they are referring to:

    • A.

      The internal debate on personal consistency

    • B.

      the ability to treat the self as an object that we observe and reflect on

    • C.

      The identification of in-born traits that direct our activities

    • D.

      The tendency of actors toward imagining conversations with others before actually confronting them

    Correct Answer
    B. the ability to treat the self as an object that we observe and reflect on
    Explanation
    Symbolic interactionists believe that individuals have the ability to treat themselves as objects that they can observe and reflect on. This means that individuals can step outside of themselves and view their own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from an external perspective. By doing so, they can gain insight into their own identity, motivations, and actions. This internal conversation allows individuals to develop a sense of self and make sense of their experiences in relation to others. It is an important aspect of the symbolic interactionist perspective as it emphasizes the role of social interactions and meanings in shaping individual behavior.

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  • 41. 

    Goffman states that projected identities carry a “moral quality.” This means that:

    • A.

      Actors assume responsibility for performing well and the audience agrees to go along with the performance and protect it from disruption

    • B.

      The audience is morally obligated to expose actors who are lying

    • C.

      Actors agree to always tell the truth and to say exactly what is on their minds

    • D.

      Persons who obnoxiously and/or cynically expose the performance as farce should be treated as moral heroes

    Correct Answer
    A. Actors assume responsibility for performing well and the audience agrees to go along with the performance and protect it from disruption
    Explanation
    According to Goffman, projected identities carry a "moral quality" because actors take on the responsibility of performing well, and the audience agrees to support and safeguard the performance from any disturbances. This implies a mutual understanding and agreement between the actors and the audience, where actors strive to portray their roles effectively, and the audience reciprocates by actively participating in the performance and ensuring its smooth execution.

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  • 42. 

    According to Babbie, the basis of truth is:

    • A.

      Reality

    • B.

      Experience

    • C.

      Agreement

    • D.

      Confusion

    Correct Answer
    C. Agreement
    Explanation
    According to Babbie, the basis of truth is agreement. This means that truth is determined by a consensus or collective agreement among individuals. In other words, something is considered true if it is widely accepted and agreed upon by a majority of people. This perspective suggests that truth is not solely determined by individual perspectives or subjective experiences, but rather by a shared understanding and agreement within a community or society.

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  • 43. 

    According to Zimbardo, in the Lucifer Effect, dehumanization occurs when

    • A.

      People give in to their evil side

    • B.

      Situational factors and systemic legitimation of the non-membership of others normalizes practices of evil

    • C.

      People are compelled to follow orders

    • D.

      Groups are dominated by strong personalities

    Correct Answer
    B. Situational factors and systemic legitimation of the non-membership of others normalizes practices of evil
    Explanation
    In the Lucifer Effect, Zimbardo explains that dehumanization occurs when situational factors and systemic legitimation of the non-membership of others normalize practices of evil. This means that when individuals are placed in certain situations where they are given permission or justification to treat others as less than human, they are more likely to engage in evil actions. These situational factors and systemic structures create an environment where dehumanization becomes acceptable and even expected, leading individuals to act in ways that they might not otherwise.

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  • 44. 

    The public health model of social justice, referred to by Zimbardo, in the Lucifer Effect, involves

    • A.

      Improving the surveillance of dangerous social groups

    • B.

      Addressing social structures of power by preventive, counter-practices that work to alter social inequities and personal capabilities

    • C.

      Using psychiatry and other medical services to treat bad apples

    • D.

      Establishing better regulations in schools and other organizations

    Correct Answer
    B. Addressing social structures of power by preventive, counter-practices that work to alter social inequities and personal capabilities
    Explanation
    The public health model of social justice, as described by Zimbardo in the Lucifer Effect, focuses on addressing social structures of power by implementing preventive measures and counter-practices that aim to change social inequities and improve personal capabilities. This approach recognizes that social injustices and inequalities contribute to harmful behaviors and seeks to address them at their root cause. It emphasizes the need to challenge power imbalances and create a more equitable society, rather than simply treating individuals as "bad apples" or implementing regulations without addressing underlying systemic issues.

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  • 45. 

    What do symbolic interactionists mean when they say that knowledge is subjective?

    • A.

      It is a human, not natural, product of the context in which it is constructed.

    • B.

      It results from applying the correct categories to phenomena.

    • C.

      It is a set of truths which has always existed for people to discover over time.

    • D.

      It is a body of facts apprehended by humans when they use the scientific method.

    Correct Answer
    A. It is a human, not natural, product of the context in which it is constructed.
    Explanation
    Symbolic interactionists believe that knowledge is subjective because it is a human, not natural, product that is constructed within a specific context. They argue that knowledge is not something that is universally true or objective, but rather shaped by individual experiences, social interactions, and cultural norms. This perspective emphasizes that people create and interpret meaning based on their own unique perspectives and the social interactions they engage in. Therefore, knowledge is not fixed or absolute, but rather influenced by the subjective realities of individuals and the social contexts in which they exist.

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  • 46. 

    Symbolic Interactionism shares all of the following assumptions with the other social psychological traditions EXCEPT the idea that: 

    • A.

      Humans act to alter their environment to suit their needs and desires.

    • B.

      What people choose to value and what motivates them come from their interpretations of their situations.

    • C.

      Humans would act on nothing but impulses except that we are controlled by internal conversations with a “self.”

    • D.

      Social context is more important than individual psychology when trying to understand human action.

    Correct Answer
    D. Social context is more important than individual psychology when trying to understand human action.
    Explanation
    Symbolic Interactionism shares the assumptions that humans act to alter their environment to suit their needs and desires, that what people choose to value and what motivates them come from their interpretations of their situations, and that humans would act on nothing but impulses except that we are controlled by internal conversations with a "self." However, it differs from other social psychological traditions in that it does not prioritize social context over individual psychology when trying to understand human action.

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  • 47. 

    Symbolic interactionism has four basic premises, including all the below EXCEPT

    • A.

      Symbols are what explains social order

    • B.

      Persons act on the basis of meanings

    • C.

      Meanings are continuously made and remade in multiple contexts

    • D.

      Meanings are simultaneously political and personal

    Correct Answer
    A. Symbols are what explains social order
    Explanation
    Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective that focuses on how individuals interact with symbols and meanings in their everyday lives. It emphasizes that individuals act based on the meanings they attribute to symbols, and these meanings are continuously constructed and reconstructed in various contexts. Additionally, symbolic interactionism recognizes that meanings can be both political and personal, as they are influenced by power dynamics and individual experiences. However, it does not propose that symbols are what solely explain social order. Social order is influenced by various factors, including social norms, institutions, and power structures.

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  • 48. 

    Intersubjectivity means that

    • A.

      People learn to know what others are thinking

    • B.

      Social realities exist and are maintained and changed between people

    • C.

      People are freed from physical facts by mental powers

    • D.

      Everything is relative to what anyone thinks

    Correct Answer
    B. Social realities exist and are maintained and changed between people
    Explanation
    Intersubjectivity refers to the understanding that social realities exist and are upheld and transformed through interactions between individuals. It emphasizes the shared understanding and agreement among people about the meaning of certain concepts, ideas, or experiences. This concept highlights the importance of social interactions and communication in shaping and influencing our understanding of the world around us.

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  • 49. 

    The social worlds we are born into and make our own ‘act back’. This means that

    • A.

      Careful attention to forgetting the past is needed to get ahead

    • B.

      Nothing really changes from one generation to the next

    • C.

      Cultural artifacts and practices have multiple effects that are refracted over lifetimes

    • D.

      There is always payback

    Correct Answer
    C. Cultural artifacts and practices have multiple effects that are refracted over lifetimes
    Explanation
    The answer suggests that cultural artifacts and practices have a lasting impact on individuals throughout their lifetimes. These effects are not limited to a single generation but are refracted or dispersed over time. This implies that the social worlds we are born into and the choices we make in our own lives are influenced by the cultural influences that have shaped us. It highlights the importance of understanding and acknowledging the significance of the past in order to move forward effectively.

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  • 50. 

    Because experience is mediated by meanings and arrangements of power and practices, social life is

    • A.

      A distortion of what really exists

    • B.

      A series of deceptions countered by science

    • C.

      A conflict between what we are supposed to know and truth

    • D.

      Participatory in ways of being in relationship with multiple ways of knowing and doing.

    Correct Answer
    D. Participatory in ways of being in relationship with multiple ways of knowing and doing.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that social life is participatory in ways of being in relationship with multiple ways of knowing and doing. This means that social life is not a distortion or deception, nor is it a conflict between what we are supposed to know and truth. Instead, it implies that social life involves active participation and engagement with various ways of understanding and acting in the world.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 18, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 25, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Mkremps22
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