BRS Micro - Chapter 12 Immunology

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Immunology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) can be found on

    • A.

      B-cells

    • B.

      T-cells

    • C.

      Dendritic cells

    • D.

      Defensins

    Correct Answer
    C. Dendritic cells
    Explanation
    Pattern recognition receptors for PAMP occur on host phagocytic cells.

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  • 2. 

    Depressed levels of MHC class 1 molecules on virus infected host cells can be detected by

    • A.

      T cytotoxic cells

    • B.

      T suppressor cells

    • C.

      Activated macrophages

    • D.

      NK cells

    Correct Answer
    D. NK cells
    Explanation
    Depressed levels of MHC class 1 molecules are recognized by killer activated receptors on NK cells.

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  • 3. 

    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns

    • A.

      Are found on many microorganisms

    • B.

      Are restricted to Gram-positive bacteria

    • C.

      Are restricted to Gram-negative bacteria

    • D.

      Are restricted to toxin-secreting bacteria

    Correct Answer
    A. Are found on many microorganisms
    Explanation
    PAMP are not restricted but are found on many microorganisms but absent in humans. Binding by PRR initiates aspects of innate immunity.

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  • 4. 

    Cytokines

    • A.

      Are specific, each with a single activity

    • B.

      Can be blocked by extra-cytoplasmic portions of their cellular receptor

    • C.

      Release is restricted to lymphocytes

    • D.

      Enter cells by a glucose transport system

    Correct Answer
    B. Can be blocked by extra-cytoplasmic portions of their cellular receptor
    Explanation
    Multiple activities can be stimulated by a single cytokine, and a single activity can be elicited by multiple cytokines.

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  • 5. 

    The adaptive immune system develops from stem cells originating in the

    • A.

      Fetal thymus

    • B.

      Fetal liver and bone marrow

    • C.

      Placenta

    • D.

      Germinal centers of the spleen

    Correct Answer
    B. Fetal liver and bone marrow
    Explanation
    Stem cells that evolve into cells of the adaptive immune system originate
    in the fetal liver and bone marrow.

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  • 6. 

    Toll receptors

    • A.

      Recognize PAMPS on selective microorganisms

    • B.

      Link to IgM on B-cell surfaces

    • C.

      Link to the antigen receptor on T-cells

    • D.

      Down-regulate inflammation

    Correct Answer
    A. Recognize PAMPS on selective microorganisms
    Explanation
    Toll-like receptors in the host bind to PAMPS on various microorganisms and
    trigger the activation of components of innate immunity and early elimination
    of the infecting microorganism.

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  • 7. 

    Group-specific streptococcal antigens are

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      Toxic

    • D.

      Enzymatic

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbohydrates
    Explanation
    Group-specific streptococcal antigens are carbohydrates.

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  • 8. 

    Antibodies are grouped into five classes based on differences in their

    • A.

      Kappa chains

    • B.

      Lambda chains

    • C.

      Heavy chains

    • D.

      Light chains

    Correct Answer
    C. Heavy chains
    Explanation
    A short sequence of amino acids is shared on the heavy chain of each,
    thus permitting their classification together as immunoglobulins.

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  • 9. 

    Immunoglobulin isotypes are genetic variations found

    • A.

      Only in transplant patients undergoing graft rejection

    • B.

      Only in patients exhibiting graft-versus-host reactions

    • C.

      Only in patient receiving blood transfusions

    • D.

      In all normal humans

    Correct Answer
    D. In all normal humans
    Explanation
    Isotypic variations among the immunoglobulins occurs in all humans
    and is exemplified by the kappa and lambda chains.

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  • 10. 

    Ll five antibody classes are grouped together as immunoglobulins due to a

    • A.

      Common amino acid sequence on the heavy chain

    • B.

      Common amino acid sequence on the L chain

    • C.

      Common amino acid sequence on the hinge region

    • D.

      Common disulfide bond

    Correct Answer
    B. Common amino acid sequence on the L chain
    Explanation
    Although antibodies are grouped into five classes based on differences in
    their heavy chains, they are grouped together as immunoglobulins because
    each has a common amino acid sequence on its light chain.

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  • 11. 

    The killer inhibition receptor (KIR) on NK cells detects

    • A.

      Gram-positive bacteria

    • B.

      Gram-negative bacteria

    • C.

      Cells with normal levels of MHC class 1

    • D.

      Cells with low levels of MHC class 1

    Correct Answer
    C. Cells with normal levels of MHC class 1
    Explanation
    KIR docks on to cells with normal levels of MHC class 1 molecules (in contrast
    to KAR, which detects cells with low levels of MHC class1 molecules),
    thus preventing killing of normal, uninfected cells.

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  • 12. 

    The antibody idiotype refers to the

    • A.

      Hyper-variable region of the light chain

    • B.

      Hyper-variable region of the heavy chain

    • C.

      Hyper-variable region of both the heavy and light chains

    • D.

      Complement binding region on the heavy chain

    Correct Answer
    C. Hyper-variable region of both the heavy and light chains
    Explanation
    The antibody idiotype defines the epitope binding structure comprised of
    both the heavy and light chain hyper-variable regions.

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  • 13. 

    Genetic control of heavy chain synthesis involves

    • A.

      The variable region coded by three different gene complexes

    • B.

      A J region gene linking first to a D region gene and then to a V region gene

    • C.

      AVDJ complex linking to a mu region gene

    • D.

      Each of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Each of the above
    Explanation
    Each of the statements depicts genetic control of heavy chain synthesis.

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  • 14. 

    The T-cell antigenic receptor

    • A.

      Is a monomeric IgM molecule

    • B.

      Is a monomeric IgG molecule

    • C.

      Will respond only to epitopes processed by class 1 HLA molecules

    • D.

      Does not interact directly with circulating antigens

    Correct Answer
    D. Does not interact directly with circulating antigens
    Explanation
    The T-cell antigenic receptor requires the antigenic determinant group to be
    processed and presented together with an HLA molecule and does not respond
    directly to circulating antigen.

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  • 15. 

    The Coombs direct test

    • A.

      Detects non-agglutinating anti-Rh antibody on infants red blood cells

    • B.

      Detects non-agglutinating anti-Rh antibody in maternal circulation

    • C.

      Measures cold agglutinins in primary atypical pneumonia patients

    • D.

      Measures serum complement levels

    Correct Answer
    A. Detects non-agglutinating anti-Rh antibody on infants red blood cells
    Explanation
    The Coombs direct test detects non-agglutinating anti-Rh antibody on infants’
    red blood cells. The Coombs indirect test detects the anti-Rh antibody on maternal
    red blood cells

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  • 16. 

    When only one of two parental alleles is expressed by a single B-cell, it is termed

    • A.

      Self-MHC restriction

    • B.

      Allelic exclusion

    • C.

      Random selection

    • D.

      Haplotype exclusion

    Correct Answer
    B. Allelic exclusion
    Explanation
    The expression of only one parental allele by a B-cell is termed allelic exclusion.
    Self-MHC restriction refers to the restriction of antigen presentation only to
    HLAs of the same type.

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  • 17. 

    Which of these statements is incorrect

    • A.

      Apoptosisis characterized by membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation

    • B.

      Th2 cell cytokines induce B-cell transformation and proliferation

    • C.

      Th1 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6

    • D.

      Most fetal thymocytes die before leaving the thymus

    Correct Answer
    C. Th1 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6
    Explanation
    Th1 cells secrete those cytokines functional in cell-mediated immunity, whereas
    IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 are cytokines active in humoral immunity.

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  • 18. 

    Circulating antigen–antibody complexes pathogenic in lupus glomerulonephritis

    • A.

      Have antigen in excess

    • B.

      Have antibody in excess

    • C.

      Have antigen and antibody in equivalent amounts

    • D.

      Do not interact with complement

    Correct Answer
    A. Have antigen in excess
    Explanation
    The preponderance of self-antigens in patients with lupus glomerulo nephritis
    results in most of the complexes having antigen in excess.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following statements is incorrect

    • A.

      T cytotoxic cells have the CD8 phenotype

    • B.

      IL-1 and TNF-a induce selectins on the endothelial cell surface

    • C.

      IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-b are main causes of excessive inflammation

    • D.

      NK cells can express antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)

    Correct Answer
    C. IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-b are main causes of excessive inflammation
    Explanation
    IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-b help to reduce excessive inflammation, not cause it.

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  • 20. 

    A major marker retained on all peripheral T-cells is

    • A.

      CD3

    • B.

      CD4

    • C.

      CD8

    • D.

      IL-1

    Correct Answer
    A. CD3
    Explanation
    CD3 is retained on all peripheral T-cells and serves as a marker for total T-cell
    enumeration.

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  • 21. 

    CD34 is a marker for

    • A.

      B-cells

    • B.

      Th2 cells

    • C.

      The gamma delta T-cell receptor

    • D.

      Stem cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Stem cells
    Explanation
    CD34 is a marker for stem cells and permits their isolation.

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  • 22. 

    Tolerance to self-antigens can be achieved by

    • A.

      Clonal deletion

    • B.

      Clonal anergy

    • C.

      High doses of antigen

    • D.

      Low doses of antigen

    • E.

      Each of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. Each of the above
    Explanation
    Different states of tolerance can be achieved by each of those listed.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following statements is incorrect

    • A.

      DsDNA–anti-dsDNA complexes can initiate glomerulonephritis

    • B.

      Contact dermatitis due to poison ivy is an antigen–antibody complex disease

    • C.

      Macrophages are activated nonspecifically by IFN-g

    • D.

      ) Cross-linkage by antigen of two or more IgE molecules causes degranulation of sensitized mast cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Contact dermatitis due to poison ivy is an antigen–antibody complex disease
    Explanation
    Contact dermatitis is a lesion of cell-mediated immunity, not union with antibody.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following statements concerning AIDS is incorrect

    • A.

      The Western blot test is the initial diagnostic test

    • B.

      Both CD4+ T-cells and macrophages can be infected

    • C.

      HIV requires both CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor to enter cells

    • D.

      HIV reverse transcriptase changes viral RNA into DNA

    Correct Answer
    A. The Western blot test is the initial diagnostic test
    Explanation
    The Western blot is a confirmatory test for AIDS. Low CD4 levels are an initial alert.

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  • 25. 

    Multiple branched lipopolysaccharides on Gram-negative bacteria

    • A.

      Inhibit B-cells

    • B.

      Are thymusin dependent antigens

    • C.

      Are non-antigenic

    • D.

      Are haptens

    Correct Answer
    B. Are thymusin dependent antigens
    Explanation
    Lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria are thymus-independent antigens

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  • 26. 

    Eradication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis would be largely dependent on

    • A.

      NK cells

    • B.

      Anti–M. tuberculosis antibodies

    • C.

      T-cytotoxic cells

    • D.

      Dendritic cells

    Correct Answer
    C. T-cytotoxic cells
    Explanation
    Tuberculosis eradication is an example of cell-mediated immunity

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 19, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Chachelly
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