Pharmacotherapy Exam 1 September 27: Lecture 1 - Pharmacokinetics, ETC

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Pharmacokinetics Quizzes & Trivia

Creighton University Nursing Pharmacotherapy exam 1 learning quiz. This quiz might NOT simulate any case/scenario exam questions. Rather, it is only meant to reinforce the basics and the details that exam scenario questions would be built on.

So as not to discourage anyone from adding good questions, let's just say that as long as you are close in the "fill in the blanks" answers (you decide) count yourself right. Otherwise, the question creator will have to try to think of every possible way a quiz taker might type in a right answer, Read moreand that is too much to require of us.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Drug solubility to cross membranes: when the drug is in stomach acid, it will pass through the stomach walls best if it is an acidic drug, neutral drug, or alkaline drug? 

    • A.

      Alkaline

    • B.

      Acidic

    • C.

      Neutral

    Correct Answer
    B. Acidic
    Explanation
    In the acidic environment of the stomach, an acidic drug becomes uncharged and lipid-soluble, thereby able to cross the stomach walls whose cell membranes are phospholipid.

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  • 2. 

    Most drugs cross cell membranes by which means of transport:

    • A.

      Pinocytosis

    • B.

      Non-ionized passive diffusion

    • C.

      Filtration through pores

    • D.

      Ionized active diffusion

    • E.

      Ionized passive diffusion

    Correct Answer
    B. Non-ionized passive diffusion
    Explanation
    As stated in handout

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  • 3. 

    The definition of absorption tells us that the drug is absorbed when it reaches:

    • A.

      The bloodstream

    • B.

      The target organ

    • C.

      The site of lipid, bone or other organ storage

    Correct Answer
    A. The bloodstream
    Explanation
    As stated in handout

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  • 4. 

    An enteric-coated drug differs from a time-release form of the drug by which physical differences and which differences in purpose, given that both are taken orally?  (Freeform answer, so it can not really be gotten correct)

    Correct Answer
    Enteric-coating on a drug protects the drug from contact with stomach acids for any of several different purposes. The coating is wax which only dissolves upon entry into the alkaline pH of the duodenum. Hormones and proteins by mouth are examples of drug types that would be destroyed in the stomach by enzymes and acid. Time release forms of drugs are for the single purpose of a slow, prolonged drug release in the stomach and/or the remainder of the GI tract and can be of several physical designs such as a capsule full of microspheres where the spheres dissolve slowly or release the drug slowly without dissolving. Short half-life drugs are administered this way for the convenience of fewer doses being required in a time span.
    Explanation
    Enteric-coated drugs have a protective wax coating that prevents them from being destroyed by stomach acids. This coating only dissolves in the alkaline environment of the duodenum, allowing the drug to be absorbed effectively. This is particularly important for drugs such as hormones and proteins that would be broken down in the acidic environment of the stomach. On the other hand, time-release forms of drugs are designed to release the drug slowly over an extended period of time. This can be achieved through various physical designs, such as microspheres that dissolve slowly or release the drug without dissolving. This method is commonly used for drugs with short half-lives to reduce the frequency of dosing.

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  • 5. 

    Levodopa is described as a drug that does not act by stimulation of a receptor.  Its action instead is that it is converted to what neurotransmitter?

    Correct Answer
    dopamine
    Explanation
    Levodopa is a drug that is converted to dopamine, a neurotransmitter, in the brain. It is commonly used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, as it helps to increase dopamine levels in the brain, compensating for the deficiency caused by the disease. By increasing dopamine levels, levodopa helps to improve movement and reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, the correct answer is dopamine.

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  • 6. 

    The drug class of drug NOT stimulating receptors but rather by inhibiting ion channels to affect electrical properties of certain cells?

    Correct Answer
    anesthetics, local and general
    Explanation
    Anesthetics, both local and general, do not stimulate receptors but instead work by inhibiting ion channels to alter the electrical properties of specific cells. This mechanism of action allows them to block nerve signals and induce a loss of sensation or consciousness. By interfering with the flow of ions across cell membranes, anesthetics disrupt the normal electrical activity necessary for nerve transmission, resulting in their desired effects.

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  • 7. 

    When therapeutic index is high, the margin of safety is:

    • A.

      High

    • B.

      Low

    Correct Answer
    A. High
    Explanation
    When the therapeutic index is high, it means that the effective dose of a drug is significantly lower than the toxic dose. This indicates that there is a wide margin of safety between the therapeutic dose and the dose that could potentially cause harm or toxicity. In other words, a high therapeutic index suggests that the drug is relatively safe to use, as the chances of experiencing adverse effects are low compared to the desired therapeutic effects.

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  • 8. 

    LD50  is

    • A.

      Dose amount that killed 50% of the people in development of the drug

    • B.

      Dose that kills 50% of animals given the drug

    • C.

      Dose needed to ensure the desired effect in at least half of the subjects

    Correct Answer
    B. Dose that kills 50% of animals given the drug
    Explanation
    LD50 refers to the dose that kills 50% of animals given the drug. It is a measure used in toxicology to determine the lethal dose of a substance. The LD50 value provides information about the toxicity of a drug or chemical and helps in assessing its safety. By determining the dose that kills 50% of the animals, researchers can establish the potential harm or lethality of a substance.

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  • 9. 

    Efficacy vs Potency - Which term evaluates the dose required to reach ED50 and which term relates to the maximum response of a drug?

    • A.

      Potency relates dose amount to ED50, efficacy relates to maximum response

    • B.

      Efficacy relates dose amount to ED50, potency relates to maximum response

    Correct Answer
    A. Potency relates dose amount to ED50, efficacy relates to maximum response
    Explanation
    Potency refers to the dose amount required to reach ED50, which is the effective dose that produces a response in 50% of the population. On the other hand, efficacy relates to the maximum response that a drug can produce. In other words, potency measures the strength or concentration of a drug needed to achieve a certain effect, while efficacy measures the extent or magnitude of the effect that the drug can produce.

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  • 10. 

    Given that a specific drug's maximum effect is reached prior to occupation of all available receptors, what risk is associated with stimulation of the "spare receptors"?

    • A.

      Toxicity

    • B.

      Higher therapeutic index

    Correct Answer
    A. Toxicity
    Explanation
    Stimulation of "spare receptors" can lead to toxicity. This occurs when the drug continues to bind to and stimulate these spare receptors even after the maximum effect has been reached. As a result, excessive stimulation can occur, leading to adverse effects and potential toxicity.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 24, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    CreightonNursing

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