Elimination or clearance
Excretion or diffusion
Metabolism or excretion
Metabolism or diffusion
Reabsorption; Secretion; Filtration
Reabsorption; Filtration; Secretion
Secretion; Filtration; Reabsorption
Plasma filtration rate
Drug removal rate
Drugs MW> 300. This process is not beneficial to the body at all.
Drugs MW> 300. This process eliminates and excretes the drug from your system.
Drugs MW> 300. This process reduces the elimination of a drug and prolongs its half-life and duration of action in the body.
The time it takes your body to absorb a drug.
Amount of time required to eliminate 50% of the drug existing in the body.
50% of the dosage that you are required to take.
Further refine or optimize this regimen to achieve maximum benefit with minimum adverse effects.
Decide whether continuous administration or intervals of time and dose will be used.
Take into account patient and drug factors and how rapidly the steady state must be achieved.
The proportion of patients whom the Dose Regimen was successful.
Minimal risk regimens
Optimization of dose
To eliminate as much of the drug out of the system by flushing it out.
To increase the plasma concentration of a drug to reach Steady State, which is the time at which the rate of administration equals the rate of elimination.
To keep the plasma concentration of a drug low in the system, so it does not have a huge effect.
Bell shaped curve
Parabola shaped curve
Declines to zero; different
Declines to zero; same
Increases to steady state; same
Increases to steady state; different
Single administration of a drug (e.g., zolpidem, a sleep-inducing agent)
Continued administration of a drug IV or orally
Multiple IV injections
Multiple oral administrations
To increase the absorption of the drug due to a sudden decline in plasma concentration
To prevent the plasma concentration of the drug from reaching steady state
Give multiple administrations of a drug in short intervals to reach steady state
Maintain a steady state concentration within the therapeutic window.
Reach steady state as quickly and effectively as possible.
Find the best dosage to have the maximum effect desired.
To give the maximum dose possible to the patient.
To achieve desired plasma levels of a drug faster (e.g., lidocaine for arrhythmias).
To reduce the amount of drug in the plasma level.
A single dose
A series of doses
Increase risk of drug toxicity
Longer time for concentration to fall if excess drug level occurs
Difficult to control the concentration once it reaches a certain point
To monitor drug concentration and correlating it with therapeutic benefits can also be helpful to individualize therapy
To have a fallback in case you overdose someone
To monitor and assess the side effects of a dose at a certain point