Piaget Versus Vygotsky

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Piaget Versus Vygotsky - Quiz

Piaget versus Vygotsky


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The theorists are linked to different learning theories. Vygotsky and Cognitive Developmental Theory, Piaget and Social Developmental Theory. Is this true or false.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    • C.

      Answer option 3

    • D.

      Answer option 4

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false. Vygotsky is associated with the Sociocultural Theory of learning, not the Cognitive Developmental Theory. Piaget, on the other hand, is known for his Cognitive Developmental Theory, not the Social Developmental Theory. Therefore, the theorists are not linked to the learning theories mentioned in the statement.

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  • 2. 

    True or false: Piaget believes that children's development must necessarily precede their learning.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    • C.

      Answer option 3

    • D.

      Answer option 4

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Piaget believed that children's development must necessarily precede their learning. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, children go through distinct stages of development, and their learning is influenced by their current stage of development. Piaget argued that children actively construct knowledge through their interactions with the environment, and their learning is shaped by their cognitive development. Therefore, it can be inferred that Piaget believed that children's development comes before their learning.

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  • 3. 

    "Learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organised, specifically human psychological function." This is a tenet from:

    • A.

      Vygotsky

    • B.

      Piaget

    • C.

      Answer option 3

    • D.

      Answer option 4

    Correct Answer
    A. Vygotsky
    Explanation
    The given statement aligns with Vygotsky's theory of sociocultural development. Vygotsky emphasized the importance of cultural and social factors in shaping cognitive development. He believed that learning is a fundamental part of the development of psychological functions and that it occurs through social interactions and cultural tools. This aligns with the statement that learning is necessary and universal in the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function.

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  • 4. 

    Is this true or false: According to Piaget, social learning tends to precede development. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    • C.

      Answer option 3

    • D.

      Answer option 4

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that cognitive development precedes social learning. According to Piaget, children's cognitive abilities and understanding of the world around them develop first, and then they are able to engage in social interactions and learn from others. This contradicts the statement that social learning tends to precede development according to Piaget. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 5. 

    Vygotsky developed a ............ approach to cognitive development. 

    • A.

      Socio-situational

    • B.

      Cognitive

    • C.

      Social

    • D.

      Socio-cultural

    Correct Answer
    D. Socio-cultural
    Explanation
    Vygotsky developed a socio-cultural approach to cognitive development. This approach emphasizes the role of social interactions and cultural context in shaping cognitive processes. According to Vygotsky, cognitive development occurs through social interactions with more knowledgeable individuals, such as parents, teachers, or peers. These interactions provide the child with opportunities to acquire new knowledge and skills through collaborative problem-solving and guided learning. Vygotsky also emphasized the importance of cultural tools, such as language and symbolic systems, in shaping cognitive development. This socio-cultural approach highlights the dynamic interplay between the individual, their social environment, and their cultural context in shaping cognitive development.

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  • 6. 

    True of False: Vygotsky believes his principle of equilibration accounts for development. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False. It is Piaget's principle of equilibration.

    • C.

      Answer option 3

    • D.

      Answer option 4

    Correct Answer
    B. False. It is Piaget's principle of equilibration.
    Explanation
    Vygotsky does not believe that his principle of equilibration accounts for development. It is actually Piaget's principle of equilibration that explains development according to Vygotsky.

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  • 7. 

    Vygotsky & Piaget place equal emphasis on the role of language in cognitive development.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Vygotsky and Piaget do not place equal emphasis on the role of language in cognitive development. While both theorists acknowledge the importance of language in cognitive development, they have different perspectives on its role. Piaget believed that language develops as a result of cognitive development, whereas Vygotsky believed that language plays a crucial role in cognitive development by shaping and guiding thought processes. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is FALSE?

    • A.

      Vygotsky emphasises the role of language in cognitive development.

    • B.

      Piaget is criticised for his lack of emphasis on language in cognitive development.

    • C.

      Vygotsky looks at the student as a scientist.

    • D.

      Piaget looks at the student as a scientist.

    Correct Answer
    C. Vygotsky looks at the student as a scientist.
    Explanation
    Vygotsky looks at the student as a scientist. This statement is false because it is Piaget who looks at the student as a scientist, not Vygotsky. Vygotsky emphasizes the role of language in cognitive development, while Piaget is criticized for his lack of emphasis on language.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is TRUE?

    • A.

      Piaget is all about self-initiated discovery.

    • B.

      Vygotsky leaned toward spontaneous knowledge.

    • C.

      Piaget believed student's senses helped them interpret the world.

    • D.

      Vygotsky believed the learner is an apprentice.

    • E.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above.
    Explanation
    All of the statements mentioned in the options are true. Piaget's theory emphasizes self-initiated discovery, where children actively construct their own knowledge through exploration and interaction with the environment. Vygotsky, on the other hand, believed that learning is a social process and that spontaneous knowledge is developed through interaction with more knowledgeable others. Piaget also emphasized the role of the student's senses in interpreting and understanding the world. Therefore, the correct answer is that all of the statements are true.

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  • 10. 

    Piaget is criticised for underestimating the emphasis that social factors have on cognitive development.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Piaget's theory of cognitive development focuses primarily on the individual's internal processes and how they develop over time. However, critics argue that Piaget underestimated the influence of social factors on cognitive development. They believe that social interactions, cultural contexts, and the influence of others play a significant role in shaping cognitive abilities. This criticism suggests that Piaget's theory fails to fully acknowledge the impact of social factors, which is why the statement "Piaget is criticised for underestimating the emphasis that social factors have on cognitive development" is true.

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  • 11. 

    Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky claimed that infants are born with the basic materials/abilities for intellectual development.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Vygotsky did not claim that infants are born with the basic materials/abilities for intellectual development. According to Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, infants are born with basic biological functions, but their intellectual development is shaped through social interactions and cultural influences. Vygotsky believed that cognitive development occurs through the guidance and support of more knowledgeable individuals in the child's social environment. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 12. 

    Concrete operational development (7-11yrs) is the stage of cognitive development which is characterised by the active and appropriate use of logic. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Concrete operational development is indeed the stage of cognitive development between the ages of 7 and 11, where children demonstrate the ability to think logically and use logic in their problem-solving. During this stage, children are able to understand conservation, reversibility, and classification. They can also engage in more complex mental operations and understand the concept of cause and effect. Therefore, the statement "Concrete operational development (7-11yrs) is the stage of cognitive development which is characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic" is true.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following words/phrases cannot be related to Vygotsky:

    • A.

      Scaffolding

    • B.

      Guided participation

    • C.

      Active participation

    • D.

      Social interaction

    • E.

      Equilibrium

    Correct Answer
    E. Equilibrium
    Explanation
    Vygotsky's theory of sociocultural development focuses on the role of social interaction and guided participation in cognitive development. Scaffolding, guided participation, and social interaction are all concepts that are closely related to Vygotsky's theory. However, equilibrium is a term that is more commonly associated with Piaget's theory of cognitive development, which emphasizes the process of achieving a balance between existing knowledge and new experiences. Therefore, equilibrium cannot be directly related to Vygotsky's ideas.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following words/phrases does not relate to Piaget:

    • A.

      Learning = Construction

    • B.

      Schemas

    • C.

      Assimilation

    • D.

      Accommodation

    • E.

      Adaptation

    Correct Answer
    A. Learning = Construction
    Explanation
    Piaget's theory of cognitive development focuses on how children actively construct their understanding of the world through their experiences and interactions. The concepts of schemas, assimilation, accommodation, and adaptation are all central to Piaget's theory. Learning = Construction, on the other hand, does not directly relate to Piaget. While construction is a part of the learning process according to Piaget, the equation of learning and construction is not a specific concept associated with his theory.

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  • 15. 

    Piaget believed that:

    • A.

      Learning precedes development.

    • B.

      Knowledge is culturally constructed.

    • C.

      We can manipulate the sensory world.

    • D.

      We are starting with social interaction and language.

    Correct Answer
    C. We can manipulate the sensory world.
    Explanation
    Piaget believed that we can manipulate the sensory world. This means that individuals actively interact with their environment and use their senses to explore and understand the world around them. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, children learn and develop through their interactions with objects and people in their environment. They actively engage in activities that involve manipulating objects, observing patterns, and making sense of their experiences. This hands-on approach allows individuals to construct their own knowledge and understanding of the world.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following does not conform to Piaget's theory of cognitive development:

    • A.

      Learning opportunities must be provided in order for the child to advance.

    • B.

      Disequilibrium.

    • C.

      Children learn from their social context.

    • D.

      Children should learn from each other, there should be pairing and group work.

    Correct Answer
    C. Children learn from their social context.
    Explanation
    Piaget's theory of cognitive development emphasizes the importance of individual exploration and discovery in a child's learning process. According to Piaget, children construct their own knowledge through direct interaction with their environment, rather than solely relying on social interactions. While social interactions can certainly influence cognitive development, Piaget's theory does not suggest that learning solely occurs through the social context.

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  • 17. 

    According to Piaget, teachers and social context play equal roles in children's discovery learning.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Piaget believed that children's discovery learning is primarily influenced by their own active engagement with the environment, rather than the roles of teachers and social context. He emphasized that children construct their knowledge through their own exploration and interactions with the world around them. While teachers and social context can provide support and opportunities for learning, they are not considered to play equal roles in children's discovery learning according to Piaget's theory.

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  • 18. 

    According to Vygotsky, language is the second social construction.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to Vygotsky, language is not the second social construction. Vygotsky believed that language is the most important tool for cognitive development and that it plays a crucial role in shaping our thinking and understanding of the world. He argued that language allows individuals to communicate and interact with others, which in turn helps them to acquire knowledge and develop higher mental functions. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the theorists suggests that children's thinking does not go entirely 'smooth'?

    • A.

      Piaget

    • B.

      Vygotsky

    Correct Answer
    A. Piaget
    Explanation
    Piaget suggests that children's thinking does not go entirely 'smooth'. Piaget's theory of cognitive development emphasizes that children go through different stages of development, and their thinking and understanding of the world undergo significant changes during each stage. According to Piaget, children's thinking is characterized by periods of equilibrium and disequilibrium, where they may encounter cognitive conflicts and inconsistencies that challenge their existing knowledge and understanding. These conflicts lead to cognitive growth and the development of more sophisticated thinking abilities. Therefore, Piaget's theory suggests that children's thinking is not always smooth and linear but rather involves periods of cognitive struggle and transformation.

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  • 20. 

    Like Piaget, Vygotsky believes that young children are curious and actively involved in their own learning and the discovery and development of new understandings/schema.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Vygotsky agrees with Piaget's belief that young children are naturally curious and actively engaged in their own learning. He also believes that children play an active role in constructing their knowledge and understanding of the world. This aligns with Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, which emphasizes the importance of social interaction and cultural context in cognitive development. Therefore, the statement that Vygotsky shares Piaget's view about young children's curiosity and involvement in learning is true.

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  • 21. 

    The modelling of a behaviour by a skillful tutor fits with Vygotsky's theory of social-cultural development.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Vygotsky's theory of social-cultural development, individuals learn and develop through their interactions with others in a social and cultural context. The modelling of behavior by a skillful tutor aligns with this theory because it involves the tutor demonstrating the desired behavior, which the learner can then observe and imitate. This social interaction and observation of behavior contribute to the learner's cognitive development and acquisition of new skills. Therefore, the statement that the modelling of behavior by a skillful tutor fits with Vygotsky's theory of social-cultural development is true.

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  • 22. 

    During Piaget's 'sensorimotor stage' children begin to develop:

    • A.

      Attention and sensation.

    • B.

      Reflexes and habits.

    • C.

      Hand-eye coordination and object permanence.

    • D.

      B and c

    Correct Answer
    D. B and c
    Explanation
    During Piaget's 'sensorimotor stage', children begin to develop reflexes and habits. They also develop hand-eye coordination and object permanence. Reflexes and habits refer to the involuntary actions and learned behaviors that infants exhibit during this stage. Hand-eye coordination refers to the ability to coordinate their hand movements with their visual perception, which becomes more refined during this stage. Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight, which is also a significant development during this stage. Therefore, the correct answer is b and c.

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  • 23. 

    Piaget believes that a child's development transitions into new areas and capabilities at 18mth-2yrs, 7-9yrs, 11 or 12 yrs.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that children's development transitions into new areas and capabilities at different stages. According to Piaget, the transitions occur at approximately 18 months to 2 years (sensorimotor stage), 7 to 9 years (concrete operational stage), and 11 or 12 years (formal operational stage). Therefore, the given statement that the transitions occur at 18 months to 2 years, 7 to 9 years, and 11 or 12 years is incorrect.

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  • 24. 

    Affiliation, play, learning, peer and work are all developmental stages related to Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development emphasizes the importance of social interaction and the role of culture in the development of cognition. According to Vygotsky, affiliation, play, learning, peer, and work are all stages through which individuals progress in their cognitive development. These stages involve engaging with others, acquiring new knowledge and skills, and gradually becoming more independent and competent in their thinking and problem-solving abilities.

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  • 25. 

    'Lack of ability' is of developmental significance to Piaget, whereas 'external thinking' is of developmental significance to Vygotsky.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Piaget and Vygotsky were both influential psychologists who focused on cognitive development. Piaget believed that children's cognitive development is driven by their own innate abilities and that they construct knowledge through their interactions with the environment. Therefore, the concept of "lack of ability" is important to Piaget's theory as it highlights the importance of a child's individual cognitive abilities in their developmental process. On the other hand, Vygotsky emphasized the role of social interaction and cultural influences in cognitive development. He believed that children's thinking is shaped by their interactions with others and the tools and symbols of their culture. Therefore, the concept of "external thinking" is significant to Vygotsky's theory as it highlights the influence of external factors on cognitive development.

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  • 26. 

    Vygotsky believes that culture determines the type of memory strategy we develop.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Vygotsky, culture plays a crucial role in shaping the type of memory strategies individuals develop. He believed that the cultural context in which we grow up influences the way we remember and process information. This means that different cultures may have different approaches to memory, such as using visual aids, storytelling, or repetition. Therefore, the statement that Vygotsky believes culture determines the type of memory strategy we develop is true.

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  • 27. 

    According to Vygotsky, which of the following is not 'to aid memory'?

    • A.

      Note-taking.

    • B.

      Tying knots in string to remember.

    • C.

      Carrying pebbles.

    • D.

      Repetition of the names of ancestors until large numbers can be repeated.

    • E.

      None. They all aid memory.

    Correct Answer
    E. None. They all aid memory.
    Explanation
    According to Vygotsky, all of the given options aid memory. Vygotsky believed that external tools and strategies, such as note-taking, tying knots in string, carrying pebbles, and repetition of names, can help individuals remember and retain information. These external aids serve as external memory supports that assist in the cognitive processes of encoding, storing, and retrieving information. Therefore, all of the options listed in the question are considered to be helpful for memory according to Vygotsky's perspective.

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  • 28. 

    Vygotsky refers to tools of intellectual adaptation as being culturally determined, e.g., mind maps.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Vygotsky believed that tools of intellectual adaptation, such as mind maps, are culturally determined. This means that the use and development of these tools are influenced by the cultural context in which individuals are raised. Vygotsky emphasized the importance of cultural factors in shaping cognitive processes and believed that individuals acquire and utilize these tools through social interactions within their cultural environment. Therefore, the statement that Vygotsky refers to tools of intellectual adaptation as being culturally determined is true.

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  • 29. 

    Piaget refers to 'co-operative and collaborative dialogue'.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Piaget does not refer to 'co-operative and collaborative dialogue'. This statement is incorrect. Piaget's theory of cognitive development focuses on the individual's cognitive processes and how they develop through stages, rather than on social interactions or dialogue. Piaget believed that children construct their understanding of the world through their own experiences and interactions with their environment, not through collaborative dialogue with others. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 30. 

    According to Vygotsky, co-operative and collaborative dialogue is NOT followed by:

    • A.

      An internalisation of information.

    • B.

      An externalisation of information.

    • C.

      The child guiding their own performance.

    • D.

      The child regulating their oen performance.

    Correct Answer
    B. An externalisation of information.
    Explanation
    According to Vygotsky, co-operative and collaborative dialogue is followed by the internalization of information, where the child incorporates the knowledge gained from the dialogue into their own understanding. Additionally, the child is expected to guide their own performance by using the information acquired through dialogue to solve problems independently. They are also expected to regulate their own performance by monitoring and adjusting their actions based on feedback received during dialogue. However, externalization of information, which refers to expressing or sharing knowledge with others, is not a direct outcome of co-operative and collaborative dialogue according to Vygotsky's theory.

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  • 31. 

    In relation to Vygotsky's theory of socio-cultural development, according to Shaffer, the example of the jigsaw (given in class) involves: 

    • A.

      Scaffolding.

    • B.

      Co-operative or collaborative dialogue.

    • C.

      Internalisation.

    • D.

      Memory.

    Correct Answer
    B. Co-operative or collaborative dialogue.
    Explanation
    According to Vygotsky's theory of socio-cultural development, the example of the jigsaw involves co-operative or collaborative dialogue. This means that the jigsaw activity requires students to work together and engage in discussions with their peers in order to solve a problem or complete a task. Through this collaborative dialogue, students are able to share their knowledge and perspectives, learn from each other, and construct new understanding. This process of co-operative or collaborative dialogue is an important aspect of Vygotsky's theory as it promotes social interaction and the development of higher-level thinking skills.

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  • 32. 

    The child seeks to understand the actions or instructions provided by the tutor then internalises the information, using it to guide or regulate their own performance. This is cooperative or collaborative dialogue. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is explaining the process of how a child learns from a tutor. It states that the child seeks to understand the actions or instructions given by the tutor and then internalizes the information. They use this information to guide or regulate their own performance. This process is referred to as cooperative or collaborative dialogue, where the child actively engages with the tutor to learn and apply the information. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 33. 

    Another word for cooperative is collaborative.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because although cooperative and collaborative are related concepts, they are not synonyms. Cooperative typically refers to the willingness to work together and assist others, while collaborative refers to actively working together and sharing ideas or resources to achieve a common goal. While there may be some overlap in meaning, they are not interchangeable terms.

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  • 34. 

    Piaget refers to the 'more knowledgeable other (MKO)' as someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Piaget actually refers to the "more knowledgeable other (MKO)" as someone who has the same or a slightly higher understanding or ability level than the learner. This person can provide guidance and support to help the learner progress in their cognitive development.

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  • 35. 

    The second important principle of Vygotsky's work is the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is a crucial concept in his work. It refers to the gap between a learner's current level of ability and their potential level of development with the assistance of a more knowledgeable individual. The ZPD highlights the importance of social interaction and scaffolding in learning, as learners can achieve higher levels of understanding and skill acquisition with the guidance and support of others. Therefore, it is true that the Zone of Proximal Development is an essential principle in Vygotsky's work.

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  • 36. 

    An acceptable MKO may NOT be a/an:

    • A.

      Teacher

    • B.

      Peer

    • C.

      Adult's children

    • D.

      None. They all may be.

    Correct Answer
    D. None. They all may be.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "None. They all may be." This means that all of the options listed (teacher, peer, adult's children) can potentially be an acceptable MKO (More Knowledgeable Other). In other words, any of these individuals can possess more knowledge or expertise in a particular subject and therefore be able to assist and guide others in their learning process.

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  • 37. 

    The concept of MKO is integrally related to the ZPD.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The concept of MKO (More Knowledgeable Other) is integrally related to the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The ZPD refers to the gap between what a learner can do independently and what they can achieve with the guidance and support of an MKO. The MKO can be a teacher, peer, or anyone with more knowledge or experience in a specific area. The presence of an MKO helps scaffold the learner's understanding and facilitates their learning process within the ZPD. Therefore, the statement that the concept of MKO is integrally related to the ZPD is true.

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  • 38. 

    Vygotsky sees the ZPD as the area where the least sensitive instruction or guidance should be given.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Vygotsky sees the ZPD as the area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given. This is because the ZPD, or Zone of Proximal Development, refers to the gap between a learner's current level of ability and their potential level of development with the help of a more knowledgeable other. Vygotsky believed that providing appropriate and sensitive instruction within the ZPD can help learners reach their full potential. Therefore, the statement that the least sensitive instruction or guidance should be given in the ZPD is incorrect.

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  • 39. 

    Vygotsky talks about 'internalisation' whereby learning is first mediated within an intrapsychological plane and later moves into the interpsychological plane.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Vygotsky's theory of internalization suggests that learning starts at the interpsychological plane, which refers to learning through social interactions and collaboration with others. This learning is then internalized and becomes part of an individual's intrapsychological plane, which is their individual thinking and understanding. Therefore, the correct answer is False, as Vygotsky proposes that learning first occurs in the interpsychological plane before moving to the intrapsychological plane.

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  • 40. 

    Both Piaget and Vygotsky are considered constructivist learning theorists, where constructivism is an approach to teaching and learning based on the premise that cognition is the result of 'mental construction'.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Piaget and Vygotsky are both recognized as constructivist learning theorists because they believe in the concept of constructivism, which suggests that cognition is formed through mental construction. This means that individuals actively construct their own knowledge and understanding of the world around them. Therefore, the statement that both Piaget and Vygotsky are considered constructivist learning theorists is true.

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  • 41. 

    Vygotsky talks about ___ as a result of the guidance provided which allows the child to develop skills they will then use on their own. 

    • A.

      Cognition

    • B.

      Attention

    • C.

      Developing a sense of self

    • D.

      Developing higher mental functions

    Correct Answer
    D. Developing higher mental functions
    Explanation
    Vygotsky emphasizes that through guidance, children are able to develop higher mental functions. This refers to the cognitive processes that enable individuals to think, reason, and problem-solve independently. By receiving support and instruction from more knowledgeable individuals, children can acquire new skills and knowledge that they will eventually be able to apply on their own. This process of developing higher mental functions is crucial for a child's cognitive development and their ability to engage in independent thinking and problem-solving.

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  • 42. 

    Vygotsky suggests that teachers use ___  learning exercises where less ____ children develop with help from more skilful ___.

    • A.

      Cooperative, intelligent, adults

    • B.

      Cooperative, competent, peers

    • C.

      Collaborative, intelligent, peers

    • D.

      Collaborative, competent, adults

    Correct Answer
    B. Cooperative, competent, peers
    Explanation
    Vygotsky suggests that teachers use cooperative learning exercises where less competent children develop with help from more skilled peers. This approach promotes social interaction and collaboration among students, allowing them to learn from each other and build their understanding together. By working together in a cooperative setting, students can support and guide one another, which enhances their learning experience and fosters their cognitive development.

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  • 43. 

    Piaget explains the learning process by ___ (the organisation of information on how things work), ___ (the placing of new information into ___), and ___ (transforming existing ___ or creating new ones).

    • A.

      Schemas, assimilation, schemas, adaptation, schemas

    • B.

      Schemas, assimilation, schemas, accommodation, schemas

    • C.

      Stages, assimilation, stages, accommodation, stages

    • D.

      Stages, assimilation, stages, adaptation, stages

    Correct Answer
    B. Schemas, assimilation, schemas, accommodation, schemas
    Explanation
    Piaget explains the learning process by using schemas, which are mental frameworks that organize information about how things work. Assimilation is the process of incorporating new information into existing schemas, while accommodation involves adjusting existing schemas or creating new ones to fit new information. This explanation aligns with Piaget's theory of cognitive development, which emphasizes the importance of schemas in learning and understanding the world.

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  • 44. 

    Piaget's theory is based on ___. Children should be able to construct knowledge that is ___ to them. Activities in a classroom  should challenge students to accept ___ between students. 

    • A.

      Cognition, known, differences

    • B.

      Stages, unknown, differences

    • C.

      Discovery, meaningful, differences

    • D.

      Discovery, unknown, differences

    Correct Answer
    C. Discovery, meaningful, differences
    Explanation
    Piaget's theory is based on the idea of discovery, where children actively explore and interact with their environment to construct knowledge. According to Piaget, learning is most effective when it is meaningful to the learner, meaning that it is relevant and personally significant. Additionally, Piaget emphasized the importance of differences in the learning process, as children need to encounter and reconcile inconsistencies and contradictions in order to develop their understanding. Therefore, the activities in a classroom should challenge students to accept and explore these differences between themselves and others.

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  • 45. 

    According to Vygotsky, higher-level cognitive processes include:

    • A.

      Language

    • B.

      Memory

    • C.

      Abstract thinking

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    Vygotsky believed that higher-level cognitive processes include language, memory, and abstract thinking. He argued that language plays a crucial role in cognitive development, as it allows individuals to communicate and internalize knowledge. Memory is essential for storing and retrieving information, while abstract thinking enables individuals to understand complex concepts and engage in problem-solving. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above" as all three components are considered important for higher-level cognitive processes according to Vygotsky.

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  • 46. 

    According to Vygotsky, biology and the social environment account equally for human development. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Vygotsky's theory of sociocultural development emphasizes the role of the social environment in human development. He believed that social interactions, cultural tools, and language play a significant role in shaping an individual's cognitive development. While biology certainly influences human development, Vygotsky argued that the social environment is equally important, if not more so, in determining how individuals learn, think, and develop. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 47. 

    Vygotsky uses the word 'development' when talking about the process of interpersonal interaction and intrapersonal mental functioning or internalisation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Vygotsky does not use the word 'development' when discussing the process of interpersonal interaction and intrapersonal mental functioning or internalisation. This statement is false.

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  • 48. 

    'Maturation' and 'embryonic state' are two words used to describe Vygotsky's ZPD.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) refers to the gap between a learner's current level of ability and their potential level of development. "Maturation" refers to the natural development and growth of an individual, while "embryonic state" refers to the early stages of development. Both of these terms are used to describe the concept of ZPD, as it emphasizes the importance of considering a learner's current abilities and their potential for growth and development.

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  • 49. 

    Another way to look at semiotic tools is as mediational means. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Semiotic tools can be seen as mediational means because they facilitate communication and understanding between individuals. These tools, such as language, symbols, and signs, help convey meaning and enable the interpretation of messages. By using semiotic tools, people can express their thoughts, emotions, and ideas, bridging the gap between different perspectives and creating a shared understanding. Therefore, it is true that semiotic tools can be considered as mediational means.

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  • 50. 

    Piaget's theory emphasizes the role of social interaction in cognitive development, while Vygotsky's theory focuses more on the importance of individual exploration and discovery.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Piaget's theory of cognitive development emphasizes the role of individual exploration and discovery in cognitive growth. Piaget believed that children actively construct their understanding of the world through their interactions with it, and that cognitive development occurs through a series of stages driven by biological maturation and experiences with the environment.
    On the other hand, Vygotsky's sociocultural theory highlights the significance of social interaction and cultural context in cognitive development. Vygotsky proposed that cognitive development is shaped by social interactions with more knowledgeable individuals, such as parents, teachers, or peers. He introduced concepts like the zone of proximal development (ZPD), which refers to the difference between what a learner can do independently and what they can achieve with assistance. According to Vygotsky, learning occurs through collaboration and guidance within this zone.

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  • Feb 15, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
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    Klbell
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