Immunology Exam (ch.5-7)

184 Questions

Settings
Please wait...
Immunology Quizzes & Trivia

Antigen Recognition by T Lymphocytes, The Development of B Lymphocytes, The development of T Lymphocytes.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What are the two types of T-cells?
    • A. 

      A:B T cells and y:S T cells

    • B. 

      A:B T cells and D:Z T cells

    • C. 

      Y:S T cells and a:L T cells

    • D. 

      None of the Above

  • 2. 
    What are immature T cells called?
    • A. 

      Thymocytes

    • B. 

      Stromal cells

    • C. 

      Lymphocytes

    • D. 

      Plasma cells

    • E. 

      Cytokines

  • 3. 
    The thymic stroma houses what kinds of cells?
    • A. 

      Thymocytes

    • B. 

      B cells

    • C. 

      Plasma cells

    • D. 

      Double-negative thymocytes

    • E. 

      Double-positive thymocytes

  • 4. 
    How do lymphocytes enter and leave the thymus?
  • 5. 
    What two parts create the thymus?
  • 6. 
    What cells are responsible for the development of the cortex in the thymus?
    • A. 

      Ectodermal cells

    • B. 

      Endodermal cells

    • C. 

      Mesodermal cells

    • D. 

      Exodermal cells

    • E. 

      Psuedodermal cells

  • 7. 
     In what syndrome does the thymus fail to develop?
    • A. 

      DiGeroge's syndrome

    • B. 

      Bare lymphocyte syndrome

    • C. 

      Follicular center cell lymphoma

    • D. 

      Hodgkin's Disease

    • E. 

      Lupus

  • 8. 
    The process of fat claiming areas of thymocytes after a year birth in the thymus causing it to degenerate is called?
  • 9. 
    The involution of the thymus affects T-cell count.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    What complement is a characteristic of a stem cell?
    • A. 

      CD34

    • B. 

      CD7

    • C. 

      CD4

    • D. 

      CD8

    • E. 

      CD24

  • 11. 
    When a stem cell expresses ____ and _____ it becomes a T cell.
    • A. 

      CD2 and CD5

    • B. 

      CD4 and CD8

    • C. 

      CD34 and CD2

    • D. 

      CD34 and CD5

    • E. 

      CD12 and CD21

  • 12. 
    A double-negative thymocyte does not express...
    • A. 

      CD4 and CD8

    • B. 

      CD34 and CD21

    • C. 

      CD7 and CD11

    • D. 

      CD14 and CD21

    • E. 

      CD4 and CD9

  • 13. 
    Thymocytes are considered to be double-negative cells. This is possible because...
    • A. 

      Thymocytes are in the process of rearranging their genes

    • B. 

      Thymocytes are unable to express the required complements to divide

    • C. 

      Thymocytes lack CD4 and CD8

    • D. 

      None of the above

    • E. 

      A and C

  • 14. 
    Cytokine ______ is critical in the development of T-cells.
  • 15. 
    What cells secrete cytokine 7?
    • A. 

      Stromal cells

    • B. 

      Goblet cells

    • C. 

      B lymphocytes

    • D. 

      T lymphocytes

    • E. 

      Follicular cells

  • 16. 
    What complement does IL-7 bind to?
    • A. 

      CD34

    • B. 

      CD21

    • C. 

      CD4

    • D. 

      CD5

    • E. 

      CD8

  • 17. 
    The cell receptor on a thymocyte is called...
  • 18. 
    Notch 1 interacts with transmembrane ligands on thymic epithelial cells which initiates a proteolytic cleavage. The process that follows the proteolytic cleavage which involves an intracellular domain of Notch 1 affects the thymocyte in what particular way?
    • A. 

      Notch 1 sends signals that controls the pathway of T-cell differentiation and keeps it away from the B-cell

    • B. 

      Notch 1 does not allow the binding of MHC I molecules to the thymocyte

    • C. 

      CD8 is allowed to bind to the thymocyte receptor

    • D. 

      CD4 is not allowed to bind to the thymocyte

    • E. 

      Notch 1 sends signals that allow the thymocyte to differentiate into a B-cell

  • 19. 
    A double negative thymocyte precursor creates:
    • A. 

      A:B and y:D T cells

    • B. 

      A:B and y:G T cells

    • C. 

      L:a and Z:y T cells

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 20. 
    Rearrangement of double-negative thymocytes begins with...
    • A. 

      Rearrangement at the y, D, and B loci at the same time

    • B. 

      Rearrangement at the y, D, and B loci at a different time

    • C. 

      Rearrangement at the a, B, and y loci at the same time

    • D. 

      Rearrangement at the D, S, and y loci at the same time

    • E. 

      Rearrangement at the a, B, and D loci at the same time

  • 21. 
    Which two loci compete with the B locus on a double-negative thymocyte during rearrangement?
    • A. 

      Y and D

    • B. 

      B and a

    • C. 

      Y and a

    • D. 

      D and a

    • E. 

      S and z

  • 22. 
    What percentage of thymocytes survive positive selection?
  • 23. 
    Which TCR does not undergo positive and negative selection?
    • A. 

      Y:D TCR

    • B. 

      A:B TCR

    • C. 

      D:a TCR

    • D. 

      Y:B TCR

    • E. 

      L:T TCR

  • 24. 
    What is the B-chain of the thymocyte test for when translocated to the ER after double-negative rearrangement?
    • A. 

      The capacity to bind to pTa

    • B. 

      The capacity to bind to y:D chain

    • C. 

      The capacity to bind to self-antigens

    • D. 

      The capacity to bind to CD3

    • E. 

      The capacity to bind to CD34

  • 25. 
    PTa is an invariant polypeptide that acts as a _________ __________.
  • 26. 
    TCR genes can make nonproductive or productive rearrangements.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 27. 
    Y:D TCR undergo positive and negative selection.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 28. 
    When the B-chain of a thymocyte combines with pTa, what kind of receptor is created?
    • A. 

      Pre-T-cell receptor

    • B. 

      Post-T-cell receptor

    • C. 

      Meta-T-cell receptor

    • D. 

      Plasma T-cell receptor

    • E. 

      Globular T-cell receptor

  • 29. 
    Thymocytes that pass a test in which the B-chain is tested for the potential to bind to a-chains are called... 
    • A. 

      Pre-T-cells

    • B. 

      Plasma cells

    • C. 

      Follicular cells

    • D. 

      Lymphatic cells

    • E. 

      Post-T-cells

  • 30. 
    • A. 

      The a:B chain lineage only requires one productive gene rearrangement.

    • B. 

      The y:D chain lineage only requires one productive gene rearrangement.

    • C. 

      The a:B chain lineage requires two productive gene rearrangements

    • D. 

      The a:B chain lineage is stronger and capable of producing better immunity.

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 31. 
    How many attempts can thymocytes undergo to rearrange a B-chain gene?
    • A. 

      4

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      8

    • D. 

      10

    • E. 

      0

  • 32. 
    What is the percentage of making a productive rearrangement of a B-chain in a thymocyte?
    • A. 

      80%

    • B. 

      100%

    • C. 

      35%

    • D. 

      50%

    • E. 

      75%

  • 33. 
    When a rearrangement is successful in the B-chain gene, what two genes are suppressed? 
    • A. 

      RAG 1 and RAG 2

    • B. 

      RAG 3 and RAG 9

    • C. 

      PTa

    • D. 

      Both a and b

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 34. 
    Why are RAG 1 and RAG 2 suppressed when a successful B-chain of a thymocyte is created?
    • A. 

      So that only one productive B-chain is expressed

    • B. 

      To allow y:D chains to be created

    • C. 

      In order to stop rearrangement in the a-chain

    • D. 

      To signal apoptosis

    • E. 

      RAG 1 and RAG 2 do not get suppressed

  • 35. 
    What are the  T-cell receptor a-chain genes? 
    • A. 

      V and J

    • B. 

      V, D, and J

    • C. 

      V and D

    • D. 

      D and J

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 36. 
    When does a T-cell a-chain rearrange?
    • A. 

      After their partner receptor chain has been expressed

    • B. 

      Before their partner receptor chain has been expressed

    • C. 

      During the same time as their partner receptor

    • D. 

      Before their partner receptor has been expressed

    • E. 

      After two successful B-chains are expressed

  • 37. 
    Repeated attempts at a-chain gene rearrangement are not possible.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 38. 
    What happens to the D locus situated within the a locus once an a-chain gene is rearranged?
    • A. 

      It becomes deleted

    • B. 

      It becomes duplicated

    • C. 

      It translocates to another chain

    • D. 

      It is removed by RAG 1

    • E. 

      It incorporates itself within the a-chain

  • 39. 
    T cells with an initial nonproductive a-gene rearrangement are highly likely to be rescued by a subsequent rearrangement.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 40. 
    What is the a-chain in a TCR tested for?
    • A. 

      The capacity to bind to the B-chain

    • B. 

      The capacity to bind to self-antigens

    • C. 

      The capacity to bind to a MHC class II molecule

    • D. 

      The capacity to bind to a MHC class I molecule

    • E. 

      A and C

  • 41. 
    What reduces the probability that a T cell committed to the aB lineage will end up expressing a yD receptor?
    • A. 

      The deletion of the delta locus

    • B. 

      The duplication of the a locus

    • C. 

      The substitution of the y locus

    • D. 

      The translocation of the B locus

    • E. 

      The deletion of the B locus

  • 42. 
    How many checkpoints must a pre-T cell undergo before it is given a signal to survive and proceed to positive selection?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      5

    • C. 

      9

    • D. 

      0

    • E. 

      3

  • 43. 
    Which enzyme that is involved in somatic recombination is expressed throughout the T-cell development?
    • A. 

      Tdt

    • B. 

      PTa

    • C. 

      RAG 1

    • D. 

      RAG 2

    • E. 

      Both C and D

  • 44. 
    Tdt is an enzyme. What is it responsible for?
    • A. 

      Insertion of the N-nucleotides

    • B. 

      Deletion of P-nucleotides

    • C. 

      Suppression of RAG 1

    • D. 

      Suppression of RAG 2

    • E. 

      Deletion of N-nucleotides

  • 45. 
    Co-receptors CD4 and CD8, the signaling complex CD3, the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 and the tyrosine kinase Lck are factors needed by the pre-T cell to_____.
    • A. 

      Send signals

    • B. 

      Activate rearrangement

    • C. 

      Develop a successful B-chain

    • D. 

      To pass positive selection

    • E. 

      To induce apoptosis

  • 46. 
    How does positive and negative selection help in selecting thymocytes?
    • A. 

      Positive selection selects cells that are capable of binding to antigens and negative selection removes cells that bind too strongly to self-antigens.

    • B. 

      Positive selection selects cells that do not bind strongly to antigens and negative selection removes cells that do not bind to self-antigens

    • C. 

      Positive selection selects cells that bind to self-antigens and negative selection removes cells that do not bind to antigens

    • D. 

      Positive selection requires the cell to expend energy while negative selection gains energy

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 47. 
    Which complement is an adhesion molecule on T-cells?
    • A. 

      CD2

    • B. 

      CD34

    • C. 

      CD21

    • D. 

      CD4

    • E. 

      CD8

  • 48. 
    T-cells interact with which complement on other cells in order to generate signals?
    • A. 

      CD58

    • B. 

      CD7

    • C. 

      CD9

    • D. 

      CD1

    • E. 

      CD88

  • 49. 
    Which transcription factors are expressed in early T-cell progenitors?
    • A. 

      Ikaros

    • B. 

      GATA-3

    • C. 

      RAG1

    • D. 

      RAG2

    • E. 

      Both a and b

  • 50. 
    Which transcription factor is expressed in late development of a T-cell?
    • A. 

      Th-POK

    • B. 

      RAG2

    • C. 

      GATA-3

    • D. 

      Ikaros

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 51. 
    Double-positive thymocytes express.....
    • A. 

      Both CD4 and CD8 and a functional receptor

    • B. 

      CD4 and a functional receptor

    • C. 

      CD8 and CD4 with a nonfunctional receptor

    • D. 

      CD34

    • E. 

      CD58 and a functional receptor

  • 52. 
    Y:D T cells are indifferent to the peptides presented by MHC molecules and recognize different types of antigen.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 53. 
    How many screenings do aB double-positive thymocytes undergo?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      9

    • D. 

      6

    • E. 

      11

  • 54. 
    When is a single positive thymocytes created?
    • A. 

      After positive and negative selection

    • B. 

      Before positive selection

    • C. 

      After negative selection

    • D. 

      After positive selection

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 55. 
    When a T cell recognizes self-MHC molecules, this is known as negative selection.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 56. 
    Where does positive selection of a thymocyte take place?
    • A. 

      Cortex of the thymus

    • B. 

      Medulla of the thymus

    • C. 

      Cortex of the bone marrow

    • D. 

      Medulla of the bone marrow

    • E. 

      Both a and c

  • 57. 
    The thymic cortical epithelium expresses...
    • A. 

      MHC 1 molecules

    • B. 

      MHC 2 molecules

    • C. 

      Both a and b

    • D. 

      CD12

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 58. 
    How many days does a MHC complex have to be bind to a pre-T-cell in oder to mature further?
    • A. 

      3-4

    • B. 

      7-10

    • C. 

      12-18

    • D. 

      1-3

    • E. 

      19-21

  • 59. 
    The a-chain of a T-cell is not subject to allelic expression.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 60. 
    Rearrangements can not occur at both copies of the a-chain of a T-cell,
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 61. 
    Why is the lack of allelic exclusion at the T-cell receptor a chain locus not so disruptive?
    • A. 

      Because each TCR only contains one a-chain

    • B. 

      Because each TCR only contains one B-chain

    • C. 

      Because each TCR contains two B-chains

    • D. 

      Because each TCR contains two a-chains

    • E. 

      Both a and b

  • 62. 
    Define T-cell receptor editing.
    • A. 

      The process by which a TCR tries out different a-chains in order to become reactive with self-MHC molecules

    • B. 

      The process by which a BCR tires out different a-chains in order to become reactive with MHC I molecules

    • C. 

      The process by which a TCR is chosen to proliferate

    • D. 

      The process by which a TCR is chosen to die

    • E. 

      The process by which a TCR tries out different b-chains in order to become reactive with self-MHC molecules

  • 63. 
    ________ _______ _________ is characterized by a lack of expression of either MHC class I or II molecules by lymphocytes and thymic epithelial cells. (Hint: a syndrome)
  • 64. 
    Where does negative selection of a T cell take place?
    • A. 

      The medulla of the thymus

    • B. 

      The cortex of the thymus

    • C. 

      Both a and b

    • D. 

      The cortex of lymph nodes

    • E. 

      The medulla of lymph nodes

  • 65. 
    What are the most important cells responsible for negative selection?
    • A. 

      Dendritic cells

    • B. 

      Macrophages

    • C. 

      B-cells

    • D. 

      Helper T cells

    • E. 

      Both a and b

  • 66. 
    How does the processing and presentation of self antigens by thymic epithelium differ from that in other cells?
    • A. 

      By the use of protease cathepsin L

    • B. 

      By the use of protease cathepsin

    • C. 

      By the use of pTa

    • D. 

      By the use of the transcription factor Th-POK

    • E. 

      By the use of the transcription factor GATA-3

  • 67. 
    Why is AIRE important in to T-cells?
    • A. 

      The peptides derived from it can form complexes with MHC I which participate in negative selection

    • B. 

      AIRE can form complexes with MHC I which participate in positive selection

    • C. 

      AIRE can form complexes with MHC II which participate in negative selection

    • D. 

      AIRE allows the a-chain to create two successful chains

    • E. 

      AIRE allows the B-chain genes to create a successful chain that will bind to an a-chain

  • 68. 
    What kind of a gene is AIRE?
    • A. 

      A regulator

    • B. 

      A transcription factor

    • C. 

      A promoter

    • D. 

      A suppressor

    • E. 

      Both b and d

  • 69. 
    What mechanism will occur if a T cell that is in circulation encounters a self-anitgen in the absence of infection?
    • A. 

      Activation-induced cell death

    • B. 

      Somatic recombination

    • C. 

      Apoptosis

    • D. 

      Anergy

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 70. 
    What is a possible outcome of having a defective AIRE gene?
    • A. 

      T cells will be able to bind to self-antigens

    • B. 

      T cells wont be able to fight off infection

    • C. 

      T cells wont be able to differentiate into Helper T or Cytotoxic T cells

    • D. 

      T cells wont be able to secrete cytokines

    • E. 

      T cells wont be able to bind to pathogens with CD4

  • 71. 
    What syndrome can occur if the AIRE gene is defective?
    • A. 

      APECED

    • B. 

      Lupus

    • C. 

      Bare lymphocyte syndrome

    • D. 

      Rheumatoid arthritis

    • E. 

      IPEX

  • 72. 
    • A. 

      CD4 self-reactive T cells

    • B. 

      CD8 self-reactive T cells

    • C. 

      AIRE gene mutation

    • D. 

      RAG 1 gene

    • E. 

      RAG 2 gene

  • 73. 
    Regulatory CD4 T cells are distinguished from other CD4 T cells by the expression of what complement?
    • A. 

      CD25

    • B. 

      CD34

    • C. 

      CD58

    • D. 

      CD2

    • E. 

      CD4

  • 74. 
    Regulatory CD4 T cells proliferate and suppress naive T cells that respond to self-antigens.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 75. 
    FOXP3, a transcriptional repressor protein, is found in which cells?
    • A. 

      CD4 Regulatory T-cells

    • B. 

      B-cells

    • C. 

      CD8 Regulatory T-cells

    • D. 

      Plasma cells

    • E. 

      Double-negative T cells

  • 76. 
    FoxP3 is encoded by a gene on which chromosome?
    • A. 

      X

    • B. 

      Y

    • C. 

      12

    • D. 

      13

    • E. 

      21

  • 77. 
    IPEX is a deficiency in what?
    • A. 

      FoxP3 and Regulatory T cells

    • B. 

      RAG1

    • C. 

      AIRE gene

    • D. 

      PTa

    • E. 

      RAG2

  • 78. 
    Mature T cells divide into...
    • A. 

      Effector T cells

    • B. 

      Repressor T cells

    • C. 

      Plasma cells

    • D. 

      Post-T cells

    • E. 

      Pre-T cells

  • 79. 
    Which cells become Cytotoxic T cells?
    • A. 

      T cells that express CD8

    • B. 

      T cells that express CD4

    • C. 

      T cells that express CD32

    • D. 

      T cells that express CD58

    • E. 

      Both a and b

  • 80. 
    Which cells become regulator T cells?
    • A. 

      T cells that express CD4

    • B. 

      T cells that express CD8

    • C. 

      T cells that express CD32

    • D. 

      T cells that express CD58

    • E. 

      Both a and b

  • 81. 
    In healthy individuals, approximately twice as many CD4 T cells than CD8 T cells are present in the peripheral circulation. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 82. 
    T-cell tumors mostly correspond to either early or late stages in T-cell development.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 83. 
    Double-negative thymocytes initiate rearrangement at the ____ locus (loci) before all other T-cell receptor genes.
    • A. 

      Y and D

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      A and B

    • D. 

      A, y, and D

    • E. 

      B, y, and D

  • 84. 
    The function of negative selection of thymocytes in the thymus is to eliminate
    • A. 

      Single-positive thymocytes

    • B. 

      Double-positive thymocytes

    • C. 

      Alloreactive thymocytes

    • D. 

      Autoreactive thymocytes

    • E. 

      Apoptotic thymocytes

  • 85. 
    If a T-cell receptor on a double-positive thymocyte binds to a self-peptide: self-MHC class I complex with low affinity the result is
    • A. 

      Negative selection and apoptosis

    • B. 

      Cell proliferation

    • C. 

      Rearrangement of the second B-chain locus

    • D. 

      Positive selection of a CD4 T cell

    • E. 

      Positive selection of a CD8 T cell

  • 86. 
    Which of the following statements is correct?
    • A. 

      In adults the mature T-cell repertoire is self-renewing and does not require a thymus for provision of new T cells

    • B. 

      T cells and B cells are both short-lived cells and require continual replenishment from primary lymphoid organs

    • C. 

      The human thymus is not fully functional until age 30, at which time it begins to shrink and atrophy

    • D. 

      In DiGeorge syndrome the bone marrow takes over the function of the thymus and produces mature peripheral T cells

    • E. 

      None of the above statements is correct

  • 87. 
    Individuals with a defective autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) exhibit
    • A. 

      DiGeroge syndrome

    • B. 

      APECED

    • C. 

      SCID

    • D. 

      MHC class I deficiency

    • E. 

      MHC class II deficiency

  • 88. 
    Which cells migrate to the thymus?
    • A. 

      B cells

    • B. 

      Plasma cells

    • C. 

      Helper T cells

    • D. 

      T lymphoblasts

    • E. 

      Cytotoxic T cells

  • 89. 
    In order to create a thymic anlage, what occurs?
    • A. 

      Thrombocytes are added to the thymus

    • B. 

      Thymocytes are added to the thymus

    • C. 

      Blastocytes are added to the thymus

    • D. 

      Both A and C

    • E. 

      Lymphocytes are added to the thymus

  • 90. 
    What transcription factor signals for a CD4 T cell choice?
    • A. 

      P-Ta

    • B. 

      AIRE gene

    • C. 

      Th POK

    • D. 

      GATA-3

    • E. 

      Ikaros

  • 91. 
    T cell tumors can be recognized by a _______ _________.
  • 92. 
    The surrogate chain in a B-chain in a B-cell is/are
    • A. 

      PTa

    • B. 

      Y-chain

    • C. 

      A-chain

    • D. 

      Pre-VB and Lamda 5

    • E. 

      MHC class I

  • 93. 
    _________ is present on all human hematopoietic stem cells. (Hint: a complement)
  • 94. 
    Which cells are the earliest identifiable cells of the B-cell lineage?
    • A. 

      Pro-T cells

    • B. 

      Pre-B cells

    • C. 

      Pro-B cells

    • D. 

      Late pre-B cells

    • E. 

      Small pre-cells

  • 95. 
    Which of the following statements is correct.
    • A. 

      In early pro-B cells joining of the D,J and V segment occurs

    • B. 

      In late pro-B cells joining of the D and J segment occurs

    • C. 

      In large pre-B cells, the heavy-chain is rearranged

    • D. 

      Pre-B cells express a u-chain

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 96. 
    In which stage of a pro-B cell does the joining of V and D gene segments occur?
    • A. 

      Late pro-B cell

    • B. 

      Large pre-B cell

    • C. 

      Early pro-B cell

    • D. 

      Meta-late pro-B cell

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 97. 
    The rearrangement of the heavy-chain genes occurs in which stage of a B cell?
    • A. 

      Pre-B cell

    • B. 

      Pro-B cell

    • C. 

      Meta-B cell

    • D. 

      Endo-B cell

    • E. 

      Ecto-B cell

  • 98. 
    The large pre-B cell is more mature than the small pre-B cell
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 99. 
    A light chain is needed to combine with a heavy chain in order to go to the surface of the cell in B or T cells.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 100. 
    Rearrangement of the light-chain genes occurs in the small pre-B cells.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 101. 
    The lamda chain genes are the first to rearrange in light-chain rearrangement of a B cell.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 102. 
    IgM is formed when the _____ chain is synthesized and assembled in the ER with the ____ chains.
    • A. 

      Heavy; a

    • B. 

      A; light

    • C. 

      Heavy; u

    • D. 

      Light; u

    • E. 

      U; a

  • 103. 
    Generation of diverse and clonally expressed B-cell receptors in the bone marrow is known as
    • A. 

      Attacking infection

    • B. 

      Finding infection

    • C. 

      Positive selection

    • D. 

      Negative selection

    • E. 

      Repertoire assembly

  • 104. 
    Alteration, Elimination or inactivation of a B-cell receptor that binds to components of the human body is known as
    • A. 

      Attacking infection

    • B. 

      Searching for infection

    • C. 

      Negative selection

    • D. 

      Repertoire assembly

    • E. 

      Positive selection

  • 105. 
    Promotion of a fraction of immature B cells to become mature B cells in the secondary lymphoid tissues is known as
    • A. 

      Negative selection

    • B. 

      Searching for infection

    • C. 

      Finding infection

    • D. 

      Positive selection

    • E. 

      Repertoire assembly

  • 106. 
    Recirculation of mature B cells between lymph, blood, and secondary lymphoid tissues is known as 
    • A. 

      Finding infection

    • B. 

      Negative selection

    • C. 

      Positive selection

    • D. 

      Searching for infection

    • E. 

      Attacking infection

  • 107. 
    Activation and clonal expansion of B cells by pathogen-derived antigens in secondary lymphoid tissues is known as
    • A. 

      Searching for infection

    • B. 

      Repertoire assembly

    • C. 

      Attacking infection

    • D. 

      Finding infection

    • E. 

      Negative selection

  • 108. 
    Differentiation to antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells in secondary lymphoid tissue is known as
    • A. 

      Positive selection

    • B. 

      Finding infection

    • C. 

      Negative selection

    • D. 

      Attacking infection

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 109. 
    Which is the correct order of B cell development?
    • A. 

      Repertoire assembly, Negative selection, searching for infection, Attacking infection, Finding Infection, Positive selection

    • B. 

      Positive selection, Negative selection, searching for infection, Attacking infection, Finding Infection, Repertoire assembly

    • C. 

      Repertoire assembly, Negative selection, Positive selection, Attacking infection, searching for infection, Finding Infection

    • D. 

      Repertoire assembly, Negative selection, Positive selection, searching for infection, Finding infection, Attacking Infection

    • E. 

      Negative selection, Positive selection, Repertoire assembly, searching for infection, Attacking infection, Finding Infection

  • 110. 
    Which immunoglobulin(s) does IgM associate with in order to form a functional B-cell receptor?
    • A. 

      Iga

    • B. 

      IgB

    • C. 

      IgG

    • D. 

      Both A and B

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 111. 
    Immature B cells arise when the rearrangement of the light chain stops.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 112. 
    Stromal cells have two distinct functions that aid the B cell in development. What are they?
    • A. 

      Produce growth factors and inhibit CD8 binding

    • B. 

      Suppress the light-chain and speed up the rearrangement of the heavy-chain

    • C. 

      Make specific contacts with the developing B cells and produce growth factors

    • D. 

      Make specific contacts with the developing B cells and induce a:B chain binding

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 113. 
    IL-7 is a growth factor that acts on late pro-B and pre-B cells.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 114. 
    The subendosteum is the location in the bone marrow where
    • A. 

      Macrophages develop

    • B. 

      Dendritic cells carry information to

    • C. 

      T cells interact with B cells

    • D. 

      B cells die

    • E. 

      Immature B cells reside

  • 115. 
    Which interleukin stimulates further progression of a B cell in the bone marrow?
    • A. 

      IL-9

    • B. 

      IL-17

    • C. 

      IL-5

    • D. 

      IL-7

    • E. 

      IL-13

  • 116. 
    Immature B cells mature in the bone marrow.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 117. 
    What fraction of pro-B cell rearrangements will be unsuccessful?
    • A. 

      1/4

    • B. 

      2/7

    • C. 

      1/2

    • D. 

      2/3

    • E. 

      3/4

  • 118. 
    Nonproductive rearrangements preserve a correct reading frame and give rise to a complete and functional Ig chain.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 119. 
    Productive rearrangements in B cells gives rise to
    • A. 

      A functional B-chain

    • B. 

      A functional Ig-chain

    • C. 

      A functional y-chain

    • D. 

      A functional a-chain

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 120. 
    The two copies of the Ig-heavy-chain locus helps to increase the likelihood that a pro-B cell will make a productive heavy-chain gene rearrangement.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 121. 
    If developing B cells make nonproductive rearrangements at both copies of the heavy-chain gene, what happens?
    • A. 

      They undergo a second recombination

    • B. 

      They are let out into circulation

    • C. 

      They not develop further

    • D. 

      They die in the bone marrow

    • E. 

      Both C and D

  • 122. 
    Which recombination-activating genes must be present in order for pro-B cells to rearrange?
    • A. 

      RAG 3 and RAG 8

    • B. 

      RAG 4 and RAG 6

    • C. 

      RAG 2 and RAG 4

    • D. 

      RAG 1 and RAG 2

    • E. 

      Just RAG 2

  • 123. 
    When recombination/rearrangement is occurring in a gene, what is the first step?
    • A. 

      Joining of V to J

    • B. 

      Joining of V to DJ

    • C. 

      Joining D to J

    • D. 

      Joining of D to V

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 124. 
    The second step of recombination/rearrangement is
    • A. 

      The joining of D to J

    • B. 

      The joining of J to V

    • C. 

      The joining of V to D

    • D. 

      The joining of V to DJ

    • E. 

      The joining of J to DV

  • 125. 
    Rearrangement occurs first in the second chromosome followed by the first if it is unsuccessful.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 126. 
    What is the fraction of pro-B cells that will make a functional heavy-chain?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2/3

    • C. 

      1/4

    • D. 

      2/8

    • E. 

      1/2

  • 127. 
    Survival signals allow B cell to
    • A. 

      Die by apoptosis

    • B. 

      To undergo positive selection

    • C. 

      To differentiate

    • D. 

      To evade macrophages

    • E. 

      To evade dendritic cells

  • 128. 
    Central and peripheral tolerance do not remove B cells that are reactive to self antigens present in places inaccessible to B cells.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 129. 
    What percentage of the pre-B cells become immature B cells making IgM?
    • A. 

      50%

    • B. 

      32%

    • C. 

      99%

    • D. 

      2%

    • E. 

      85%

  • 130. 
    How is a diverse population of immature B cells achieved?
    • A. 

      By creating different u chains

    • B. 

      By creating different a chains

    • C. 

      By creating different B chains

    • D. 

      By creating different k and L chains

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 131. 
    ____ of human Ig has k chains.(Hint: a fraction)
  • 132. 
    Which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      The pre-B-cell receptor is created by the assembly of VpreA, L1, Iga, and IgB disulfide bonding to the u chain

    • B. 

      Pro-B cells only need to create VpreB to create a surrogate light chain

    • C. 

      Only a single event joining V with J is needed to rearrange a light-chain gene

    • D. 

      Recombination is not necessary for the development of the B cell

    • E. 

      T cells are able to secrete Ig if necessary

  • 133. 
    Allelic exclusion is the phenomenon whereby a cell expresses only one of its two copies of a gene.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 134. 
    Which proteins are made by the pro-B cell that mimic the Ig light chain and bind to the u chain?
    • A. 

      L6 and VproB

    • B. 

      L1 and VpreA

    • C. 

      L2 and VpreB

    • D. 

      L5 and VpreB

    • E. 

      L1 and VproB

  • 135. 
    Which proteins are responsible for creating the surrogate light chain of a B cell?
    • A. 

      L5

    • B. 

      VpreB

    • C. 

      VpreA

    • D. 

      L1

    • E. 

      Both a and b

  • 136. 
    Receptor editing of B cells occurs in 
    • A. 

      Blood

    • B. 

      Thymus

    • C. 

      Bone marrow

    • D. 

      Red marrow

    • E. 

      Yellow pulp

  • 137. 
    The selective death of developing lymphocytes and the consequent removal of their self-reacive receptor specificities from the B-cell repertoire.
    • A. 

      Receptor editing

    • B. 

      Apoptosis

    • C. 

      Somatic recombination

    • D. 

      Clonal deletion

    • E. 

      Negative selection

  • 138. 
    Peripheral tolerance is induced to antigens outside the bone marrow that removes circulating B cells reactive against self antigens of tissues other than bone marrow.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 139. 
    Reactivity with monovalent antigens. (Hint: a process)
  • 140. 
    Default pathway of death
  • 141. 
    B cells react to self antigens in the bone marrow causing
    • A. 

      Apoptosis

    • B. 

      Receptor editing

    • C. 

      Anergy

    • D. 

      Both a and B

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 142. 
    The period of time over which a population of cells reduces to half its original size.
  • 143. 
    The state of developmental arrest of a self-reactive B cell that binds to monovalent self antigens. 
  • 144. 
    Which process assesses the quality of the Ig chains?
    • A. 

      Negative selection

    • B. 

      Apoptosis

    • C. 

      Somatic recombination

    • D. 

      Allelic exclusion

    • E. 

      Checkpoints

  • 145. 
    How many checkpoints must a B cell pass in order to continue development?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      11

    • D. 

      2

    • E. 

      5

  • 146. 
    The stage of the small pre-B cell where cells are selected for survival is
    • A. 

      The first checkpoint

    • B. 

      The second checkpoint

    • C. 

      The third checkpoint

    • D. 

      The fourth checkpoint

    • E. 

      Positive selection

  • 147. 
    __________ antigens are most effective at linking B-cell receptors together and activating B cells.
  • 148. 
    Pax-5 binds to enhancer sequences in a pro-B cell located 
    • A. 

      5' of the heavy-chain C region genes

    • B. 

      3' of the light-chain C region genes

    • C. 

      3' of the heavy-chain C region genes

    • D. 

      5' of the light-chain C region genes

    • E. 

      3' of the heavy-chain V region genes

  • 149. 
    A transcription factor that defines the B-cell lineage is
    • A. 

      Pax-1

    • B. 

      PTa

    • C. 

      Myc protein

    • D. 

      Pax-5

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 150. 
    IgA and IgB are always turned on once they are turned on.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 151. 
    Promotes cell growth.
    • A. 

      RSS

    • B. 

      Btk

    • C. 

      Myc protein

    • D. 

      Bcl-2

    • E. 

      Pax-5

  • 152. 
    ___________ are genes that cause cancer.
  • 153. 
    What is mostly likely to occur if a patient lacks Bruton's tyrosin kinase?
    • A. 

      T cell development wont be able to complete

    • B. 

      Antibodies will be able to bind to self-antigens

    • C. 

      There wont be any circulating antibodies

    • D. 

      There wont be a diverse population of B cells

    • E. 

      Antibodies wont function properly

  • 154. 
    The tyrosin kinase is essential for B-cell development beyond the pre-B cell stage.
    • A. 

      Atk

    • B. 

      Ctk

    • C. 

      Btk

    • D. 

      Gtk

    • E. 

      PtK

  • 155. 
    Which statement is true?
    • A. 

      B-1 cells are a minority subset of human B cells

    • B. 

      B-1 cells carry CD5

    • C. 

      B-1 cells are largely produce in fetal life

    • D. 

      Both a and b

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 156. 
    ____________ are viral genes that cause transformation.
  • 157. 
    Bcl-2 protein prevents
    • A. 

      Over-formation of B cells

    • B. 

      Premature apoptosis of B cells

    • C. 

      Apoptosis of T cells

    • D. 

      Over-formation of phagocytes

    • E. 

      Deletion of oncogenes

  • 158. 
    B-1 cells depend on which cytokine in order to maintain it's population?
    • A. 

      IL-9

    • B. 

      IL-76

    • C. 

      IL-1

    • D. 

      IL-8

    • E. 

      IL-10

  • 159. 
    Mature B cells arise when the B-cell receptor becomes capable of generating positive signals upon binding specific antigen.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 160. 
    Lymphomas can be caused by 
    • A. 

      PTa

    • B. 

      Deletion of oncogenes

    • C. 

      Deletion of proto-oncogenes

    • D. 

      Bcl-2

    • E. 

      Btk

  • 161. 
    Immature B cells are not released into the blood.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 162. 
    B-2 cells are the minority subset of B cells.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 163. 
    Which statement is correct?
    • A. 

      B-1 cells are the majority subset of B cells

    • B. 

      Mature B cells are not capable of fighting infection

    • C. 

      Self antigens do not affect negative selection

    • D. 

      B-2 cells are polyspecific

    • E. 

      Tdt is not expressed in early prenatal period

  • 164. 
    B-1 cells are no longer produced by the bone marrow in adults.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 165. 
    Self-tolerant mature B cells do not respond to self antigens.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 166. 
    Cells with receptors that bind a multivalent self antigen are signaled to arrest their developmental progression.
    • A. 

      Immature B

    • B. 

      Mature B

    • C. 

      Immature T

    • D. 

      Mature T

    • E. 

      Plasma cells

  • 167. 
    The synthesis of the IgA and IgB polypeptides is turned on at the
    • A. 

      Pre-B cell stage

    • B. 

      Second checkpoint

    • C. 

      First checkpoint

    • D. 

      Pro-B cell stage

    • E. 

      Both a and d

  • 168. 
    Immature B cells that leave the bone marrow
    • A. 

      Are not able to proliferate

    • B. 

      Are able to interact with MHC I

    • C. 

      Express high levels of surface IgM and low levels of surface IgD

    • D. 

      Express high levels of surface IgD and low levels of surface IgM

    • E. 

      Can bind with T cells

  • 169. 
    B cells express ______ a receptor that binds CCL21.
    • A. 

      CCR1

    • B. 

      CCR9

    • C. 

      CCR7

    • D. 

      CCR8

    • E. 

      CCR 10

  • 170. 
    CCL21 is a chemokine secreted by
    • A. 

      B cells

    • B. 

      T cells

    • C. 

      Stromal cells

    • D. 

      Follicular cells

    • E. 

      Stem cells

  • 171. 
    Dendritic cells secrete
    • A. 

      CCL21

    • B. 

      CCL19

    • C. 

      Both a and b

    • D. 

      CCL7

    • E. 

      CCL9

  • 172. 
    CXCL13 is secreted by
    • A. 

      Macrophages

    • B. 

      B cells

    • C. 

      T cells

    • D. 

      Follicular dendritic cells

    • E. 

      Stromal cells

  • 173. 
    Primary lymphoid follicles consist of an area principally of T cells enmeshed in a network of specialized stromal cells.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 174. 
    FDCs attract
    • A. 

      T cells

    • B. 

      Dendritic cells

    • C. 

      Stromal cells

    • D. 

      B cells

    • E. 

      Lymphoblasts

  • 175. 
    Plasma cells secrete
    • A. 

      IgM

    • B. 

      IgD

    • C. 

      IgA

    • D. 

      IgG

    • E. 

      IgE

  • 176. 
    Antibody secretion is effected by a change in the processing of the
    • A. 

      Light-chain B cell

    • B. 

      Heavy-chain of T cell

    • C. 

      Heavy-chain of plasma cell

    • D. 

      Heavy-chain mRNA

    • E. 

      Light-chain mRNA

  • 177. 
    Plasma cells cease to divide and no longer express Igs and MHC class II molecules.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 178. 
    Terminal differentiation defines the process of plasma cells ceasing to divide and no longer expressing Igs and MHC class II molecules.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 179. 
    Other activated B cells migrate to a nearby primary follicle, which changes its morphology to become a _______ ________ ________ containing a __________ ___________.
    • A. 

      Secondary lymphoid follicle, terminal center

    • B. 

      Primary lymphoid follicle, terminal center

    • C. 

      Secondary lymphoid follicle, germinal center

    • D. 

      Primary lymphoid follicle, germinal center

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 180. 
    B cells in germinal centers in secondary lymphoid follicles are called
    • A. 

      Lymphocytes

    • B. 

      Lymphoblasts

    • C. 

      Erthyrocytes

    • D. 

      Centerblasts

    • E. 

      T cells

  • 181. 
    Memory B cells originate from 
    • A. 

      Central centers

    • B. 

      Terminal centers

    • C. 

      Primary lymphoid follicles

    • D. 

      Germinal centers

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 182. 
    _________ ________ cells posses a high-affinity, isotype-switched antigen receptor.
  • 183. 
    Tumors derived from mature, naive B cells grow in follicles of lymph nodes and form
    • A. 

      Myelomas

    • B. 

      Follicular center cell lymphoma

    • C. 

      DiGeroge's disease

    • D. 

      Both a and b

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 184. 
    Which is true for B-1 cells?
    • A. 

      Polyspecificity

    • B. 

      Develop in fetal life

    • C. 

      Need no help from T cells

    • D. 

      Have decreased somatic hypermutation

    • E. 

      All of the above