Pharmacokinetics (Some From Middle Of Lecture)

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Pharmacokinetics Quizzes & Trivia

About slides 32-65


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Why can't we give insulin orally?

    • A.

      Volume is too large

    • B.

      PH of stomach is too high

    • C.

      PH of stomach is too low

    • D.

      Volume is too small

    Correct Answer
    C. PH of stomach is too low
    Explanation
    Insulin cannot be given orally because the pH of the stomach is too low. Insulin is a protein hormone that can be easily degraded and denatured by the acidic environment of the stomach. The low pH of the stomach can break down the insulin molecule, rendering it ineffective. Therefore, alternative routes of administration, such as subcutaneous injection, are used to ensure the proper delivery and effectiveness of insulin.

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  • 2. 

    Which one of the following is NOT a chemical property that affects the transport route of a drug?

    • A.

      Temperature

    • B.

      Molecular size

    • C.

      Polarity

    • D.

      Charge

    Correct Answer
    A. Temperature
    Explanation
    Temperature is not a chemical property that affects the transport route of a drug. Chemical properties are characteristics of a substance that describe how it interacts with other substances or undergoes chemical changes. Temperature, on the other hand, is a physical property that measures the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. While temperature can influence the rate of chemical reactions, it does not directly affect the transport route of a drug through the body.

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  • 3. 

    Most drugs are 

    • A.

      Strong acids or strong bases

    • B.

      Weak acids or weak bases

    • C.

      Strong acids or weak bases

    • D.

      Strong bases or weak acid

    Correct Answer
    B. Weak acids or weak bases
    Explanation
    Most drugs are weak acids or weak bases because they are often composed of molecules that can donate or accept protons (H+ ions) in a reversible manner. Weak acids can donate protons, while weak bases can accept protons. This property allows drugs to interact with specific targets in the body, such as enzymes or receptors, and exert their pharmacological effects. Additionally, weak acids and bases are typically more soluble in water, which is important for drug absorption and distribution in the body. Therefore, weak acids or weak bases are the most common type of drugs.

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  • 4. 

    What dictates a drug charge?

    Correct Answer
    PH
    pH
  • 5. 

    What chemical property is described by the following?  nonpolar molecule (HA) reversibly dissociates into a polar ion (A-) and a protin (H+)?  

    • A.

      Strong acid

    • B.

      Strong base

    • C.

      Weak acid

    • D.

      Weak base

    Correct Answer
    C. Weak acid
    Explanation
    This chemical property is describing a weak acid. A nonpolar molecule (HA) that can reversibly dissociate into a polar ion (A-) and a proton (H+) indicates that the acid is not completely ionized in solution. Strong acids would fully dissociate into ions, while weak acids only partially dissociate.

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  • 6. 

    What form of weak acids and bases passively diffuses through membranes?

    • A.

      Charged

    • B.

      Uncharged

    Correct Answer
    B. Uncharged
    Explanation
    Weak acids and bases that are uncharged are able to passively diffuse through membranes. This is because the lipid bilayer of the membrane is primarily composed of hydrophobic tails, which repel charged molecules. Since uncharged molecules are not repelled by the hydrophobic region, they can easily cross the membrane through simple diffusion. Charged molecules, on the other hand, require specific transport proteins or ion channels to facilitate their movement across the membrane.

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  • 7. 

    Term for the measure of strength of the interaction of a compound with a proton.  CONSTANT of a drug. 

    Correct Answer
    pKa
    PKA
    pKA
    Explanation
    The correct answer is pKa. pKa is the measure of the strength of the interaction between a compound and a proton. It is a constant value that represents the acidity or basicity of a compound. The lowercase "k" in pKa stands for the equilibrium constant, while the uppercase "P" represents the negative logarithm. Therefore, pKa is the negative logarithm of the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a compound in water. The variations in capitalization (PKA, pKA) are likely typographical errors and do not change the meaning of the term.

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  • 8. 

    The lower the pKa the more _____ a drug

    • A.

      Acidic

    • B.

      Basic

    Correct Answer
    A. Acidic
    Explanation
    The lower the pKa value, the stronger the acid. In terms of drugs, a lower pKa indicates that the drug is more likely to donate a proton (H+) and act as an acid. Therefore, the correct answer is acidic.

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  • 9. 

    In areas of high expression P glycoprotein does what to drug absorption and thus more is transported out of cells?

    • A.

      Reduces

    • B.

      Increases

    • C.

      Don't know

    • D.

      Stays the same

    Correct Answer
    A. Reduces
    Explanation
    In areas of high expression, P glycoprotein reduces drug absorption and thus more drugs are transported out of cells. P glycoprotein is a transporter protein found in various tissues, including the intestines and blood-brain barrier, where it plays a crucial role in limiting the absorption and distribution of drugs. When P glycoprotein is highly expressed, it actively pumps drugs out of the cells, leading to reduced drug absorption and lower drug levels within the tissues. This can have implications for the effectiveness of drug therapy, as reduced absorption may result in lower drug concentrations at the target site.

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  • 10. 

    Expression of P glycoprotein is associated with what?

    • A.

      Risk of malignancy

    • B.

      Allergies

    • C.

      Multidrug resistance

    • D.

      Anemia

    Correct Answer
    C. Multidrug resistance
    Explanation
    Expression of P glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance. P glycoprotein is a protein that is responsible for transporting various drugs out of cells, thereby reducing their effectiveness. When P glycoprotein is expressed at high levels, it can lead to multidrug resistance, where cancer cells or bacteria become resistant to multiple drugs. This can make it difficult to treat certain diseases and can contribute to the development of drug resistance.

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  • 11. 

    Term for the extent to which a drug reaches systemic circulation (bloodstream)

    Correct Answer
    Bioavailability
    bioavailability
    Explanation
    Bioavailability refers to the extent to which a drug is absorbed into the bloodstream and reaches systemic circulation. It is a measure of the fraction of the administered dose that is able to enter the systemic circulation and have an active effect on the body. Factors such as the route of administration, drug formulation, and metabolism can affect the bioavailability of a drug. The term "bioavailability" is commonly used in pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of drug absorption.

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  • 12. 

    If two drugs have comparable bioavailabilities and similar times to achieve peak blood concentrations they are said to be 

    • A.

      Don't know

    • B.

      Biodynamic

    • C.

      Bioequivalent

    • D.

      Bioavailability

    Correct Answer
    C. Bioequivalent
    Explanation
    If two drugs have comparable bioavailabilities and similar times to achieve peak blood concentrations, it means that they are absorbed and distributed in the body in a similar manner. This indicates that the drugs are bioequivalent, meaning they have the same effectiveness and safety when administered in the same dosage form.

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  • 13. 

    Distribution of blood flow is faster to skeletal muscle than to the brain or liver. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Brain liver and kidney are faster than skeletal muscle. Adipose, spleen and viscera are lower still.

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  • 14. 

    Tissue permeability affects distribution.  Many drugs can enter portal system.  In the liver this is because the basement membrane has...

    • A.

      No fenestrations

    • B.

      Fenestrations

    • C.

    • D.

    Correct Answer
    B. Fenestrations
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "fenestrations". Fenestrations are small openings or pores in the basement membrane of the liver. These fenestrations allow many drugs to enter the portal system, which is a network of blood vessels that carry blood from the digestive organs to the liver. The presence of fenestrations in the basement membrane of the liver increases tissue permeability and allows for efficient distribution of drugs throughout the liver.

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  • 15. 

    What is the major drug binding protein that can act as a drug reservoir?

    • A.

      Plasma albumin

    • B.

      Fibrinogen

    • C.

      Globulin

    Correct Answer
    A. Plasma albumin
    Explanation
    Plasma albumin is the major drug binding protein that can act as a drug reservoir. Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood plasma and has a high binding affinity for many drugs. It can bind to drugs and carry them throughout the body, serving as a reservoir for drug molecules. This binding helps to regulate the distribution and elimination of drugs, as well as prolong their half-life in the body. Therefore, plasma albumin plays a crucial role in drug pharmacokinetics and can significantly impact the effectiveness and duration of drug action.

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  • 16. 

    Hydrophobic drugs diffuse more readily across a membrane than hydrophilic.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hydrophobic drugs have a higher affinity for the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane due to their nonpolar nature. This allows them to easily pass through the hydrophobic interior of the membrane. On the other hand, hydrophilic drugs, which are polar in nature, have difficulty crossing the hydrophobic barrier of the membrane. Therefore, hydrophobic drugs diffuse more readily across a membrane than hydrophilic drugs.

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  • 17. 

    Blood flow to an area is NOT a major factor influencing hydrophobicity. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Blood flow to an area is a major factor influencing hydrophobicity. This is because blood flow can affect the distribution of hydrophobic molecules in tissues. When blood flow increases, it can enhance the delivery of hydrophobic molecules to a specific area, leading to higher hydrophobicity in that region. Conversely, decreased blood flow can result in reduced hydrophobicity due to the limited distribution of hydrophobic molecules. Therefore, blood flow plays a significant role in influencing the hydrophobicity of an area.

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  • 18. 

    Theoretical volume that a drug would have to occupy (if it were uniformly distributed) to provide the same concentration in all organs or compartments as it currently is providing in blood plasma

    • A.

      Volume of equivalency

    • B.

      Volume of Bioavailability

    • C.

      Volume of Drug Concentration

    • D.

      Volume of Distribution

    Correct Answer
    D. Volume of Distribution
    Explanation
    Volume of distribution is the theoretical volume that a drug would have to occupy if it were uniformly distributed to provide the same concentration in all organs or compartments as it currently is providing in the blood plasma. It is a pharmacokinetic parameter that helps to determine the extent of drug distribution in the body. A higher volume of distribution indicates that the drug is extensively distributed throughout the body, while a lower volume of distribution suggests that the drug is mainly confined to the blood plasma.

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  • 19. 

    With regards to volume of distribution the plasma compartment contains drug with what type of molecular weight?

    • A.

      Very large molecular weight

    • B.

      Very small molecular weight

    Correct Answer
    A. Very large molecular weight
    Explanation
    The plasma compartment contains drugs with a very large molecular weight. This is because drugs with large molecular weights tend to stay in the plasma compartment rather than distributing to other tissues. The size of the drug molecule affects its ability to pass through cell membranes and penetrate into tissues. Drugs with large molecular weights have difficulty crossing cell membranes, resulting in a higher concentration in the plasma compartment.

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  • 20. 

    With regards to extracellular fluid and distribution this compartment would refer to drugs that are what molecular weight as well as hydrophobic/hydrophilic?

    • A.

      Low molecular weight, hydrophilic

    • B.

      Low molecular weight, hydrophobic

    • C.

      High molecular weight, hydrophilic

    • D.

      High molecular weight, hydrophobic

    Correct Answer
    A. Low molecular weight, hydrophilic
    Explanation
    Extracellular fluid refers to the fluid outside of cells in the body. This compartment includes interstitial fluid and plasma. In order for drugs to distribute effectively in this compartment, they should have a low molecular weight, which allows for easier movement across cell membranes. Additionally, they should be hydrophilic, meaning they have an affinity for water. This is because the extracellular fluid is primarily composed of water. Therefore, drugs that are low molecular weight and hydrophilic are more likely to distribute well in the extracellular fluid.

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  • 21. 

    With regards to distribution and total body water this would refer to which type of drug

    • A.

      High molecular weight and hydrophobic

    • B.

      High molecular weight and hydrophilic

    • C.

      Low molecular weight and hydrophobic

    • D.

      Low molecular weight and hydrophilic

    Correct Answer
    C. Low molecular weight and hydrophobic
    Explanation
    This question is asking about the type of drug that would be related to distribution and total body water. The answer "low molecular weight and hydrophobic" is correct because drugs with low molecular weight can easily penetrate cell membranes and distribute throughout the body. Additionally, hydrophobic drugs have a tendency to be absorbed and distributed in fatty tissues due to their affinity for lipid components. Therefore, low molecular weight and hydrophobic drugs are more likely to have a wider distribution and higher concentration in fatty tissues.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 07, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Perduekm

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