Pathophysiology-cellular And Humoral Immune Response

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Pathophysiology-cellular And Humoral Immune Response - Quiz

Covers Chapter 3-Patho for Health Pros


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

     Phagocytes consist of: 1. Granulocytes 2. Antigens 3. Macrophage 4. Dendritc Cell

    • A.

      1, 2

    • B.

      1, 3, 4

    • C.

      1, 2, 3, 4

    • D.

      3, 4

    Correct Answer
    B. 1, 3, 4
    Explanation
    Phagocytes consist of granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that contain granules in their cytoplasm and are involved in the immune response. Macrophages are large white blood cells that engulf and digest pathogens and cellular debris. Dendritic cells are a type of antigen-presenting cell that play a key role in initiating and regulating the adaptive immune response. Therefore, the correct answer is 1, 3, 4.

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  • 2. 

    Phagocytes engulf bacteria, viruses and dead or injured cells. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Phagocytes are a type of white blood cells that are responsible for engulfing and destroying bacteria, viruses, and dead or injured cells. This process is known as phagocytosis. Therefore, the statement "Phagocytes engulf bacteria, viruses and dead or injured cells" is true. Phagocytes play a crucial role in the immune response by eliminating harmful pathogens and cellular debris from the body.

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  • 3. 

    All Immune Cells originate in: 

    • A.

      Thymus

    • B.

      Spleen

    • C.

      Bone Marrow

    • D.

      Blood Cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Bone Marrow
    Explanation
    All immune cells originate in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is responsible for producing all types of blood cells, including immune cells. These cells then mature and differentiate into various types of immune cells, such as B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells. The bone marrow is a crucial organ in the immune system, as it is the site of production for these important cells that play a vital role in defending the body against pathogens and foreign substances.

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  • 4. 

    Immune cells mature in ___________ _________ or the ___________.

    Correct Answer
    bone marrow thymus
    Explanation
    Immune cells, such as white blood cells, undergo maturation in two main locations: the bone marrow and the thymus. The bone marrow is responsible for producing and maturing various types of immune cells, including B cells and some T cells. The thymus, on the other hand, is involved in the maturation of T cells. These two organs play crucial roles in the development and functioning of the immune system.

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  • 5. 

    The antigens representing "self" are present on an individual's cell membrane.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The antigens representing "self" are indeed present on an individual's cell membrane. These antigens help the immune system recognize and distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign cells. This is important for maintaining immune tolerance and preventing the immune system from attacking the body's own cells.

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  • 6. 

    MHC stands for:

    • A.

      Medial heart contusion

    • B.

      Minor histogram complex

    • C.

      Massive hernia complications

    • D.

      Major histocompatibility complex

    Correct Answer
    D. Major histocompatibility complex
    Explanation
    The correct answer is major histocompatibility complex. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a group of genes that encode proteins on the surface of cells that play a critical role in immune responses. These proteins help the immune system recognize self from non-self and are important for the body's ability to fight off infections and diseases.

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  • 7. 

    MHC  is located on ___________________ 6.

    Correct Answer
    chromosome
    Explanation
    The MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) is located on chromosome 6. This means that the genes that encode for the MHC proteins are found on chromosome 6. The MHC plays a crucial role in the immune system, as it is responsible for presenting antigens to T cells and initiating an immune response. The specific location of the MHC on chromosome 6 allows for efficient coordination and regulation of the immune response.

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  • 8. 

    MHC molecules:
    1. have an essential role in the activation and regulation of the immune response.
    2. have an essential role in intercellular communications.
    3. are useful in detecting changes in cell membranes altered by viruses or cancerous changes.
    4. alert the immune system when they detect changes in cell membranes altered by viruses or cancerous changes.

    • A.

      1,4

    • B.

      2,3,4

    • C.

      3,4,1

    • D.

      1,2,3,4

    • E.

      1,2,3

    Correct Answer
    D. 1,2,3,4
    Explanation
    MHC molecules have an essential role in the activation and regulation of the immune response. They are also useful in detecting changes in cell membranes altered by viruses or cancerous changes. Additionally, MHC molecules alert the immune system when they detect these changes. They also have an essential role in intercellular communications. Therefore, options 1, 2, 3, and 4 all provide accurate statements about the functions of MHC molecules.

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  • 9. 

    It is unlikely that two indivuduals would ever have identical antigens. (Unless you were an identical twin)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Antigens are unique molecules found on the surface of cells that help the immune system recognize whether a cell is "self" or "non-self". Since antigens are determined by an individual's genetic makeup, it is highly unlikely for two individuals (except identical twins) to have identical antigens. Therefore, the statement that it is unlikely for two individuals to have identical antigens is true.

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  • 10. 

    T Lymphocytes arise from  __________ _______________.

    Correct Answer
    stem cells
    Explanation
    T lymphocytes, also known as T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They are derived from stem cells, which are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to develop into various types of specialized cells. Stem cells undergo a process called hematopoiesis, where they differentiate into different types of blood cells, including T lymphocytes. This process occurs in the bone marrow and thymus gland, where T cells mature and become fully functional. Therefore, the correct answer is stem cells.

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  • 11. 

    T Lymphocytes mature in the __________________.

    Correct Answer
    Thymus
    Explanation
    T lymphocytes, also known as T cells, are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and attacking foreign pathogens in the body. T lymphocytes undergo maturation in the thymus gland, which is located in the upper chest region. The thymus gland is responsible for producing and maturing T cells, allowing them to develop into functional immune cells that can effectively respond to infections and diseases. Therefore, the correct answer is "Thymus."

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  • 12. 

    Plasma cells develop from:
    1. mast cells and release histamine.
    2. T cells and destroy virus infectected cells.
    3. helper T cells and remember antigens for later use.
    4. B cell and secrete specific antibodies.

    • A.

      1,2

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3,4

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    D. 4
    Explanation
    Plasma cells develop from B cells and secrete specific antibodies. This means that the correct answer is option 4.

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  • 13. 

    Chemotactic ___________ attract phygocytes to area of inflammation

    Correct Answer
    factors
    Explanation
    Chemotactic factors are substances that attract phagocytes to the site of inflammation. These factors are released by damaged cells or by bacteria and other microorganisms present at the site of infection or injury. They act as chemical signals, guiding phagocytes towards the area of inflammation where they are needed to eliminate pathogens and promote tissue repair. By attracting phagocytes, chemotactic factors play a crucial role in the immune response and the resolution of inflammation.

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  • 14. 

    ___________________ are a group of lipids, with varying effects. Some cause inflammation, vasodialation and increased permeability, and pain.

    Correct Answer
    Prostaglandins
    prostaglandins
    Explanation
    Prostaglandins are a group of lipids that have varying effects on the body. Some prostaglandins can cause inflammation, vasodilation (widening of blood vessels), increased permeability of blood vessels, and pain. These effects are important in various physiological processes such as immune response, blood clotting, and regulation of blood pressure.

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  • 15. 

    Natural killer lymphocystes:
    1. destroy self cells.
    2. destroy foreign cells.
    3. destroy virus infected cells.
    4. destroy cancer cells.

    • A.

      1,2

    • B.

      2,3,4

    • C.

      3,4

    • D.

      4,1,3

    Correct Answer
    B. 2,3,4
    Explanation
    Natural killer lymphocytes are a type of immune cell that play a crucial role in the body's defense against infections and cancer. They are capable of recognizing and destroying foreign cells, such as those from viruses, as well as cancer cells. Therefore, the correct answer is 2, 3, and 4, as natural killer lymphocytes can destroy foreign cells, virus-infected cells, and cancer cells.

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  • 16. 

    The three types of T cells are:

    • A.

      Helper T cells

    • B.

      Mast T cells

    • C.

      Cytotoxic T cells

    • D.

      Supressor T cells

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Helper T cells
    C. Cytotoxic T cells
    D. Supressor T cells
    Explanation
    The three types of T cells are Helper T cells, Cytotoxic T cells, and Suppressor T cells. Helper T cells are responsible for coordinating the immune response by activating other immune cells. Cytotoxic T cells, also known as killer T cells, directly attack and destroy infected cells. Suppressor T cells regulate the immune response by suppressing the activity of other immune cells, preventing excessive immune reactions. These three types of T cells work together to effectively fight off infections and maintain immune balance in the body.

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  • 17. 

    Helper T cells:

    • A.

      Detect infection and get the other cells of the immune system ready to do battle.

    • B.

      Tell B cells to produce antibodies

    • C.

      Attack virus-infected cells.

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      B and C

    • F.

      A, B and C

    Correct Answer
    D. A and B
    Explanation
    Helper T cells play a crucial role in the immune response. They detect infections and activate other cells of the immune system, preparing them for battle. Additionally, they communicate with B cells and stimulate them to produce antibodies, which are essential for targeting and neutralizing pathogens. Therefore, the correct answer is A and B, as helper T cells both detect infections and instruct B cells to produce antibodies.

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  • 18. 

    Cytotoxic T cells:

    • A.

      Attack virus-infected cells.

    • B.

      Tell B cells to produce antibodies.

    • C.

      Alert the immune system when a antigen is detected.

    Correct Answer
    A. Attack virus-infected cells.
    Explanation
    Cytotoxic T cells are a type of immune cell that specifically target and destroy virus-infected cells. They recognize antigens presented on the surface of infected cells and release toxic substances to kill them. This response is crucial in eliminating viruses from the body and preventing further spread of infection. Cytotoxic T cells play a vital role in the immune response against viral infections.

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  • 19. 

    __________________ T cells tell the immune system when the battle with the infectious pathogens is over and to stop fighting

    Correct Answer
    Suppressor
    suppressor
  • 20. 

    What are the stages of infectious disease? (choose all that apply)

    • A.

      The peak (clinical) stage (the disease reaches its highest point of development, severe aches, chills, vomiting, etc.)

    • B.

      The incubation stage (silent stage-- the pathogen has gained entry into the host and starts replicating)

    • C.

      The recovery stage (symptoms have all but completely vanished; pathogen has been mostly eliminated)

    • D.

      The prodromal stage (itchy, runny nose, dry eyes, etc.)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The peak (clinical) stage (the disease reaches its highest point of development, severe aches, chills, vomiting, etc.)
    B. The incubation stage (silent stage-- the pathogen has gained entry into the host and starts replicating)
    C. The recovery stage (symptoms have all but completely vanished; pathogen has been mostly eliminated)
    D. The prodromal stage (itchy, runny nose, dry eyes, etc.)
    Explanation
    The stages of infectious disease include the peak (clinical) stage, where the disease reaches its highest point of development and symptoms are severe, such as aches, chills, vomiting, etc. The incubation stage is the silent stage where the pathogen has gained entry into the host and starts replicating. The recovery stage is when symptoms have mostly vanished and the pathogen has been mostly eliminated. The prodromal stage is characterized by symptoms like itchy, runny nose, dry eyes, etc.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 25, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Holleegirl
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