# Chapter 5, Photography, Portraits

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• 1.

### Shape constancy

• A.

Refers to the constant use of one shape

• B.

Refers to the tendency to see the shape the same no matter what the viewing angle

• C.

Refers to the objects being the same size no matter how close or how far

B. Refers to the tendency to see the shape the same no matter what the viewing angle
Explanation
Shape constancy refers to the tendency to see the shape the same no matter what the viewing angle. This means that even if an object is viewed from different angles, we are still able to perceive it as having the same shape. This ability allows us to recognize objects and understand their form regardless of how they are oriented in space. It is a perceptual phenomenon that helps us make sense of the world around us and maintain a stable perception of shapes despite changes in perspective.

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• 2.

### The Pendour sculpture best illustrates

• A.

Geometric/open

• B.

Organic/open

• C.

Positive

• D.

Figure/ground reversal

B. Organic/open
Explanation
The Pendour sculpture best illustrates the concept of organic/open. This means that the sculpture has a natural, flowing form, resembling organic shapes found in nature. The sculpture does not have any closed or defined boundaries, but rather has an open and fluid composition. It may also have irregular or asymmetrical shapes, further emphasizing its organic nature.

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• 3.

### MC Escher's Circle Limit IV with the angels and the bats-this artwork illustrates:

• A.

Positive/negative

• B.

Figure/ground reversal

• C.

Size constancy

• D.

Foreshortening

B. Figure/ground reversal
Explanation
MC Escher's Circle Limit IV with the angels and the bats is an artwork that exemplifies figure/ground reversal. In this piece, Escher skillfully manipulates the perception of the viewer by creating a dynamic interplay between the positive and negative space. The angels and bats seamlessly transition from being the figures to becoming part of the background, and vice versa. This reversal challenges the traditional notion of figure-ground relationships and blurs the boundaries between the foreground and background elements, resulting in a captivating visual experience.

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• 4.

### This sculpture is and example of a ________________________________ artwork.

• A.

Foreshortened shape

• B.

Two dimensional form

• C.

Three dimensional form

• D.

Positive/open shapes

C. Three dimensional form
Explanation
This sculpture is an example of a three-dimensional form artwork because it has height, width, and depth. It is not flat like a two-dimensional form, and it does not have a foreshortened shape which refers to a technique used to create the illusion of depth in a two-dimensional artwork. The term "positive/open shapes" does not accurately describe the nature of the sculpture.

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• 5.

### In MC Escher's Circle Limit IV, sometimes the angels are the _________________ and sometimes the ______________ are.

• A.

Organic/negative shapes

• B.

Positive/figure shapes

• C.

Ground/negative shapes

• D.

Geometric/closed

B. Positive/figure shapes
Explanation
In MC Escher's Circle Limit IV, the angels can be seen as positive shapes, as they are the main focus of the artwork and stand out from the background. On the other hand, the negative shapes refer to the spaces between the angels, which can also be perceived as shapes in the artwork. Therefore, sometimes the angels are the positive/figure shapes, and sometimes the negative shapes are.

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• 6.

### What term best describes this image

• A.

Closed/organic form

• B.

Open/geometric form

• C.

Closed/geometric form

• D.

Open/organic form

D. Open/organic form
Explanation
The term "open/organic form" best describes this image because it appears to have a fluid and natural shape, without clear boundaries or defined geometric angles. The image seems to have a free-flowing and irregular composition, suggesting an organic and open form.

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• 7.

### This artwork illustrates________________. When you focus on the black, you see a man playing an instrument. If you focus on the white, you see the face.

• A.

Positive/open form

• B.

Figure/ground reversal

• C.

Negative/closed form

• D.

Open/organic form

B. Figure/ground reversal
Explanation
This artwork demonstrates figure/ground reversal. It presents two distinct images depending on where the viewer's focus lies. When focusing on the black, a man playing an instrument can be seen, while focusing on the white reveals a face. This reversal of figure and ground creates an intriguing visual effect and challenges the viewer's perception.

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• 8.

### This photo illustrates

• A.

Framing

• B.

Aerial perspective

• C.

Foreshortening

• D.

B. Aerial perspective
Explanation
This photo illustrates aerial perspective. Aerial perspective refers to the technique of creating depth and distance in a photograph by using the atmospheric conditions and the natural haze that occurs when objects are far away. In this photo, the distant objects appear less sharp and have a bluish tint, which is a characteristic of aerial perspective. This technique helps to create a sense of depth and distance in the photograph.

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• 9.

### This photo illustrates

• A.

Framing

• B.

Aerial perspective

• C.

Geometric/repeating shapes/forms

• D.

Organic/repeating shapes/forms

C. Geometric/repeating shapes/forms
Explanation
The correct answer is geometric/repeating shapes/forms. This photo likely contains elements that are characterized by regular and repetitive patterns or forms. These shapes may be man-made or naturally occurring, such as buildings with symmetrical designs, rows of trees, or a series of arches. The geometric/repeating shapes/forms add a sense of order and structure to the composition of the photo.

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• 10.

### This photo illustrates.

• A.

Framing

• B.

Diminishing size

• C.

Foreshortening

• D.

Symmetrical balance

B. Diminishing size
Explanation
The correct answer is "diminishing size" because the photo shows objects or elements that decrease in size as they move further away from the viewer. This technique is often used in photography to create a sense of depth and perspective. As the objects become smaller, it gives the illusion of distance and creates a visually pleasing composition.

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• 11.

### This photo illustrates:

• A.

Framing

• B.

Diminishing size

• C.

Foreshortening

• D.

Organic shapes

A. Framing
Explanation
The photo illustrates framing because it uses elements within the image to create a frame around the main subject. This can be seen in the way the branches of the tree in the foreground form a natural frame around the landscape in the background. The framing technique helps to draw attention to the main subject and adds depth and interest to the composition.

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• 12.

### This photo illustrates:

• A.

Framing

• B.

• C.

Lines of sight

• D.

Closed shapes

Explanation
The photo likely contains elements such as roads, paths, or other objects that create lines that guide the viewer's eye towards a specific point of interest in the image. These lines can create a sense of depth, movement, or direction within the composition, making them leading lines.

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• 13.
• A.

Depth

• B.

Repeating geometric

• C.

Geometric/closed

• D.

A. Depth
• 14.
• A.

Closure

• B.

Foreshortening

• C.

Framing

• D.

B. Foreshortening
• 15.

### When taking photos or drawing a picture or creating a painting, which of the following statements is true about the Rule of Thirds?

• A.

Divide the area in three and set the main subject at the bottom right of the space

• B.

Divide the area in three and center the subject matter in the middle of the space

• C.

Divide the area in three and set the main subject so that it hits ALL OF THE POINTS where the the three areas meet

• D.

Divide the area in three and set the main subject so that it hits one or more of the points where the three areas meet

D. Divide the area in three and set the main subject so that it hits one or more of the points where the three areas meet
Explanation
The Rule of Thirds is a composition guideline used in photography, drawing, and painting. It suggests dividing the frame into a grid of nine equal parts by drawing two equally spaced horizontal lines and two equally spaced vertical lines. The main subject should then be placed along one or more of the points where these lines intersect. This creates a visually pleasing and balanced composition by avoiding placing the subject directly in the center of the frame.

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• 16.

### This photo illustrates :

• A.

Geometric/open

• B.

Lines of sight

• C.

• D.

Directional lines

B. Lines of sight
Explanation
This photo illustrates lines of sight. Lines of sight refer to the visual paths that are created when looking at a particular subject or scene. In this photo, there are clear and distinct lines that guide the viewer's gaze towards a specific point or direction. These lines help to create a sense of depth and perspective in the image, drawing attention to the subject and enhancing the overall composition.

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• 17.

### The shape most commonly used for the head form is ______________

• A.

A circle

• B.

An oval

• C.

A ellipse

• D.

A egg shape

B. An oval
Explanation
The shape most commonly used for the head form is an oval. This is because an oval shape closely resembles the shape of a human head, with a slightly elongated form and rounded edges. Using an oval shape for a head form allows for better representation and accuracy when creating or designing products such as hats, helmets, or masks that need to fit comfortably and securely on the head.

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• 18.

### When drawing a portrait, an artist can use the width of an _______ in order to find out how wide the head (across) should be.

• A.

Nose

• B.

Mouth

• C.

Eye

• D.

Both a and c

D. Both a and c
Explanation
When drawing a portrait, an artist can use the width of an eye in order to find out how wide the head (across) should be. Similarly, the width of a nose can also be used as a reference for determining the width of the head. By using both the eye and nose measurements, the artist can ensure proportionality and accuracy in the portrait.

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• 19.

### The measurement of the human head (when drawn on a piece of paper) should

• A.

Start at the top of the forehead and end at the chin.

• B.

Start at the back of the top of the head and the edge of the neck.

• C.

Start at the middle of the top of the head and goes just in front of the neckline

C. Start at the middle of the top of the head and goes just in front of the neckline
Explanation
The correct answer is to start at the middle of the top of the head and go just in front of the neckline. This is the most accurate measurement of the human head when drawn on a piece of paper. Starting at the top of the forehead and ending at the chin would not include the entire head, and starting at the back of the top of the head and the edge of the neck would include unnecessary parts of the neck. Therefore, starting at the middle of the top of the head and going just in front of the neckline ensures that the entire head is measured accurately.

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• 20.

### When drawing the ears, a common mistake that young artists make is to draw what they think the ear should look like. Artists must employ the technique of ___________________ in order to make the ears look correct on the sides of the head.

• A.

Figure/ground reversal

• B.

Foreshortening

• C.

Form

• D.

Perspective

B. Foreshortening
Explanation
When drawing the ears, artists must employ the technique of foreshortening in order to make them look correct on the sides of the head. Foreshortening is the technique of depicting an object or body part as it appears to the eye, which means that objects that are closer to the viewer appear larger, while objects that are farther away appear smaller. By using foreshortening, artists can accurately represent the size and placement of the ears in relation to the head, creating a more realistic and three-dimensional drawing.

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• 21.

### This picture illustrates an example of a:

• A.

Modern day portrait and also positive/open form

• B.

Modern day portrait and also leading lines

• C.

Modern day selfie and also framing

• D.

Modern day self-portrait and also foreshortening

D. Modern day self-portrait and also foreshortening
Explanation
The picture is a modern day self-portrait because it is a representation of the artist themselves. Additionally, it can be considered an example of foreshortening because certain parts of the body, such as the arm, appear shorter due to the angle at which they are depicted.

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• Current Version
• Mar 20, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Feb 24, 2014
Quiz Created by
Flcntaylor

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