Physio 2013: Inflammation And Immunity

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Questions: 20 | Attempts: 990

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Inflammation Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following complement cascade pathways is usually triggered by IgG and IgM antibody-antigen complexes?

    • A.

      Lectin

    • B.

      Classical

    • C.

      Alternative

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Classical
    Explanation
    The classical pathway is usually triggered by IgG or IgM antibody-antigen complexes (triggered at C1). The alternative pathway is normally triggered by lipopolysaccharide or bacterial endotoxins (started at C3). The alternative pathway is continuously activated, like a car engine that's idled. The lectin pathway is triggered by a biomolecule called lectin and can also be triggered on first exposure (triggered at C2 and C4).

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  • 2. 

    Which cytokine is released by TH1 helper cells and sends signals to activate other helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, and macrophages and is required by cytotoxic T cells to perform their function? (Hint: CDR O said this one was important to remember)

    • A.

      IL-2

    • B.

      IL-4

    • C.

      INF-Beta

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. IL-2
    Explanation
    IL-2 is the correct answer because it is released by TH1 helper cells and plays a crucial role in activating other immune cells such as helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, and macrophages. It is also required by cytotoxic T cells to perform their function effectively. This cytokine is important for coordinating and regulating the immune response against pathogens.

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  • 3. 

    Which clotting factor is considered the intersection of coagulation and immunity?

    • A.

      Tissue thromboplastin (Factor III)

    • B.

      Hageman factor (Factor XII)

    • C.

      Von Willebrand factor

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Hageman factor (Factor XII)
    Explanation
    Factor XII, also known as the Hageman factor, is considered the intersection of coagulation and immunity. This factor plays a crucial role in both the coagulation cascade and the activation of the immune system. It is involved in the initiation of blood clotting by activating other clotting factors and promoting the formation of fibrin. Additionally, Factor XII is also involved in the activation of the immune system, as it can trigger inflammatory responses and contribute to the defense against pathogens. Therefore, Factor XII acts at the intersection of both coagulation and immunity.

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  • 4. 

    How does the coagulation cascade help the inflammatory response? (Check all that apply)

    • A.

      Entraps and localizes the agent using a fibrin meshwork

    • B.

      Also phagocytoses antigens

    • C.

      Release chemotaxins through fibrinolysis (the resulting particles) to attract neutrophils and macrophages

    • D.

      It does not aid in the inflammatory response

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Entraps and localizes the agent using a fibrin meshwork
    C. Release chemotaxins through fibrinolysis (the resulting particles) to attract neutrophils and macrophages
    Explanation
    The coagulation cascade is linked to the inflammatory response primarily to block off the infected area and prevent spread.

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  • 5. 

    Antibodies are able to go into tissues. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Antibodies are part of the humoral, or blood, immunity and do not enter tissue. That's why we need other mechanisms (e.g, neutrophils and macrophages).

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  • 6. 

    Which is the most common antibody?

    • A.

      IgD

    • B.

      IgE

    • C.

      IgG

    • D.

      IgA

    Correct Answer
    C. IgG
    Explanation
    IgG makes up 80% of the antibodies. It is the smallest, most mobile (can most easily escape the bloodstream into the interstitial fluid).

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  • 7. 

    Where do antibodies come from?

    • A.

      When a mommy antibody and a daddy antibody love each other very much

    • B.

      Mast cells

    • C.

      B cells

    • D.

      T cells

    Correct Answer
    C. B cells
    Explanation
    B cells, specifically plasma B cells, become antibody producing factories with the help of cytokines and T helper cells. These B cells secrete antibodies. Other B cells have antibodies bound to their surfaces (BCRS).

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  • 8. 

    What are the primary vasoactive chemicals during an inflammatory response released by mast cells? (Check all that apply)

    • A.

      Histamine

    • B.

      Prostaglandins

    • C.

      Lysosomal proteases

    • D.

      Leukotrienes

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Histamine
    B. Prostaglandins
    D. Leukotrienes
    Explanation
    During an inflammatory response, mast cells release various vasoactive chemicals. Histamine is one of the primary chemicals released by mast cells and it causes vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. Prostaglandins, another vasoactive chemical released by mast cells, also contribute to vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. Leukotrienes, which are lipid mediators, are also released by mast cells during inflammation and they play a role in increasing vascular permeability and promoting the recruitment of inflammatory cells. Therefore, the correct answer is Histamine, Prostaglandins, and Leukotrienes.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following are not receptors on a macrophage?

    • A.

      Fc receptors

    • B.

      Muscarinic receptors

    • C.

      Selectins and integrin receptors

    • D.

      Cytokine receptors

    Correct Answer
    B. Muscarinic receptors
    Explanation
    Macrophages are immune cells that play a crucial role in the immune response. They have various receptors on their surface that allow them to recognize and respond to different signals. Fc receptors are present on macrophages and are involved in antibody-mediated immune responses. Selectins and integrin receptors are also present on macrophages and are involved in cell adhesion and migration. Cytokine receptors are present on macrophages and are involved in the response to cytokines. However, muscarinic receptors are not typically found on macrophages. Muscarinic receptors are primarily found in the nervous system and are involved in mediating the effects of acetylcholine.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following cells are considered part of the innate immune response?

    • A.

      NK, macrophages, & neutrophils

    • B.

      B, T, & NK

    • C.

      Dendritic, B, & T

    • D.

      Neutrophils & T

    Correct Answer
    A. NK, macrophages, & neutrophils
    Explanation
    B and T cells are part of the adaptive immune response.

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  • 11. 

    Which is the most common leukocyte?

    • A.

      Neutrophils

    • B.

      Lymphocytes

    • C.

      Eosinophils

    • D.

      Macrophages

    Correct Answer
    A. Neutrophils
    Explanation
    Neutrophils make up 60-80% of the leukocytes. Macrophages are 3-8%. Lymphocytes (NK, T, B) are 20-30%. Erythrocytes are red blood cells.

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  • 12. 

    Where do the majority of cytokines come from? 

    • A.

      Macrophages and T helper cells

    • B.

      Bob Saget

    • C.

      Macrophages and mast cells

    • D.

      Cytotoxic T cells and mast cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Macrophages and T helper cells
    Explanation
    Macrophages secrete a lot of cytokines that initiate inflammation and chemotaxis (e.g., IL-10, IL-12, IL-6, TNF-alpha; See p. 165 in Copstead). T helper cells similarly release many cytokines (see p. 167). While mast cells also release cytokines during degranulation, macrophages and T helpers are the primary sources.

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  • 13. 

    Which leukocyte is the most important in the beginning of the healing process following an inflammatory response?

    • A.

      Eosinophils

    • B.

      Macrophages

    • C.

      B cells

    • D.

      NK cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Macrophages
    Explanation
    Macrophages produce proteases that help in removing foreign protein from the wound, release thromboplastin to stimulate fibroblast activity and secrete peptide growth factors to facilitate growth of new blood vessels. "They are like the maggots of the immune system" - CDR O.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following components characterize the inflammatory response?

    • A.

      Decreased vascular permeability, recruitment and emigration of leukocytes, and phagocytosis of antigens and debris

    • B.

      Increased vascular permeability, recruitment and emigration of leukocytes, and phagocytosis of antigens and debris

    • C.

      Antigen presentation by B cells and macrophages, proliferation and cloning of T cells and T cells, and antibody production

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Increased vascular permeability, recruitment and emigration of leukocytes, and phagocytosis of antigens and debris
    Explanation
    The inflammatory response is characterized by increased vascular permeability, which allows fluid and immune cells to move from the bloodstream to the site of infection or injury. This increased permeability is necessary for the recruitment and emigration of leukocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, which are key immune cells involved in the inflammatory response. Additionally, phagocytosis of antigens and debris by these immune cells helps to clear the infection or repair damaged tissue. This option accurately describes the components that characterize the inflammatory response.

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  • 15. 

    What are the benefits of vasodilation in the inflammatory response?

    • A.

      Increased blood flow leads to increased hydrostatic pressure and fluid leakage which dilutes toxic agents

    • B.

      Vasodilation decreases vascular permeability so that phagocytes can stay within the bloodstream

    • C.

      Increased blood flow facilitates margination (the process by which the neutrophils move to the sides of the vessel walls, stick, and squeeze through the spaces in order to get to the tissue)

    • D.

      Increased blood flow allows for better oxygenation of the tissues to promote ATP production

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increased blood flow leads to increased hydrostatic pressure and fluid leakage which dilutes toxic agents
    C. Increased blood flow facilitates margination (the process by which the neutrophils move to the sides of the vessel walls, stick, and squeeze through the spaces in order to get to the tissue)
    Explanation
    Vasodilation INCREASES permeability so that fluid can be pushed out of the capillary walls to dilute the toxins and allow phagocytes to travel to affected tissue to do their job.

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  • 16. 

    Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) proteins are used for antigen presentation on which leukocytes?

    • A.

      Dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells

    • B.

      Eosinophils and neutrophils

    • C.

      B cells and T cells

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells
    Explanation
    Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) proteins are used for antigen presentation on dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. These cells are part of the immune system and play a crucial role in recognizing and presenting antigens to T cells. Dendritic cells are specialized antigen-presenting cells that capture and process antigens, macrophages are phagocytic cells that engulf and present antigens, and B cells are responsible for producing antibodies against specific antigens. By presenting antigens on MHC class II proteins, these cells activate T cells and initiate an immune response against the antigens.

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  • 17. 

    Phagocytic cells cannot display MHC I proteins. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Any nucleated cell can process and display antigen with MHC I proteins. This path of antigen-presentation happens with intracellular antigens. MHC II antigen presentation is for extracellular antigens that are engulfed by phagocytes.

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  • 18. 

    When do B cells function independently of T cells? 

    • A.

      Never

    • B.

      In response to nonprotein antigens

    • C.

      In response to protein antigens

    • D.

      When there are macrophages present

    Correct Answer
    B. In response to nonprotein antigens
    Explanation
    T cells ONLY recognize protein antigens. In the presence of a nonprotein antigen, such as bacterial carbohydrates, the B cells relies on the costimulation of the complement fragment C3d to achieve and response and initiate antibody production.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following are ways in which the cytotoxic T cell attacks a cell that presents an antigen on its MHC I peptide complex? (Check all that apply)

    • A.

      Perforins allow for granzymes to move into the cell to perform cellular lysis

    • B.

      The T cells engulfs the target cell to fuse it to lysosomes to be broken down by enzymes

    • C.

      T helper cells recognize the cell first and release cytokines to alert cytotoxic T cell to destroy the antigen

    • D.

      CD95 (FasL) binds with CD95 on target cell and initiates apoptosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Perforins allow for granzymes to move into the cell to perform cellular lysis
    D. CD95 (FasL) binds with CD95 on target cell and initiates apoptosis
    Explanation
    The second answer somewhat describes the mechanisms of phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils, which do not apply to T cytotoxic cells. The third answer is wrong because T helper cells only recognize MHC II complexes.

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  • 20. 

    Naive B cells encounter an antigen for the first time and proliferate with the aid of T helper cells. Of the new colony of B cells, which type is the majority? 

    • A.

      Memory

    • B.

      Plasma (effector)

    Correct Answer
    B. Plasma (effector)
    Explanation
    B cells can be either memory cells or plasma (effector) cells (described in a previous question). Memory and effector cells are the two groups of cytotoxic T cells as well. Effector T cells are the ones that perform the cytotoxic functions in T cells and the ones that produce antibodies in B cells.

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